The New International Encyclopædia/Carmagnola
CARMAGNOLA, kär'mȧ-nyō'lȧ (from the Italian town Carmagnola) (c.1390-1432). An Italian condottiere, whose real name was Francesco Bussone. For many years he was the most important commander under Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, for whom he subdued Bergamo, Brescia, Parma, Genoa, and other cities. Having been brought by his enemies into ill favor with the Duke, he offered his services to Venice, and led a most suceessful campaign against Milan. After the defeats of a second campaign, the Republic, suspecting treason, caused him to be beheaded. His fate has been celebrated in Manzoni's tragedy, II conte di Carmagnola (1820).