The New International Encyclopædia/Dictionary

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DICTIONARY (ML. dictionarius, word-book, from Lat. dictio, word, from dicere, to say). In its original and most common application, a work which is linguistic in character, being a compilation of all or a portion of the words of a language arranged according to some exact order, usually the alphabetical one, with brief explanations and definitions. In later and more elaborate dictionaries additional information of an appropriate character is included within the scope of the work. Thus etymologies, indications of pronunciation, and variations in orthography may be given, while a still further expansion includes citations which illustrate the use of a word. The name is said to have been used for the first time by Joannes de Garlandia, who died in A.D. 1250. He described his book containing a classified list of words as a dictionarius. In its use the word dictionary is no longer confined to a simple linguistic compilation, but is applicable to works on special or technical subjects, which through the medium of an alphabetical classification of words belonging to that subject give appropriate and detailed information. These dictionaries on special subjects are very numerous, such as biographical, historical, bibliographical, geographical, philosophical, mathematical, zoological, medical, and architectural dictionaries.

The following terms are more or less synonymous with dictionary — vocabulary, which is a list of works restricted to a single work or to some division of the language, e.g. the vocabulary of Cæsar's Gallic War; lexicon, a word applied by English-speaking people to a dictionary of some foreign language, as Hebrew, Greek, or Latin; glossary, a partial dictionary of words of a certain dialect or of antiquated or technical terms accompanied by glosses or explanations; thesaurus (verborum), i.e. a treasury of words, an elaborate dictionary with many references and full explanations, more unfamiliar are idioticon, from Greek ἰδιωτικός, idiōtikos, belonging to an individual, and onomasticon; the former, common in Germany, indicates a dictionary of words of a dialect; the latter, from the Greek ὄνομα, onoma, name, is a dictionary of names, as the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux of the second century — a Greek dictionary in ten books containing words arranged according to their meaning. Index denotes a vocabulary without explanatory matter arranged in alphabetical order, often placed at the close of a book to indicate more exactly and definitely the contents thereof. The gazetteer and concordance should be mentioned as having certain characteristics of dictionaries. The first is a geographical dictionary with names of places, seas, rivers, etc., in alphabetical order, with a brief account of each. The word was used first by Lawrence Echard, whose work was entitled The Gazetteer; or, Newsman's Interpreter — A Geographical Index (11th ed., London, 1716). In part ii. the author speaks of his work as “The Gazetteer.” A concordance is an index of various passages in a book classified according to certain leading words which are arranged in an alphabetical order. As this was first made for the Bible, Johnson defines it as “a book which shows in how many texts of Scripture any word occurs.” Thus, as examples, may be cited: Cruden, A Complete Concordance to the Old and New Testaments (London, 1859); Clarke, Concordance to Shakespeare (ib., 1827); Brightwell, A Concordance to the Entire Works of Alfred Tennyson (ib., 1869).

History. The earliest dictionary of which there is any mention is that made in Nineveh in the reign of Asshurbanipal in the seventh century B.C., which is impressed on a number of clay tablets in cuneiform letters. Arabic scholars early busied themselves with dictionary-making, a work very necessary for a language as copious as theirs. The first to attempt to gather the entire Arabic vocabulary in one work was probably Khalil ibn Ahmed of Oman (died 791). He adopted an arrangement not alphabetical, but according to certain phonetic and physiological principles. Of Khalil's many successors, Mukarram ibn Mansur, an Egyptian (died 1311), and al-Firuzabadi, a Persian by birth, whose travels, however, entitled him to be called a citizen of the Oriental world (died 1414), may be mentioned. The work of the former (Cairo, 1300 sqq.) filled 20 volumes, and the Camus (‘dictionary’) of the latter, preserved only in part, extended to 60, or, according to some accounts, to 100 volumes. While in a certain sense Hebrew lexicography began with the Massoretic (sixth-eighth centuries), the real production of dictionaries dated from the tenth century, and took its origin and stimulus from the study of Arabic. Rabbi Saadia Gaon (died 942) was the first lexicographer: David Kimchi (c.l200), author of the Book of Roots, was the greatest. Menahem ben Sarug (c.960) made a dictionary arranged according to stems. Judah Hayyuj (c.1000) propounded the theory of triliteral roots, and his work was continued by Rabbi Jonah (Ibn Janah, c.1030). Sanskrit dictionaries begin at a very early date in the glossary of Yaska to the Rig-Veda (about the fifth century B.C.), and they continue to be for the most part collections of rare words and meanings, being designed especially for the authors who composed the artificial poetry which is so prevalent in India. These dictionaries, the most of which were written after the fifth century A.D., are invariably in verse, and are divisible into the two general classes of lexicons of synonyms and homonyms. Alphabetic arrangement begins only in the latter period of the homonymous dictionaries. The older works of this class arrange the words in order of importance, while the synonymous dictionaries are classified according to subjects. Other modes are according to number of syllables in the word, its gender, or its final letter. The number of native Sanskrit lexicons is over fifty, and of them the Amara-kōśa (q.v.) is the most frequently quoted. There are also special dictionaries on botany, medicine, and astronomy, as well as Buddhistic glossaries in Pali, and polyglot lexicons in Sanskrit, Tibetan, Mongolian, and even Chinese. ( See Zachariæ, Indische Wörterbücher, Strassburg, 1897.) Of Old and Middle Iranian (Avestan and Palilavi) there are but two native dictionaries, one Avestan-Palilavi, and the other Pahlavi-Pazand (both edited by Haug; and Jamaspji, Bombay and London, 1867-70, the former also by Reichelt, Vienna, 1900). In Modern Persian there is a long list of lexicons, both general and special, which are based upon Arabic models, the oldest one, perhaps, written by Asadi, Firdusi's teacher, dating from the eleventh century. In the classical languages, Greek and Latin, we find evidences of lexicographical work at an early period. Dictionaries of language in a form with which we are familiar are of modern origin. They are an outgrowth of the importance of Greek and Latin literature to the scholars of the Middle Ages, and may be traced to the mediæval custom of inserting marginal glosses or explanatory words in texts of classical authors. The bilingual dictionary in particular is due to the closer intercourse of the various nations of the more modern world. The Greeks and Romans did not conceive of a work containing all the words of their own or of a foreign language, and their early dictionaries were simply glossaries of unusual words or phrases. Athenæus tells of Alexandrian scholars such as Zenodotus, librarian of the great library, who compiled books containing foreign phrases and a glossary of Homer; and of Artemidorus of B.C. 240, who prepared a book of technical terms on cooking. Both have been lost. According to Suidas, Apollonius, the Sophist of the days of Augustus, wrote the earliest Greek lexicon, which was entitled Λέξεις Ὁμερικαί, {Lexeis Homērikai), or Homeric Words, published last by Bekker, of Berlin, 1833. This is the most ancient extant. Other Alexandrian lexicographers were Ælius Mœris (A.D. 100), the Atticist, who wrote a Greek (Attic) lexicon (edited by Hudson, Oxford, 1712), and Harpocration (fourth century), who composed a lexicon of the Attic orators (edited by Dindorf, Oxford, 1853).

Ammonius, professor of grammar at Alexandria, prepared a book of homonyms, published by Valekenaer in 1739 (also Leipzig, 1822). In this same book is edited the work of Zenodotus on the cries of animals, which is similar to Vincento Caralucci's Lexicon Vocum quæ a Brutis Animalibus Emittuntur (Perugia, 1779). Hesychius, of the latter part of the fifth century A.D., wrote a lexicon containing short explanations of Greek words with quotations from authors. The first edition is the Aldine (Venice, 1514), the latest that of Schmidt (Jena, 1867). Orion, of Thebes, Egypt, of about the same period, wrote an etymological dictionary, which was printed last in 1820 at Leipzig by Sturz. Erotian, a physician of Nero, prepared a lexicon on Hippocrates arranged in alphabetical order by a later writer, edited by Klein, Leipzig, 1865. Julius Pollux, of Naueratis, Egypt, who was made professor of rhetoric at Athens by the Emperor Commodus, wrote the Onomasticon referred to above, which is a work of great value for the language and for the study of antiquities. It first appears in the Aldine edition (Venice, 1500). There is an edition by Dindorf (Leipzig, 1824). The most famous of Greek writers of glossaries is Suidas, whose period is thought to be the tenth century A.D. He prepared an alphabetical dictionary of words, with place and personal names and many quotations from Greek writers and scholars. This book was first printed at Milan in 1499 and again in an excellent edition by Bernhardy, Halle, 1853. Other Byzantine lexicographers are Photius of the ninth century (edition by Naber, Lyden, 1864), and John Zonaras of the twelfth century (edition by Tittmann, Leipzig, 1808). Gaisford, at Oxford, published in 1848 a Greek glossary of the eleventh century known as Etymologicum Magnum, which contains many passages from different writers and many references of an historical and mythological character. Eudocia Augusta, of Macrembolis, wife of Constantine XI. and Romanus IV. (1059-71), prepared an historical and mythological dictionary which she called Ἰωνια, Iōnia, Bed of Violets. In the work of Crastoni, a native of Piacenza, we have the first Greek and Latin lexicon. There is an Aldine edition of 1497. To the same time belong Guarina's Thesaurus, and that of Thomas, known as the monk Theodolus. In 1572 at Geneva appeared the Thesaurus Grææ Linguæ of Henri Estienne (Stephanus), reëdited by Dindorf at Paris, 1865, the most complete Greek lexicon published. The first Greek-English lexicon is that of John Jones, London, 1823, although the work of John Pickering, which was incomplete, dates in 1814. The most useful Greek-English lexicon is the Liddell and Scott (8th ed., New York, 1897), also in abridged form. Pape, Wörterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen (Brunswick, 1875-80) is of value for proper names. Special Greek lexicons worthy of mention are: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by J. H. Thayer, a revision of Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti (London, 1889); Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, by E. A. Sophocles, revised by J. H. Thayer (ib., 1887), and for modern Greek, Λεξικόν Ἑλληνοαγγλικόν, Modern-Greek-English and English-Modern-Greek, by Contopoulos (3d ed. Athens, 1889).

In Latin lexicography we think first of M. Terentius Varro, who wrote De Lingua Latina, a work on etymology and the uses of words, then of Verrius Flaceus, living in the days of Augustus, who wrote De Verborum Significata, which is extant in the compilation of Pompeius Festus, entitled De Significatione Verborum, which was abridged by Paulus Diaconus of the eighth century. The words are arranged alphabetically. This work has been of great service in giving information on antiquities and grammar. Less familiar are the dictionary of Papias of the eleventh century based on glossaries of the sixth and seventh, and the Catholicon or Summa of Giovanni Balbi. dating about 1286 and now a curiosity as printed by Gutenberg in 1460. It passed through twenty editions. The earliest polyglot was the work of an Augustine monk, Colepino, dating at Reggio 1502. At first it was a Latin-Greek lexicon, then extended to include Italian, French, and Spanish, and finally in the edition at Basel in 1590 there were eleven languages. The great Latin dictionaries are Thesaurus Linguæ Latinæ of Robert Estienne (Paris, 1531), reëdited down to 1734: and the Totius Lexicon Latinitatis by Forcellini (Padua, 1771, this edition being published with the names of Facciolati and Forcellini as editors; 3d ed., 1831). The Latin words are given Greek and Italian equivalents, and are illustrated by examples from classical literature. The latest (fifth) edition is that of De Vit (Prato, 1858-79), with the Onomasticon Totius Latinitatis as a supplement. This is the greatest of all Latin lexicons. The first Latin-English lexicon of any account was edited by Sir Thomas Elyot (London, 1538; 3d ed. 1545). Before this there had appeared the Promptorium Parrulorum by Galfridus Grammaticus (1499), the Medulla Grammatica in manuscript (1483), and the Ortus (garden) Vocabulorum of Wynkyn de Worde (1500). Then in 1552 a Richard Huloet published his English-Latin Abecedarium with English definitions, and in 1570 appeared Maniputus Vocabulorum Puerorum, a rhyming dictionary of English and Latin words by Peter Levins, and finally the Alvearic by John Baret, which had three languages, English, Latin, French. In 1736 Robert Ainsworth published his Latin-English dictionary, which passed through many editions. The best Latin lexicons of to-day are: Latin-English Dictionary, White and Riddle (London, 1880), and English-Latin Dictionary ( ib., 1869); Harper's Latin Dictionary, which is based on Freund's Latin-German Lexicon, in English, by Andrews (New York, 1856), and which is revised by Lewis and Short (ib., 1886); Georges, Deutsch-Lateinisches und Lateinisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch (4 vols., Leipzig, 1880-85). This last is most accurate and satisfactory and next to the Forcellini contains the most words of any Latin lexicon. The greatest Latin lexicon of modern times is the Thesaurus Linguaæ Latinæ (Leipzig, 1900 et seq.), which is due mainly to the genius of Edward Wölfflin of Munich. It is edited, under the supervision of the five great German academies, by the most distinguished classical scholars of Germany. It has reached — in 1902 — 360 pages, and the word last treated is artus, a fact which shows the great scope of this work. For mediæval Latin the only lexicon of importance is the Du Cange, Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (1733-36, edited by Henschel; 16 vols., Paris, 1882-88).

English Dictionaries. The earliest work on lexicography in England was directed to the extension of our knowledge of Latin. To such a purpose are due the Latin-English dictionaries of the latter period of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth, which are mentioned above. With a similar purpose. Minsheu published in 1617 his great polyglot Guide to the Tongues, explaining English words by those from ten foreign languages. The English Expositor of John Bullokar (1616) was the first English dictionary in the strict sense of the term, as it gave both words and definitions in English. In the seventeenth century we find the dictionary of Henry Cockeran (1623), the Glossographia of Thomas Blount (1656); Phillips, The New World of English Words (1658); and Elisha Coles' English Dictionary (1677). In the early part of the eighteenth century there appeared the first dictionary which attempted to give a complete collection of words of the language, the Universal Etymological English Dictionary of Nathan Bailey (1721). In his preface to the first volume the author declares that he is the first to attempt in English to trace the derivation of English words on a large scale, although he refers to the work of Blount in his Glossography and Skinner in his Etymologicon (1671). He also marked accents to aid in pronunciation. Bailey's dictionary passed through twenty-four editions before the close of the century and was the standard until the publication of Johnson's Dictionary. In 1755 Dr. Samuel Johnson published, after seven years of labor, his famous dictionary. This was a most remarkable achievement and was epoch-making in the history of the language, for it determined the form, meaning, and use of English words. Dr. Johnson also introduced the custom of illustrating the use of words by quotations from the best writers. Whatever is said on the etymological side belongs to that time and is not in accord with present knowledge. This work passed through many editions, of which the last is that of Robert Gordon Latham (London, 1866), which is not of any great value today save from an historic point of view. Johnson's Dictionary simply imitated Bailey's in the use of accents to indicate pronunciation. The first dictionary which gave attention to orthoëpy is that of Kenrick (London, 1773), likewise Perry, Royal Standard English Dictionary (Boston, 1777), and the Complete Dictionary of the English Language by the famous elocutionist, Thomas Sheridan (London, 1780). The object of this work is stated to be “to establish a plain and permanent standard of pronunciation.” In 1791 John Walker published Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Language. In this work pronunciation is the main object, and the author declares his design to be “to give a kind of history of pronunciation and to register its present state.” This dictionary has had a wide circulation and has a reputation to-day, although it is not a reliable guide for the pronunciation of the present time, but rather supplies information as to the pronunciation at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In 1836 B. H. Smart published his New Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language. This is also designated “Walker Remodelled.” The New Dictionary, by Richardson, published also in London, 1836 (new ed., New York, 1863), is valuable for many citations from authors in chronological arrangement, which, however, have unfortunately been abridged in the later edition. The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language by John Ogilvie (London, 1850) is an encyclopædic lexicon, literary, scientific, and technological. A new edition by Charles Annandale dates in 1883. This formed the model of the Century Dictionary, mentioned below. Similar to the Imperial Dictionary is the Encyclopædic Dictionary by Robert Hunter (London, 1879-88). In 1806 Noah Webster published his Compendious Dictionary and in 1828 he brought out his great American Dictionary of the English Language, which was followed by abridged editions. Besides many editions containing minor changes complete revisions of the large dictionary were made in 1847 by Chauncey A. Goodrich and in 1864 and 1890 by Noah Porter. This last revision is entitled Webster's International Dictionary. It has an appendix with valuable tables, e.g. a pronouncing biographical dictionary and pronouncing gazetteer. An extensive Supplement of 25,000 words edited by W. T. Harris was added in 1900. The Webster dictionaries were the initial works in lexicography in the United States. The Dictionary of the English Language by Joseph E. Worcester dates from 1859. It has gone through many editions, the last of which contains a supplement with 12,500 new words and an appendix with pronouncing dictionary and pronouncing gazetteer. In the introduction are found a Catalogue of English Dictionaries and a History of English Lexicography. A useful college and school dictionary is that of the Rev. James Stormonth. It is a dictionary of standard English and is convenient for reference in matters of pronunciation. Recent years have been prolific of important English dictionaries. Since 1890, besides the last edition of Webster mentioned above, have appeared: The Century Dictionary, an encyclopædic lexicon of the English language, prepared under the supervision of William D. Whitney, in six volumes (New York, 1891), a most elaborate work looking to completeness in vocabulary, especially in scientific and technical terms. A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, prepared under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk and Francis A. March (New York, 1893-95). This work is more concise in its treatment of words than the last named, but is very complete in its vocabulary. It has ten appendices, e.g. lists of proper names, disputed spellings, etc. The greatest of all dictionaries of the English language is entitled, A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, founded mainly on matter collected by the Philological Society, edited by James A. H. Murray and Henry Bradley. “The purpose of this dictionary is to furnish an adequate account of the meaning, origin, and history of English word now in general use or known to have been in use at any time during the last seven hundred years.” It aims to give pronunciation, etymology, the history of words, and illustrative examples from all periods. About half of it had been published in 1902.

The form and contents of the dictionary of the present day are the result of the experience of years of lexicographical work. The alphabetical order is now accepted as the best, while the historic development in the definitions is also a feature of modern times. Other arrangements were according to the subject, or again according to roots, both of which are extremely inconvenient and unsatisfactory.

Special Dictionaries. The following special dictionaries are of importance to English-speaking people: Synonyms — Roget, Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (latest ed., London, 1892); Crabb, English Synonyms Explained (latest ed., New York, 1898). Etymology — Skeat, An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (2d ed., London, 1884); in abridged form, A Concise Etymological Dictionary (2d ed. London, 1885); Mueller, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der englischen Sprache (2d ed. Cöthen, 1878); Wedgewood, A Dictionary of English Etymology (2d ed. London, 1872; not reliable); Palmer, Folk Etymology (London, 1882; a dictionary of corruptions in words). Dictionaries of Names — Benjamin E. Smith. Century Cyclopædia of Names, a supplement to the Century Dictionary (New York, 1894); Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World, edited by Thomas and Baldwin (Philadelphia, 1882); Putnam, Globe Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World (New York, 1888); Johnston, General Dictionary of Geography (Edinburgh, 1882); Blackie, Dictionary of Place-Names, with derivations (London, 1887). Dialect Dictionaries — Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary (London, 1898, et seq.), in 1902 extends to the letter L. Middle English (1100-1500) — A Middle English Dictionary, twelfth to fifteenth century, last edition by Strattmaan Bradley (London, 1891); Mätzner, Altenglische Sprachproben (Berlin, 1876-96, et seq.; incomplete, the second volume contains the dictionary); Mayhew and Skeat, A Concise Dictionary of Middle English (Oxford, 1888); Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare Lexikon (Berlin, 1874), may be referred to as useful in the historical study of the language. Americanisms — Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms (Cambridge, Mass., 1877); Farmer, Americanisms, Old and New (New York, 1899).

Dictionaries of Modern European Languages. — German — Flügel, A Universal German-English and English-German Dictionary (4th ed., Brunswick, 1891); Flügel, Schmidt, and Tanger, Wörterbuch der Englischen and Deutschen und Deutschen und Englischen Sprache (New York, 1895-96); Whitney, Dictionary of the English and German Languages (New York, 1877); Köhler, German and English Dictionary (New York, 1881); Lucas, Dictionary of the English and German Languages (Bremen, 1854-68). Dutch — Calisch, Complete Dictionary of the English and Dutch Languages (Tiel, 1890). Danish — Ferrall-Repp-Rosing, Danish-English and English-Danish Dictionary (Copenhagen, 1873). Swedish — Nilsson-Widmark-Collin, English-Swedish Dictionary (Stockholm, 1891); Oman, Swedish-English Dictionary (Örebro, 1889). Norwegian — Geelmuyden, English-Norwegian Dictionary (Christiania, 1880). French — Spiers and Surenne, French and English Pronouncing Dictionary (New York, 1891); Bellows, Pocket Dictionary. French-English and English-French (London, 1891); Hamilton-Legros, Dictionnaire international français-anglais (Paris, 1891). Italian — Baretti. Italian-English and English-Italian Dictionary (London, 1877); James and Grassi, Dictionary of the English and Italian Languages (Leipzig, 1884); Millhouse, New English and Italian Pronouncing Dictionary (Milan, 1889). Spanish — Velasquez, New Pronouncing Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, revised and enlarged by Gray and Iribas (New York, 1901); Seoane, Neuman, and Baretti, Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages (New York, 1874). Portuguese — Valdez, Portuguese-English and English-Portuguese Pronouncing Dictionary (Lisbon, 1879); Michaelis, New Dictionary of the English and Portuguese Languages (Leipzig, 1894). Russian — Alexandrow, Complete English-Russian Dictionary (Saint Petersburg, 1879). Turkish — Redhouse, Turkish and English Dictionary (London, 1880). Polish — Baranouski, Anglo-Polish Lexicon (Paris, 1884). Hungarian — Bizonfy, English-Hungarian (Budapest, 1878), and Hungarian-English (ib., 1886).

The dictionaries mentioned above are those which may be classed as belonging to language lexicons. All others are to be looked for under the class to which they belong.

The most important foreign dictionaries of modern times are: German — The great German dictionary is Deutsches Wörterbuch of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. There are nine volumes with three in an unfinished state. The first was published at Leipzig in 1854. The object of this work is to give the vocabulary of the literary language from the beginning of the sixteenth century. The scope of the work includes the history and etymology of words and the illustration by quotations of their history and meaning. Since the death of Wilhelm (1859) and Jacob Grimm (1863), other distinguished scholars of Germany have carried on the work. Schade, Altdeutsches Wörterbuch (Halle, 1872-82); Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (Strassburg, 6th ed. 1899); Wiegand, Deutsches Wörterbuch (Cressen, 1873); Sanders, Ergänzungs-Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (Berlin, 1885); Diefenbach and Wülcker, Hoch- und Niederdeutsches Wörterbuch der mittleren und neueren Zeit (Basel, 1885). French — The great French dictionary is Dictionnaire de la langue française. “All the words found in the dictionary of the French Academy and all the terms used in science, art, and ordinary life.” By M. P. E. Littré. This dictionary was published in Paris, 1863-72, with a supplement, 1878-82; Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXème siècle (15 vols., Paris, 1866-76). In a new edition under title: Nouveau Larousse illustré (Paris, 1901-02). This is a mine of information, but should perhaps be classed with encyclopædias. It contains many articles of a biographical, historical, and geographical character in addition to the common words, and many proper names; Bescherelle, Nouveau Dictionnaire national, ou dictionnaire universel de la langue française (Paris, 1887); Godefroy, Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXème au XVème siècle (Paris, 1881-85, Complément, 1895); Hatzfeld-Darmesteter-Thomas, Dictionnaire général de la langue française (2 vols., Paris, 1890-1900). Spanish — Bareia, Primer diccionario general etimológico de la lengua española (Madrid, 1881-83); Cuesta, Diccionario enciclopédico de la lengua española (2 vols., Madrid, 1872). Castilian — Cuervo, Diccionario de construcción y regimen de la lengua castellana (to letter D; Madrid, 1866-94); Monlau, Diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana (Madrid, 1881); Donadiu y Puignau, Diccionario de la lengua castellana (4 vols., Barcelona, 1890-95); Serano, Diccionario universal de la lengua castellana (Madrid, 1876-81). Catalan — Lobernia y Esteller, Diccionari de la llengua catalana (2 vols., Barcelona, last edition undated). Portuguese — Caldas Aulete, Diccionario contemporaneo da lingua portugueza (Lisbon, 1881); Michaelis, New Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages (2 vols., Leipzig, 1893). Italian — Fanfani, Vocabulario della lingua parlata italiana (Florence, 1881); Tommaseo and Bellini, Dizionario della lingua italiana (4 vols., Turin, 1861-79); Patrocchi, Novo Dizionario universale della lingua italiana (2 vols., Milan, 1894). Provençal — Mistral, Dictionnaire Provençal-Français (Paris, 1886). Sardinian — Spano, Vocabulario Sardo-Italiano, Italiano-Sardo (Cagliari, 1851). Icelandic — Gleasby and Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary (Oxford, 1874). Danish — Kalkar, Ordbog til det aldre Danske Sprog (Copenhagen, incomplete). Dutch — Dale, Groot Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal (4th ed. Gravenhage, 1885-99, 9-N); Franck, Etimologische Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal (Gravenhage, 1884-92); Calisch, New Complete Dictionary of the English and Dutch Languages (2 vols., Siel-Campagne, 1875). Gothic — Balg, A Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Language (Mayville, Wis., 1887-89). Welsh — Evans, Dictionary of the Welsh Language (Carmathen, 1887, incomplete). Irish — Foley, English-Irish Dictionary (Dublin, 1855). Slavonic — Miklosich, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der slavischen Sprachen (Vienna, 1886). Russian — Dahl, Russian Dictionary (Moscow, 1862-66-73). Polish — Rykaczewski, Complete Polish Dictionary (Berlin, 1860). Gypsy — Swart and Crofton, Dictionary of Gypsy (London, 1875). Turkish — Redhouse, Turkish Dictionary, English-Turkish and Turkish-English (London, 1880); Zenker, Turkish-arabisch-persisches Handwörterbuch (Leipzig, 1866-76). Arabic — Arabic-French: Belot, Vocabulaire arabe-français a l'usage des etudiants (4th ed. Beirout, 1896); Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon (London, 1863-77); Steingass, Arabic-English Dictionary (London, 1884); Newman, Dictionary of Modern Arabic (London, 1871). Chinese — Chinese-Latin: Dictionarium Linguæ Sinicæ Latinum — founded on the work of C. L. J. de Guignes (Ho Kien Fou, 1877); Perny, Dictionnaire français-latin-chinois (Paris, 1869).