The New International Encyclopædia/Charles IX. (Sweden)

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Edition of 1905.  See also Charles IX of Sweden on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

CHARLES IX. (1550-1611). King of Sweden from 1604 to 1611. He was the third son of Gustavus Vasa, and in 1560 became Duke of Södermanland. In 1592 he became regent of the kingdom after the death of his father, John, and as such favored the introduction of the Reformed religion into Sweden. In 1593 he secured the adoption of the Augsburg creed as the basis of the national religion, and he confirmed the position of Protestantism by his victory at Staongebro in 1598 over his nephew, Sigismund of Poland, who was rightful King of Sweden, but who, as a decided partisan of Catholicism, was objectionable to the mass of the people. After many attempts at compromise, Sigismund was formally deposed in 1399 and Charles was made regent. He ascended the throne in 1604. He engaged in wars with Poland, Russia, and Denmark, but his people did not share his ambitions and denied him the support he desired. Charles founded the University of Gothenburg and made a new code of laws. He wrote a rhymed chronicle of the war with Poland.