The New International Encyclopædia/Göttingen, University of

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GÖTTINGEN, University of, or Georg-August University. A German university founded by Georg August, Elector of Hanover, better known as George II. of England. It was planned as early as 1732, there being no university in Hanover at that time, and lectures were begun two years later; but the formal foundation dates from 1737. Its organization was the work of the statesman Von Münchhausen, a man of marked ability, who remained in control fur many years. Noted teachers, a well-chosen library, a large endowment, and the liberal character of the university soon gave it distinction. The Seven Years' War was a time of de])ression, but between 1770 and 1790 it was again much frequented. The courses in history, philology, and law were preëminent; in the study of history especially broader and more liberal conceptions prevailed. During the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars there was another period of depression, followed by renewed prosperity. In 1823 the attendance was greater than it is in 1903; but reverses in 1831 and 1837 brought affairs for a third time under a cloud. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, however, there was a slow and steady growth, due mainly to the excellence of the instruction in mathematics and the natural sciences. The students number nearly 1500. There are a large number of laboratories, clinics, seminaries, and the like. The library contains 6000 manuscripts and over 500,000 volumes; for modern books it is probably the richest in Germany. Consult: Pütter, Saalfeld, and Oesterley, Die Georg-August-Universität (Göttingen, 1838); Chronik der Georg-August-Universität für 1889-90 (Hanover, 1890).