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The New International Encyclopædia/Finland, Gulf of

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FINLAND, Gulf of. An arm of the Baltic Sea bounded by Finland on the north and east, the Government of Saint Petersburg on the east and south, and Esthonia on the south (Map: Russia, C 2). It extends in an easterly direction for over 250 miles, and varies in width from about 12 to over 80 miles, its narrowest point being at the eastern end. Its depth ranges from 26 to over 200 feet, although in a few places it exceeds 300 feet. The northern coast is rugged and bordered with numerous small islands. There are also islands, mostly uninhabited, in the midst of the gulf. By the Neva and the Ladoga Canal the gulf is connected with the lakes of Ladoga and Onega, while the Narova connects it with Lake Peipus. Besides the two above-mentioned rivers, the gulf receives a number of small streams, both from Finland and from Esthonia. Fish are abundant, the waters being especially noted for a kind of sardine, extensively caught near Reval. Navigation is considerable, although greatly hindered by sandbanks and rocks, and by ice during the winter. Among the ports are Reval, Kronstadt, Viborg, and Helsingfors.