The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1846)/BookIII-Prop4
PROPOSITION XXXVI. PROBLEM XVII.
To find the force of the sun to move the sea.
The sun's force ML or PT to disturb the motions of the moon, was (by Prop. XXV.) in the moon's quadratures, to the force of gravity with us, as 1 to 638092,6; and the force TM - LM or 2PK in the moon's syzygies is double that quantity. But, descending to the surface of the earth, these forces are diminished in proportion of the distances from the centre of the earth, that is, in the proportion of 60½ to 1; and therefore the former force on the earth's surface is to the force of gravity as 1 to 38604600; and by this force the sea is depressed in such places as are 90 degrees distant from the sun. But by the other force, which is twice as great, the sea is raised not only in the places directly under the sun, but in those also which are directly opposed to it; and the sum of these forces is to the force of gravity as 1 to 12868200. And because the same force excites the same motion, whether it depresses the waters in those places which are 90 degrees distant from the sun, or raises them in the places which are directly under and directly opposed to the sun, the aforesaid sum will be the total force of the sun to disturb the sea, and will have the same effect as if the whole was employed in raising the sea in the places directly under and directly opposed to the sun, and did not act at all in the places which are 90 degrees removed from the sun.
And this is the force of the sun to disturb the sea in any given place, where the sun is at the same time both vertical, and in its mean distance from the earth. In other positions of the sun, its force to raise the sea is as the versed sine of double its altitude above the horizon of the place directly, and the cube of the distance from the earth reciprocally.
Cor. Since the centrifugal force of the parts of the earth, arising from the earth's diurnal motion, which is to the force of gravity as 1 to 289, raises the waters under the equator to a height exceeding that under the poles by 85472 Paris feet, as above, in Prop. XIX., the force of the sun, which we have now shewed to be to the force of gravity as 1 to 12868200, and therefore is to that centrifugal force as 289 to 12868200, or as 1 to 44527, will be able to raise the waters in the places directly under and directly opposed to the sun to a height exceeding that in the places which arc 90 degrees removed from the sun only by one Paris foot and 1131⁄30 inches; for this measure is to the measure of 85472 feet as 1 to 44527.
PROPOSITION XXXVII. PROBLEM XVIII.
To find the force of the moon to move the sea.
The force of the moon to move the sea is to be deduced from its proportion to the force of the sun, and this proportion is to be collected from the proportion of the motions of the sea, which are the effects of those forces. Before the mouth of the river Avon, three miles below Bristol, the height of the ascent of the water in the vernal and autumnal syzygies of the luminaries (by the observations of Samuel Sturmy) amounts to about 45 feet, but in the quadratures to 25 only. The former of those heights arises from the sum of the aforesaid forces, the latter from their difference. If, therefore, S and L are supposed to represent respectively the forces of the sun and moon while they are in the equator, as well as in their mean distances from the earth, we shall have L + S to L - S as 45 to 25, or as 9 to 5.
At Plymouth (by the observations of Samuel Colepress) the tide in its mean height rises to about 16 feet, and in the spring and autumn the height thereof in the syzygies may exceed that in the quadratures by more than 7 or 8 feet. Suppose the greatest difference of those heights to be 9 feet, and L + S will be to L - S as 20½ to 11½, or as 41 to 23; a proportion that agrees well enough with the former. But because of the great tide at Bristol, we are rather to depend upon the observations of Sturmy; and, therefore, till we procure something that is more certain, we shall use the proportion of 9 to 5.
But because of the reciprocal motions of the waters, the greatest tides do not happen at the times of the syzygies of the luminaries, but, as we have said before, are the third in order after the syzygies; or (reckoning from the syzygies) follow next after the third appulse of the moon to the meridian of the place after the syzygies; or rather (as Sturmy observes) are the third after the day of the new or full moon, or rather nearly after the twelfth hour from the new or full moon, and therefore fall nearly upon the forty-third hour after the new or full of the moon. But in this port they fall out about the seventh hour after the appulse of the moon to the meridian of the place; and therefore follow next after the appulse of the moon to the meridian, when the moon is distant from the sun, or from opposition with the sun by about 18 or 19 degrees in consequentia. So the summer and winter seasons come not to their height in the solstices themselves, but when the sun is advanced beyond the solstices by about a tenth part of its whole course, that is, by about 36 or 37 degrees. In like manner, the greatest tide is raised after the appulse of the moon to the meridian of the place, when the moon has passed by the sun, or the opposition thereof; by about a tenth part of the whole motion from one greatest tide to the next following greatest tide. Suppose that distance about 18½ degrees; and the sun's force in this distance of the moon from the syzygies and quadratures will be of less moment to augment and diminish that part of the motion of the sea which proceeds from the motion of the moon than in the syzygies and quadratures themselves in the proportion of the radius to the co-sine of double this distance, or of an angle of 37 degrees; that is in proportion of 10000000 to 7986355; and, therefore, in the preceding analogy, in place of S we must put 0,7986355S.
But farther; the force of the moon in the quadratures must be diminished, on account of its declination from the equator; for the moon in those quadratures, or rather in 18½ degrees past the quadratures, declines from the equator by about 23° 13′; and the force of either luminary to move the sea is diminished as it declines from the equator nearly in the duplicate proportion of the co-sine of the declination; and therefore the force of the moon in those quadratures is only 0.8570327L; whence we have L + 0,7986355S to 0,8570327L - 0,7986355S as 9 to 5.
Farther yet; the diameters of the orbit in which the moon should move, setting aside the consideration of eccentricity, are one to the other as 69 to 70; and therefore the moon's distance from the earth in the syzygies is to its distance in the quadratures, cæteris paribus, as 69 to 70; and its distances, when 18½ degrees advanced beyond the syzygies, where the greatest tide was excited, and when 18½ degrees passed by the quadratures, where the least tide was produced, are to its mean distance as 69,098747 and 69,897345 to 69½. But the force of the moon to move the sea is in the reciprocal triplicate proportion of its distance; and therefore its forces, in the greatest and least of those distances, are to its force in its mean distance is 0.9830427 and 1,017522 to 1. From whence we have 1,017522L 0,7986355S to 0,9830427 0,8570327L - 0,7986355S as 9 to 5; and S to L as 1 to 4,4815. Wherefore since the force of the sun is to the force of gravity as 1 to 12868200, the moon's force will be to the force of gravity as 1 to 2871400.
Cor. 1. Since the waters excited by the sun's force rise to the height of a foot and 111⁄30 inches, the moon's force will raise the same to the height of 8 feet and 75⁄22 inches; and the joint forces of both will raise the same to the height of 10½ feet; and when the moon is in its perigee to the height of 12½ feet, and more, especially when the wind sets the same way as the tide. And a force of that quantity is abundantly sufficient to excite all the motions of the sea, and agrees well with the proportion of those motions; for in such seas as lie free and open from east to west, as in the Pacific sea, and in those tracts of the Atlantic and Ethiopic seas which lie without the tropics, the waters commonly rise to 6, 9, 12, or 15 feet; but in the Pacific sea, which is of a greater depth, as well as of a larger extent, the tides are said to be greater than in the Atlantic and Ethiopic seas; for to have a full tide raised, an extent of sea from east to west is required of no less than 90 degrees. In the Ethiopic sea, the waters rise to a less height within the tropics than in the temperate zones, because of the narrowness of the sea between Africa and the southern parts of America. In the middle of the open sea the waters cannot rise without falling together, and at the same time, upon both the eastern and western shores, when, notwithstanding, in our narrow seas, they ought to fall on those shores by alternate turns; upon which account there is commonly but a small flood and ebb in such islands as lie far distant from the continent. On the contrary, in some ports, where to fill and empty the bays alternately the waters are with great violence forced in and out through shallow channels, the flood and ebb must be greater than ordinary; as at Plymouth and Chepstow Bridge in England, at the mountains of St. Michael, and the town of Auranches, in Normandy, and at Cambaia and Pegu in the East Indies. In these places the sea is hurried in and out with such violence, as sometimes to lay the shores under water, some times to leave them dry for many miles. Nor is this force of the influx and efflux to be broke till it has raised and depressed the waters to 30, 40, or 50 feet and above. And a like account is to be given of long and shallow channels or straits, such as the Magellanic straits, and those channels which environ England. The tide in such ports and straits, by the violence of the influx and efflux, is augmented above measure. But on such shores as lie towards the deep and open sea with a steep descent, where the waters may freely rise and fall without that precipitation of influx and efflux, the proportion of the tides agrees with the forces of the sun and moon.
Cor. 2. Since the moon's force to move the sea is to the force of gravity as 1 to 2871400, it is evident that this force is far less than to appear sensibly in statical or hydrostatical experiments, or even in those of pendulums. It is in the tides only that this force shews itself by any sensible effect.
Cor. 3. Because the force of the moon to move the sea is to the like force of the sun as 4,4815 to 1, and those forces (by Cor. 14, Prop. LXVI, Book 1) are as the densities of the bodies of the sun and moon and the cubes of their apparent diameters conjunctly, the density of the moon will be to the density of the sun as 4,4815 to 1 directly, and the cube of the moon's diameter to the cube of the sun's diameter inversely; that is (seeing the mean apparent diameters of the moon and sun are 31′ 16½″, and 32′ 12″), as 4891 to 1000. But the density of the sun was to the density of the earth as 1000 to 4000; and therefore the density of the moon is to the density of the earth as 4891 to 4000, or as 11 to 9. Therefore the body of the moon is more dense and more earthly than the earth itself.
Cor. 4. And since the true diameter of the moon (from the observations of astronomers) is to the true diameter of the earth as 100 to 365, the mass of matter in the moon will be to the mass of matter in the earth as 1 to 39,788.
Cor. 5. And the accelerative gravity on the surface of the moon will be about three times less than the accelerative gravity on the surface of the earth.
Cor. 6. And the distance of the moon's centre from the centre of the earth will be to the distance of the moon's centre from the common centre of gravity of the earth and moon as 40,788 to 39,788.
Cor. 7. And the mean distance of the centre of the moon from the centre of the earth will be (in the moon's octants) nearly 602⁄5 of the great est semi-diameters of the earth; for the greatest semi-diameter of the earth was 19658600 Paris feet, and the mean distance of the centres of the earth and moon, consisting of 602⁄5 such semi-diameters, is equal to 1187379440 feet. And this distance (by the preceding Cor.) is to the distance of the moon's centre from the common centre of gravity of the earth and moon as 40,788 to 39,788; which latter distance, therefore, is 1158268534 feet. And since the moon, in respect of the fixed stars, performs its revolution in 27d.7h.434⁄9′, the versed sine of that angle which the moon in a minute of time describes is 12752341 to the radius 1000,000000,000000; and as the radius is to this versed sine, so are 1158268534 feet to 14,7706353 feet. The moon, therefore, falling towards the earth by that force which retains it in its orbit, would in one minute of time describe 14,7706353 feet; and if we augment this force in the proportion of 17829⁄40 to 17729⁄40, we shall have the total force of gravity at the orbit of the moon, by Cor. Prop. III; and the moon falling by this force, in one minute of time would describe 14,8538067 feet. And at the 60th part of the distance of the moon from the earth's centre, that is, at the distance of 197896573 feet from the centre of the earth, a body falling by its weight, would, in one second of time, likewise describe 14,8538067 feet. And, therefore, at the distance of 19615800, which compose one mean semi-diameter of the earth, a heavy body would describe in falling 15,11175, or 15 feet, 1 inch, and 41⁄11 lines, in the same time. This will be the descent of bodies in the latitude of 45 degrees. And by the foregoing table, to be found under Prop. XX, the descent in the latitude of Paris will be a little greater by an excess of about ⅔ parts of a line. Therefore, by this computation, heavy bodies in the latitude of Paris falling in vacuo will describe 15 Paris feet, 1 inch, 425⁄33 lines, very nearly, in one second of time. And if the gravity be diminished by taking away a quantity equal to the centrifugal force arising in that latitude from the earth's diurnal motion, heavy bodies falling there will describe in one second of time 15 feet, 1 inch, and 1½ line. And with this velocity heavy bodies do really fall in the latitude of Paris, as we have shewn above in Prop. IV and XIX.
Cor. 8. The mean distance of the centres of the earth and moon in the syzygies of the moon is equal to 60 of the greatest semi-diameters of the earth, subducting only about one 30th part of a semi-diameter: and in the moon's quadratures the mean distance of the same centres is 605⁄6 such semi-diameters of the earth; for these two distances are to the mean distance of the moon in the octants as 69 and 70 to 69½, by Prop. XXVIII.
Cor. 9. The mean distance of the centres of the earth and moon in the syzygies of the moon is 60 mean semi-diameters of the earth, and a 10th part of one semi-diameter; and in the moon's quadratures the mean distance of the same centres is 61 mean semi-diameters of the earth, subducting one 30th part of one semi-diameter.
Cor. 10. In the moon's syzygies its mean horizontal parallax in the latitudes of 0, 30, 38, 45, 52, 60, 90 degrees is 57′ 20″, 57′ 16″, 57′ 14″, 57′ 12″, 57′ 10″, 57′ 8″, 57′ 4″, respectively.
In these computations I do not consider the magnetic attraction of the earth, whose quantity is very small and unknown: if this quantity should ever be found out, and the measures of degrees upon the meridian, the lengths of isochronous pendulums in different parallels, the laws of the motions of the sea, and the moon's parallax, with the apparent diameters of the sun and moon, should be more exactly determined from phænomena: we should then be enabled to bring this calculation to a greater accuracy.
PROPOSITION XXXVIII. PROBLEM XIX.
To find the figure of the moon's body.
If the moon's body were fluid like our sea, the force of the earth to raise that fluid in the nearest and remotest parts would be to the force of the moon by which our sea is raised in the places under and opposite to the moon as the accelerative gravity of the moon towards the earth to the accelerative gravity of the earth towards the moon, and the diameter of the moon to the diameter of the earth conjunctly; that is, as 39,788 to 1, and 100 to 365 conjunctly, or as 1081 to 100. Wherefore, since our sea, by the force of the moon, is raised to 83⁄5 feet, the lunar fluid would be raised by the force of the earth to 93 feet; and upon this account the figure of the moon would be a spheroid, whose greatest diameter produced would pass through the centre of the earth, and exceed the diameters perpendicular thereto by 186 feet. Such a figure, therefore, the moon affects, and must have put on from the beginning. Q.E.I.
Cor. Hence it is that the same face of the moon always respects the earth; nor can the body of the moon possibly rest in any other position, but would return always by a libratory motion to this situation; but those librations, however, must be exceedingly slow, because of the weakness of the forces which excite them; so that the face of the moon, which should be always obverted to the earth, may, for the reason assigned in Prop. XVII be turned towards the other focus of the moon's orbit, without being immediately drawn back, and converted again towards the earth.