The New International Encyclopædia/Bautzen
BAUTZEN, bout'sen, or BAUDISSIN, bou'dḗ-sḗn (Wendish Budyśin, hut-city, from Slav. buda, hut, tent. Engl. booth). The capital of the Circle of the same name in the Kingdom of Saxony, and a thriving manufacturing town, known for its products of woolens and other textiles, leather, paper, metallic goods, etc. (Map: Germany, F 3). It is situated on rising ground overlooking the river Spree, about 30 miles east-northeast of Dresden, and surrounded by a wall and moat. The Cathedral of Saint Peter is used by both Protestants and Roman Catholics, the church being divided into two parts by a grating for that purpose. The Castle of Ortenburg, often the residence of the kings of Bohemia, is now occupied by Government offices. The city's affairs are administered by a municipal council of 24 members and an executive board of 7. (See Germany, Local Government.) There are numerous schools, three public libraries, a museum, and an art gallery. Bautzen is a place of considerable antiquity, and was first made a town under Otho I. in the Tenth Century. It suffered greatly in the war with the Hussites, and still more during the Thirty Years' War. It is celebrated as the place where Napoleon, with an army of 130,000 men, after an obstinate resistance, won a barren victory over 90,000 of the allied Russians and Prussians on May 20-21, 1813. The Allies lost in the two days 12,000 in killed and wounded, in addition to 1500 taken prisoners. The French left 5000 dead upon the field, and had over 15,000 wounded. Population, in 1890, 22,000; in 1900, 26,000.