The New International Encyclopædia/Horse

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HORSE (AS. hors, OS., Icel. hross, OHG. ros, Ger. Ross; possibly connected with Lat. currere, to run,less probably with Skt. kūrd, to spring, Gk. κόρδαξ, kordax, wanton dance, or with AS. hrēodan, OHG. rusten, Ger. rüsten, to adorn). One of a genus of pachydermatous quadrupeds of the family Equidæ (q.v.). Since the domestication of the horse it has become next to man himself the most important factor in the business and pleasures of the world, and in fact all the practical details of everyday human life. According to the monuments, the horse was introduced into Egypt at the time of the shepherd kings. His use, however, was very limited, both the Egyptians and Assyrians confining the use of the horse to warfare. Subsequently, however, his services to man increased, and he became an emblem of rank and an object of luxury or sport, as well as an aid in war.


NIE 1905 Horse - Horses.jpg

The speed of a horse is its greatest asset, because it is its chief value to man. It is the recognition of this value that has been the important factor in the evolution of the horse, an animal especially plastic in the hands of the breeder. His size, form, action, and instincts are subject to modification to a degree unknown in that of any of the other larger species. During his early history modifications of type were due to the changing conditions of warfare; but to-day the principal variations of type are, to a far greater extent, due to the exigencies of commerce, or the demands of sport. It has been suggested that the different breeds of the modern domestic horse have been developed out of the interbreeding of several original wild species; this, however, is only conjecture. What is known is that domestic breeds have existed in Europe from prehistoric times, and also that they have been improved continually by blending with Oriental horses.

Arabian horses are divided into three classes, which have been recognized as sub-breeds since the fifteenth century. The genuine Arabian is found in the region from Damascus to the Euphrates, as well as in Arabia proper. The breed is found in its greatest purity and excellence in the stables of the Sultan of turkey. The Turk, or Turkish horse, found in portions of European Turkey, but principally in Asia Minor, was of considerable importance in the seventeenth century, but it has deteriorated very much since then. The Barb is a native of the Barbary States, whence its name. It is found in greater perfection among the Moors, who introduced the Barb blood into Spain during their rule in that country, and so improved the Spanish horse that for several centuries it occupied the first place throughout Europe. Spanish horses of this stock brought to America by the Spaniards are regarded as the progenitors of the mustangs and the other wild breeds common to Mexico and California. (See heading, The Horse in America.) About the middle of the sixteenth century Italian and Spanish horses (the former heavy types, and the latter, owing to their Barb blood, very much lighter and fleeter) were in the greatest demand. It is during this period that horsemanship (q.v.) began to be studied as a science, the first book concerning which was published by Grisoni in Italy in 1552. The Italians were also the first to take up the teaching of horsemanship as an accomplishment, after which riding came into vogue throughout Western Europe. The English thoroughbred is spread over a larger portion of the earth to-day than is that of any other breed, and the literature bearing upon it equals that of all the other animals combined. It is used more than any other to improve the blood of horses of general utility throughout the world, and, according to statistics, more capital is influenced by it than by any other two or three breeds combined.

The history of English horse-breeding has been divided into three periods: the first extending from the earliest records to the end of the sixteenth century; the second from the accession of James I. to the first year of the Stud Book (q.v.), 1791 (in which period the thoroughbred came into existence); and the third period extending to the present time, in which the thoroughbred has become a clearly defined as well as a pure breed. The original British horse was a small pony, shaggy and hardy, and rarely more than 14 hands high, but the importation of stallions from Spain, Italy, and France improved the breed from time to time. During the Crusades and the consequent general use of heavy armor, which continued up to about the year 1600, large horses came into vogue. A knight in armor, together with his horse-accoutrements, weighed from 350 to 425 pounds, so that during the age of chivalry all breeding was directed toward improvements in the size of the horse. Stallions under a certain size were condemned by law, and in 1217 one hundred stallions were imported from Normandy, and for nearly five hundred years subsequently size was sought for rather than speed; thus laying the foundation of the different modern breeds of British draught horses. What was the case in England was equally so with the nations of Western Europe and their horses; so that the horse of this period is particularly remarkable for its broad chest, heavy neck, and round buttocks. With the appearance of gunpowder and firearms, and the disappearance of armor, these breeds became useless for the purpose of warfare, which now demanded fleetness as a first essential. They passed, however, to a greater sphere of usefulness, and to-day constitute the heavy draught breeds known as the Dutch and Flemish, the Percherons (q.v.) of France, the Clydesdale of Scotland, and the cart and shire horse of England (see Shire Horse).

Before the days of the tournaments in England large horses were scarcely known, but the needs of the knights compelled the keeping of a sufficient number, so that by intermixture with smaller native animals the size of the British horse gradually increased; but the result proved that, although they were bigger, they did not nearly possess the qualities of the smaller horse. During the Crusades the excellence of the Saracen horses deeply impressed the British Crusaders, who brought many Asiatic horses with them on their return to England. The Eastern horses were Barbs, Turks, Arabs, and Persians, not more than 14½ hands high, and it is to them that the English horse owes in part its present conspicuous qualities. Laws were passed to promote the breeding of large horses by improving the type of British ponies. During the reign of Henry VIII. it was ordained by law that no stallion less than 15 hands and no mare less than 13 hands should run wild in the country. Colts two years of age and under 11½ hands high were not permitted to run on any moors, forests, or commons where mares were pastured, and to guard against any mishaps it was further ordered that at Michaelmastide the magistrates of the neighborhood were to search the countryside, the forests, and the commons, for the purpose of destroying all stallions under the required height, as well as “all unlikely tits, whether mares or foals.” Prelates and nobles, and every one whose wife wore a velvet bonnet, were compelled to do their “leaping and riding upon stallions not less than 15 hands high.” There were two classes of horses throughout the country: the first a “very indifferent, strong, slow, heavy draught-horse,” and the second “light and weak.” Private matches were often arranged, showing that speed was becoming a greater factor than size and weight.

Although there had been public horse-racing in Elizabeth's time, it was not until James I. ascended the throne that horse-racing was legally established. He introduced into England the Markham Arab, which was known to be a purebred animal, and in many other ways did much to improve the breed of horses. A distinction was drawn between racehorses and common horses; the racehorses were trained for their competitions, and 140 pounds was the average weight of a professional jockey. During the reign of Charles I. a memorial was presented to the King bewailing the gradual disappearance of stout horses fit for the defense of the country, by stating that the breed of strong horses was likely to disappear unless measures were taken for their propagation. The tournament was no more, the pack-horse had practically disappeared, the introduction of the coach had removed a large part of the pack from the horse's back, and everything was done to encourage crossbreeding with foreign importations. From such ancestors the modern thoroughbred has descended. After the civil wars and during the reign of Charles II. the race-courses at Newmarket and at Datchet Mead, near Windsor, were laid out, and the King himself became the first great supporter of the turf. The most conspicuous English horseman of this time was the Duke of Newcastle, who in 1667 published his celebrated work on horsemanship, the reading of which is said to have so interested Charles that he became the largest individual importer of foreign blood in the country. The Stuart kings maintained magnificent studs and constantly employed purchasing agents to secure the best Oriental blood; but, unfortunately, the pedigree of many of these animals is largely a matter of tradition, owing to the fact that the Stud Book had not been issued. In spite of the infusion of foreign blood, however, the English race-horse in the time of the Stuarts was a clumsy-looking animal in comparison with the pure Oriental type, or with the race-horse of to-day. He was strong and of large build, but neither as elegant nor as swift on the race-course as was the Barb. The combination of native English stock and such horses as the Helmsley Turk, Byerly Turk, Pace's White Turk, D'Arcy's White Turk, Selaby Turk, and by such Barbary stallions as Dodsworth, Carwen, Bay Barb, Greyhound, Compton Barb, and Toulouse Barb, produced a horse remarkable for its well-proportioned locomotive parts, legs, shoulders, etc., strong carcass and deep chest, the typical animal of speed and endurance.

Since the middle of the eighteenth century the practice of interbreeding with Oriental blood has been discontinued, and although half-bred horses were raced until the first part of the nineteenth century, the thoroughbred has ever since the foundation of the ‘racing calendar’ been the recognized race-horse, and his pedigree has been strictly and authentically kept. During the seventeenth century speed was not the sole qualification of a race-horse; it was required to have strength and endurance. From racing matured horses at long distances, it was an easy transition to shorten the length of the course and increase the speed of the horse, besides which, the element of gambling entered into the sport, and it soon happened that three-year-old horses were used in the races. It was found, however, that they could not ‘stay’ the old four-mile course, so that of necessity the distances had to be reduced to accommodate the horses. The result of this policy is seen in modern horse-racing (q.v.). in which two-year-old horses developed for speed alone take part in races over courses less than half a mile in length.

The Horse in America. According to paleontology, the horse is indigenous to the American Continent, but it is certain that the American horse of to-day is the descendant of animals brought here by Europeans and the first settlers. Cortés used but few horses in his Mexican conquest, but undoubtedly some of them became progenitors of the American wild horse; and similarly, the horses abandoned by the unfortunate Ferdinand De Soto near the Texas border became the progenitors of all the wild horses of North America. (See Horse, Fossil.) The character and action of the American horse will be found fully described under Trotting and Pacer.

The Colonial Period. The earliest colonists of Virginia were not remarkable for the qualities that make the ideal pioneer, so that it is not surprising to learn that their first supply of domestic animals (including horses) was consumed as food. Although there had been several shipments of horses from London down to about 1640, in 1646 there were only between 200 and 300 horses of both sexes in the colony. In 1656 the exportation of mares was prohibited by law, but in 1667 the restriction was removed. The horses of the period are described as having been of hardy and strong quality, but undersized, and, like the horses in other colonies, they were branded and turned loose to find their own subsistence. Owing to the rapidity of their increase, they were soon very numerous and became practically wild; so much so that at the close of the seventeenth century it was a common as well as profitable sport to hunt wild horses, for an animal without a brand became the property of its captor. On the island of Chintoteague, off the coast of Virginia, there are still in existence bands of wild horses, and only within recent decades has there been any attempt to domesticate any of their number. They are of all colors, and uniform in size, not averaging over 13 hands, and are accounted for in their present location as being the descendants of a band of Virginian wild horses which located there when it was a peninsula, and had their retreat cut off when time converted what had been a peninsula into an island. Notwithstanding occasional efforts to increase its size, the Virginian horse retained the characteristics of its English ancestor.

The settlers of New Netherlands brought their horses from Utrecht. They were larger, better, and more valuable, so far as prices were concerned, than the English horses of the other colonies, but were not regarded as being as good for saddle work. The two breeds soon intermixed, and a larger breed resulted, for at the time of the Revolution the average height was 14 hands and 1 inch. Horse-racing was introduced by Governor Nicholls, of New York, in 1665. He established a race-course on Hempstead Plains, Long Island, which was the first official and properly organized race-course on the Continent. It is supposed that the horses were of the Dutch breeds, because the people attending were largely of that nationality. The English race-horse was not at that time thoroughly developed, and in any case was not imported into New York until nearly one hundred years afterwards. The New England colonies played a very important part in the development of the modern American horse. In 1629 the first horses were imported into New England from the proprietary company in London. In 1635, 27 mares and 3 stallions were shipped from Holland, and sold in Salem; and five years later conditions were such that the colonists were enabled to export a shipment of 80 animals to the Barbados. It has been ascertained from an investigation covering the period 1756-59 that the average height of horses was 14 hands 1 inch, and that three-fourths of the total number were pacers and one-fourth trotters. The founders of Hartford, Conn., brought horses with them (1636), and in 1653 the General Court at New Haven ordered all horses to he branded, and instituted a system of public saddle-horses for hire. The average size was 13 hands and 3 inches. Roger Williams and the settlers of Rhode Island Colony (1636) obtained their horses from Massachusetts, and succeeded so well in the breeding of them that in 1690 horses were their principal export, and they shipped them to all the colonies of the coast. Pacers were raised in Rhode Island, and were widely known as Narragansett pacers. Trade with Canada was not permitted, but there is no reason to doubt that an occasional trade was made, whereby a Narragansett pacer changed owners for the consideration of a bale of peltry, such as only the French Canadian could offer. Racing was especially encouraged in Rhode Island, and thus was developed the speed that made their horses famous. In 1768 the average size of a Narragansett was 14 hands and 1 inch. The horses of Pennsylvania were not handsome, but good. In the early part of the seventeenth century the Pennsylvania horse was the largest and heaviest horse in the country; but one hundred years later they seem to have ranked in both respects below the horses of all the other colonies. Up to 1750 the average size in eastern Pennsylvania was about 13 hands and 1¼ inches. Philadelphia boasted the speediest and finest horses, and pacers were the most fashionable and popular. New Jersey supplied itself from New York and Pennsylvania, and by the beginning of the eighteenth century racing had become so common as to be a nuisance: so much so that in 1748 there was enacted a law for the suppression of ‘running, pacing, and trotting races.’ The year before the Colony of Maryland, which had in all probability received its supply of horses from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, passed a similar law. North and South Carolina secured their horses from Virginia. In Canada horses were received from Picardy, France, in 1665, and it is assumed they were largely of the English type. Many of them are supposed to have been pacers; but whether they were, or whether, as is sometimes argued, the Canadian pacer is derived from the illicit trading with Rhode Islanders for their Narragansetts, is a question much discussed.

The American horse was for two hundred years the sole means of travel, and the great essential to all business in and between the various colonies of the country. Improved roads have made him a driving horse, and none of the inventions of modern times, from the introduction of railroads to bicycles and horseless vehicles generally, has affected his popularity or his value. To the superficial observer it would appear as if improved means of vehicular transport would diminish the breeding of horses, as well as decrease their value, but thus far such has not been the case. Good horses have a higher value than ever, and as the demand for cheap or poorly bred horses diminishes, the better bred ones survive, and what is lost in number is more than balanced in breed and consequent value. (See Breeds and Breeding.) The principal breeds of racing horses are the Bashaws, Clays, Black Hawks, Hambletonians, Mambrino Chiefs, Pilots, American Stars and Blue Bulls. (See Trotting and Pacer.) The most prominent types of the pony include the Shetland, Galloway, Welsh, Dartmoor, Exmoor, and Canadian breeds. (See Pony.) See also the articles Ass; Mule; Shire Horse; Percheron Horse, etc.

NIE 1905 Horse - external anatomy.jpg

Head—1. muzzle; 2, nostril; 3. forehoad; 4, jaw; 5, poll.

Neck—6, 6, crest; 7, throttle or windpipe.

Fore Quarter—8, 8, shoulder-blade; 9, point of shoulder; 10, bosom or breast; 11, true arm; 12, elbow; 13, fore-arm (arm); 14, knee; 15. cannon-bone; 16, back sinew; 17, fetlock or pastern joint; 18, coronet; 19, hoof or foot; 20, heel.

Body or Middle Pieces— 21, withers; 22, back; 23, 23, ribs (together forming the barrel or chest); 24, 24, circumference of chest—called the girth; 25, the loins; 26, the croup; 27, the hip; 28, the flank; 29, the sheath; 30, the root of the dock or tail.

Hind Quarter—31. hip-joint or whirl-bone; 32, stifle-joint; 33, lower-thigh or gaskin; 34, the quarters; 35, the hock; 36, point of the hock; 37, the curb place; 38, the cannon-bone; 39, the back sinew; 40, pastern or fetlock joint; 41, coronet; 42, foot or hoof; 43, heel; 44, spavin-place.

The hackney is bred chiefly for carriage purposes, and is a type indigenous to the eastern counties of England. It is of excellent symmetry of proportion, and is capable of a very true rhythm in action; although it is slower and heavier than the roadster, it is faster and much lighter than the middle-weight draught-horse. A well-bred hackney should be properly balanced in fore and hind quarters and middle piece. Since 1890 there have been large importations of this breed to America, although the hackney has been known here by occasional single importations since 1822. It has been especially valuable in the breeding and development of the American trotter. The cob is a native of Norfolk and Lincolnshire, in England, and is a stoutly built, short-legged animal of from 13.3 to 14.3 hands high. It is smaller than the hack and larger than the pony. The Galloway is a horse common to Wales and North Britain. It seldom ranges above 14 or 14½ hands in height, and is not a particularly valuable animal. Specimens below 13 hands are called ponies. The hunter is not required to be a thoroughbred animal, although where the hunting warrants it he is frequently thoroughbred, or half-bred at least. He is chosen to suit the country over which he is hunted, as well as to carry the weight of his rider. In any case he should have the following characteristics: A lean head and neck, firmly set on good oblique shoulders; a strong back and loin, deep body, wide hips, good quarters, and firm legs and feet. Among horsemen the following terms are in use: A stallion is a male horse, and when gelded is termed a gelding. A mare is the female. Animals of both sexes when young are termed foals; the male foal is a colt, and the female a filly. Young animals become ‘of age’ when the outer incisors (corner nippers) are developed. A horse is ‘aged’ when in its eighth or ninth year, a fact determined by the front teeth. The period of gestation is eleven months, the foal usually being dropped in the spring.

Exterior Parts of the Horse. Many excellent works on the anatomy of the horse are published, several of which will be found included in the bibliography of this article. Below will be found described the more important external parts, together with their position and boundaries. The Head.—The point of demarkation between the head and the neck may be described as follows: Observing the animal in profile, the head is divided from the neck by an imaginary line drawn from the back of the ear, along the rear edge of the lower jaw to its angle. The upper part of the face is called the forehead, and the forelock is a tuft of hair which, although a part of the mane, lies between the ears. The temples lie on each side of the forehead, between the ear and the eye; the nose is a continuation of the forehead, ending opposite the nostrils. The lower end of the head is called the muzzle; it includes the nostrils, lips, and the bones and teeth covered by them. The bars of the mouth are those portions of the gums of the lower jaw situated between the back teeth and the tushes (or the place usually occupied by the tushes). Just under the bars of the mouth is the chin-groove, in which rests the curb chain of the curb bit, when such is used. The neck lies between the head and the shoulders, from which latter it is separated by an imaginary line drawn from the dip in front of the withers to the depression caused by the union of the neck and breast. On the top of the neck, and immediately behind the ears, is the poll; and extending from the withers to the ears, along the upper part of the neck, is the crest. The groove on each side of the neck just above the windpipe is known as the jugular groove. The chest is divided from the belly or abdomen by the diaphragm, and includes the cavity in which are situated the lungs and heart, and which occupies nearly the front third of the trunk. The term breast is frequently used to describe the part herein treated under chest. The upper boundary of the shoulders is formed by the withers, and the rear border may be taken from behind the ‘swell’ of the muscle, situated just below the withers to the elbow. A little below the junction of the neck and shoulder, on each side of the chest, is a prominent bony angle, known as the point of the shoulder. The withers are the bony ridges which constitute the forward continuation of the back and end abruptly in the crest. The elbow is the bony projection at the upper posterior part of the forearm, which latter is found between the shoulder and the knee. The upper boundary of the knee may be decided by a line drawn at right angles to the direction of the leg above the knee-joint, and the lower boundary by a line joining the point where the line of the cannon-bone meets that of the knee, with that where the line of the back tendon is terminated by the trapezium, at the back of the knee. The cannon-bone is situated between the knee and the fetlock. At its back are two small bones, known as the outside and inside splint-bones. The cannon is the very confusing name applied to that part of the leg situated between the knee and the fetlock (i.e. footlock, a tuft of hair growing behind the fetlock joint). The joint which the cannon-bone makes with the pastern is called the fetlock joint. Between the fetlock and the hoof is a short column of bones called the pastern, the lower portion of which, called the coronet, is immediately above the hoof. The hoof is a horny box inclosing the lower part of the limb. The lowest front part of the hoof is the toe; the sides are quarters; and the lowest rear part the heels. The exterior or outer part of the hoof is termed the wall, which in turn is divided into an outer covering or crust, and a soft inner layer of non-fibrous horn. In the centre of the ground surface of the hoof is a triangular buffer called the frog, in the middle of which is a division termed the cleft of the frog; turned inward at the heels, and running more or less parallel to the sides of the frog, are the portions of the wall called the bars of the hoof. The ground surface of the foot between the wall, bars, and frog, is called the sole. The back includes the withers, but not the loins; which parts, together with the ribs on each side, constitute the boundaries of what may properly be termed the back. It has been described as an ill-defined region, owing to the many different opinions on the subject. The loins are found between the back and croup, with the flanks on each side. The ribs lie between the shoulders, flanks, belly, and brisket or sternum. The flank is that part of the horse's side between the loins, ribs, thigh and hip-joint, and the belly. The hollow of the flank is the upper portion of the flank. The belly is the cavity which contains the stomach, liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys, bladder, etc. The brisket is the lower part of the chest. The croup is that portion of the upper part of the body placed between the loins and the tail. Broadly stated, it extends down on each side to the point of the buttock. The thigh has been cleverly defined as separated from the stifle, flank, croup, buttock, and gaskin by a horizontal line drawn from the upper end of a straight line made by the ham-string, which proceeds toward the thigh from the point of the back. While not anatomically correct, it is the general acceptation of the term. The gaskin lies between the thigh and the back, which latter is found between the gaskin and the hind cannon-bone. The dock is the solid part of the tail.


NIE 1905 Horse - age-marks on teeth.jpg

1. One Year Old. 5. Five Years Old.  9. Eleven Years Old.
2. Two Years Old. 6. Six Years Old. 10. Thirteen Years Old.
3. Three Years Old.   7. Seven Years Old.   11. Fifteen Years Old.
4. Four Years Old. 8. Nine Years Old. 12. Seventeen Years Old.

Indications of Age. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to formulate any rules by which the age of a horse may be accurately determined. To an expert horseman the lightness and elasticity of step of the animal under examination will afford a general clew; or better still, the contour of the lower jaw, which grows more and more angular with increasing age. It is to some structure of the animal little liable to change, however, that we must look for any very accurate gauge, and the only structure answering that requirement is that of the teeth, which must be examined according to the following rules: The six teeth or nippers, situated in the front of the lower jaw, are the ones examined to determine the question, although the tushes are a partial indication, and are sometimes used in arriving at a decision. In this article, the two middle nippers will be referred to as the central nippers; the ones on each side of these, as the middle nippers, and the ones at each end of the group as the corner nippers. At two and a half years of age, the permanent central nippers are just through the gum, the temporary middle and corner nippers still remaining; one year later the permanent middle nippers are in evidence, and between the fourth and fifth year the corner nippers will be through. About this time changes will be noticed in the condition of the earlier teeth; for instance, the middle pair look as the central pair did at two and one-half years, and the central nippers are showing signs of wear. Between the ages of five and nine, considerably more experience is necessary for an accurate judgment than has been required before. At nine years of age the previous oval shape of the teeth becomes more triangular; at ten the central nippers take a pronounced triangular shape, and the middle pair give evidence of a like tendency, followed at eleven years by the growth of the corner nippers in the same direction. The tushes become rounded at the points, and the nippers are longer and project more, the central nippers being completely triangular. The signs of wear and tear, and the growth of the evidences already described, continue with increasing age, so that at twenty years the nippers are all exceedingly triangular, projecting forward to a great degree, and are very long.

The character or temperament of a horse cannot be discerned short of actual experience, by any known formula or given rules; for while the experienced horseman may judge approximately by noting the shape of the face and head, and the expression of the eyes, he will, as a rule, be unable to explain the method or rules upon which his conclusions are based. Like men, horses are of different dispositions, and exhibit such varied characteristics as pride, dignity, intelligence, stupidity, courage, cowardice, etc. Generally stated, an intelligent horse shows considerable width between the eyes, which latter are very prominent. The width between the ears is taken to indicate courage and strength of character; and roundness and elevation between the eyes, as denoting a mildness of disposition. A timid horse is usually narrow between the ears, and a stupid one, narrow between the eyes.

Diseases of the Horse. No other domestic animal is so large a sharer with humanity in the accidents and dangers incident to modern civilized life as the horse. It is practically a co-partner with man in every detail of his life and work, and yet no other animal suffers so much from ignorance, abuse, maltreatment, and quackery. Modern civilization is doing much to alleviate the condition of the less fortunate of his kind, notably the various societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals. (See Cruelty to Animals, Prevention of.) The practice of veterinary surgery has become one of the most exacting and advanced of professions, and diseases long considered incurable are now amenable to treatment. In European countries the horse is an object of governmental solicitude, as much for his value as a factor in warfare as for purely humanitarian reasons; and a careful census record is kept (particularly in Germany) of the number, pedigree, and value of the horses throughout each country. The Government of the United States, through its Department of Agriculture, alone of all the nations of the world has compiled a special Report on the Diseases of the Horse, which is published as a guide and aid in the cultivation of a proper knowledge of the care and treatment of the animal. Below are described some of the more prevalent diseases, which will be found more fully treated in the above-named publication.

The Teeth. Dentition covers the period during which the young horse is cutting his teeth, usually from birth up to the age of five years. As a rule the horse has more difficulty in cutting the second or permanent teeth than he has with his first or milk teeth. With regard to the latter the mouths of young horses should be frequently examined in order that the milk-teeth may not remain too long and this cause the permanent teeth to grow in crookedly. Toothache is rare with the average horse, and then only where a tooth is allowed to decay. Usually it is only observed in the molar teeth, and may be discovered by the evidences of pain given by the horse when feeding or drinking cold water.

Diseases of the Mouth. (1) Lampas (q.v.): A swelling of the mucous membrane of the hard palate, projecting in a more or less noticeable ridse immediately behind the upper incisors. (2) Stomatitis: An inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, generally produced by irritating medicines, foods, or other substances such as often follows in the case of city horses from eating out of ash-barrels. (3) Glossitis: An inflammation of the tongue very similar to stomatitis, both in origin and in symptoms. (4) Ptyalism, or salivation, is an abnormal and excessive secretion of saliva, often caused by irregular teeth, inflammation of the mouth or tongue, or the use of medicines, and occasionally by the eating of second-crop clover. (5) Pharyngitis (q.v.): An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the back part of the mouth, or pharynx. (6) Paralysis of the pharynx, or as it is more generally called, paralysis of the throat, is a disease first discovered from the fact that the animal is unable to eat, and the manger is found to contain much saliva and frothy food that has been returned through the nose.

Diseases of the Œsophagus or Gullet. It will be found in the vast majority of instances exhibiting these diseases that the cause is the introduction into the organ of foreign bodies too large to pass, or else that there are present erosions and ulcerations of the throat (followed by constriction or narrowing of the gullet) caused by the administration of caustic medicines not thoroughly diluted. The designations pharyngeal, cervical, and thoracic choke are used to denote where the obstruction is located, the symptoms varying according to the position of the agent responsible for the choke.

Diseases of the Stomach. (1) Stomach staggers (see Staggers), or gorged stomach (Impaction): Distention of the stomach caused by food, in which the stomach loses the power of contracting upon its contents. (2) Tympanites of the stomach: A disease corresponding to that of ‘hoven’ or ‘blown’ in cattle, and frequently due to the overloading of the stomach with young, succulent herbage, which, after its arrival in the stomach, liberates quantities of fermentation gas sufficient to distend the stomach seriously. Over-feeding is a very frequent cause of stomach-bloat, particularly if the overfeeding is followed immediately by hard work. The symptoms are very much the same as for stomach staggers, and the treatment must be at once vigorous and immediate. As a rule, cases of this trouble occur away from the stable. From two to four ounces of common baking-soda should be given as quickly as possible, an additional half-ounce of cayenne pepper being given to aid the stomach to contract and expel the gas. Charcoal may be given in any amount, and any medicine that will check fermentation or absorb the gases will be found useful. Cold water dashed with force over the stomach is frequently an aid. (3) Rupture of the stomach: If convinced that the diagnosis is correct it is better to destroy the animal at once. If, however, there is a possibility of mistake, powdered opium in one-dram doses may be given every two or three hours, thus keeping the stomach as quiet as possible. The case should be kept under the observation of a skilled veterinary. (4) Bots: There are so many opinions extant concerning this disease, many of which are erroneous, that it will repay any owner of stock to make a careful study of it. With regard to the insect itself, see Bot and Gadfly. Of the numerous insect parasites on solipeds, the gad-flies (Œstridæ) are the most important. The species responsible for the above-named disease infest chiefly the stomach and duodenum—a small gut leading from the stomach. Nearly all country horses, as well as those experiencing their first year in the city, have the bots, but the common opinion that bots frequently cause colic pains is erroneous. If in large enough numbers they may sadly interfere with digestion. The animal may not thrive and emaciation may follow, but beyond this they are harmless. It is fortunate that such is the case, for there are no medicines that affect them: neither acids, alkalies, nor anodynes are capable of securing their ejection from the stomach. The best that can be done is to watch for their eggs on the legs and body of the horse during the late summer and autumn, and carefully scrape them off and burn them. (5) Indigestion: Indigestion is imperfectly performed digestion, which in the horse causes symptoms closely resembling those of dyspepsia in man. A great cause of indigestion with the horse is found in the food itself. (See section on Care of the Horse.) The teeth are in many instances to blame, their sharp, irregular, or decayed condition preventing any perfect mastication, and causing the animal to swallow his food before it receives the requisite admixture of saliva. The principal seat of indigestion is in the stomach or small intestine. It is characterized by an irregular appetite, refusal of food or gorging, and a disposition to eat unusual substances, as wood, salt, bedding, and frequently his own fæces. The animal loses flesh, and the skin becomes hard and dry and hide-bound. The treatment usually consists of a careful regulation of food as regards quality, quantity, and time of feeding, and an exercise of similar care as regards the water-supply. The condition of the mouth and teeth must also be attended to, and the teeth if sharp or irregular must be rasped down, or extracted if decayed. If the indigestion is caused by ravenous eating, the animal should be fed from a manger sufficiently wide to allow the spreading of the grain, which will usually compel the horse to eat slowly. Frequently a cathartic is given at the outset.

Intestinal Worms. Worms are very frequently found in young horses, as well as in those that are weak or debilitated. They almost invariably exist in horses pastured on low, wet, or marshy ground, as well as in those that drink stagnant water. The most common form of intestinal worm is the lumbricoid worm, which closely resembles the common earthworm. It is white or reddish in color, measuring from four to twelve inches in length, and varying in thickness from the size of a rye straw to that of a cigar, being thickest at the middle and tapering toward each end. At first, slight colicky pains are noticed, or a vigorous switching of the tail, and frequent passages of manure; the animal does not shed its coat, and is hide-bound and pot-bellied. He will be particularly fond of salt, and will bite at the woodwork of his stall; the bowels are irregular, either constipation or diarrhoea being present. Among the best medicines for worms are santonin, turpentine, tartar emetic, infusion of tobacco, and bitter tonics. Whatever remedy is given, it will be found much more effective if administered after a long fast, and then the worm medicine must be supplemented by physic to force out the worms. There are many varieties of worms, the treatment for which is usually along the lines above described.

Spasmodic or Cramp Colic is the name given to colic which is produced by contraction or spasm of a portion of the small intestines. It is usually caused by indigestible food; foreign bodies; excessive drinking of cold water when overheated; draughts of cold air, etc. To insure correct treatment, it is very necessary to keep in mind the type of horse, the force of the attack, the intervals of ease or violent pain, the temperature and pulse, and a frequent attempt to urinate, which will prevent the confounding of this with any other form of colic. The treatment indicated is any antispasmodic medicine, of which probably there is none better than chloral hydrate given in a dose of one ounce in a half-pint of water as a drench. Flatulent colic, tympanites, wind colic, bloat, are common among animals subject to sudden changes of food, careless feeding or treatment; too much green food, or any other food that has become stale and sour.

Herniæ: There are several kinds of herniæ, not all of which, however, are to be regarded as serious or dangerous. Abdominal herniæ, or ruptures, are divided into reducible, irreducible, and strangulated, according to their condition; and into inguinal, scrotal, ventral, umbilical, and diaphragmatic, according to their situation. In many instances treatment is not necessary; or, where the hernial sac is extensive, treatment is ineffective. A good deal will depend on whether any one is present when the hernia happens, as to the possibilities of a perfect cure. Umbilical hernia, or diaphragmatic hernia, calls for the most skilled treatment, and even then little or nothing can be done.

Acute Inflammation of the Kidneys. The causes of this disease are many and varied. Congestion occurs from retained products passed through the kidney's during recovery from inflammation of other parts, or fevers. Detained urine, and the possible production of ammonia and other irritants, are also frequent causes. The symptoms consist of fever, stiffness of the back, straddling gait, difficulty in lying down, rising, or walking in a circle. The recognized treatment is as follows: Removal of any cause that can be discovered; then, if suffering from high fever, the removal of from two to four quarts of blood, which should be followed as much as possible by throwing the work of the kidneys on the bowels and skin. Catarrh, or Cold in the Head: A fluid discharge from the mucous membrane. Inflammation, as a rule, extends to the membrane of the sinuses of the head, and of the larynx and pharynx, causing the added complication of sore throat. Frequently the eyes are also affected. At the first stage of the attack the membrane is dry and irritable, followed by a watery discharge from the nostrils. Fever, more or less, makes its appearance, which is usually detected by placing a finger in the animal's mouth. In itself the disease is not very serious, but if neglected, or treated wrongly, may become complicated and dangerous. A few days of cessation from work, together with pure air and good food, is regarded as the best treatment. Roaring (q.v.): A chronic disease, evidenced by a loud, unnatural noise in breathing, and caused by an obstruction to the free passage of the air in some part of the respiratory tract. External causes are nasal polypi, thickening of the membrane, the pharyngeal polypi; deformed bones; paralysis of the wing of the nostril; and more than anything else, paralysis of the muscles of the larynx.

Grunting: A horse is usually first tested by veterinarians for grunting, when if the fault is discovered he will be further tested for roaring. Grunting is a sound emitted during exhalation, when the animal is suddenly moved or struck at.

High Blowing is distinctly a nasal sound, but it must not be confounded with roaring; it is a habit, and does not constitute unsoundness. In the same class should be placed whistling and thick wind. Bronchitis, or Inflammation of the Bronchial Tubes: While the causes of this disease are of the same order as for other diseases of the respiratory orftans, some special causes are the inhalation of irritating gas or smoke, and fluids or solids gaining access to the parts. It is also occasionally associated with influenza, or fever, and frequently supervenes a common cold or sore throat. The animal appears dull, the appetite is partially or wholly lost, the head hangs, and the cough, at first light, is succeeded by a high rasping cough. He prefers to stand with his head to a door or window to secure fresh air, and persists in standing. He has more or less thirst, and frequently the mouth will be found full of saliva. The first step in the treatment of the disease is to secure a pure atmosphere and comfortable quarters whenever possible; a well-ventilated box-stall will be found the best. The body should be covered with a blanket according to the season of the year: the legs should be hand-rubbed until they are warm, then flannel bandages applied to the knees and hocks. If the legs cannot be made warm after hand-rubbing, take any liniment used for sore throat and thoroughly rub in, after which the legs should be covered with bandages. It will be well to rub the same liniment over the chest, the elbow, and shoulder-blade; and from the elbow below, to within about six inches of the ridge of the backbone above. Pleuropneumonia (q.v.), may attack both lungs, but as a rule one lung only is affected.

Diseases of the Eye. It is impossible to over-estimate the value of sound eyes in a horse, for not only does disease or injury depreciate the selling price of the animal, but it is a great source of danger at all times. Some diseases, like recurring inflammation or moon-blindness, as it is called, are congenital. The structure of the eye is that of a spheroidal body, flattened behind. The posterior four-fifths is inclosed by an opaque, strong, fibrous membrane, which has on its inner side a more delicate membrane consisting principally of blood-vessels and pigment-cells, which in its turn is lined by the extremely delicate and sensitive expansion of the retina. The anterior fifth of the globe of the eye bulges forward from what would have been the direct line of the sclerotic, forming a segment of a much smaller sphere than is inclosed by the sclerotic. There are four straight muscles of the eye, and two oblique and one retractor, enabling the eye to turn inward, outward, upward, and downward, and when all act together the eyeball is drawn deeply into its socket. One of the most common diseases is inflammation of the eyelids, which is caused usually by exposure, bites, or stings of insects, pricks with thorns, or by a whip or club, or as a result of infecting inoculations. All the known causes may ordinarily be divided under the following heads: (a) Inflammations due to constitutional causes; (b) those due to direct injury, mechanical or chemical; and (c) those due to inoculation with infecting material. The local treatments ordinarily advised consist of astringent, soothing lotions (sugar of lead, 30 grains; laudanum, 2 teaspoonfuls; rain-water—boiled and cooled—one pint) applied with a soft cloth kept wet with the lotion and hung over the eye by lying it to the headstall of the bridle on the two sides. The horse should be fed from a high manger, so as to help the return of the blood from the head; and his diet should be laxative and non-stimulating. For a stye or boil of the eyelid, the practice is to apply a poultice of camomile flowers, with the addition of a few drops of carbolic acid. The poultice should be applied in a very thin muslin bag. Wounds such as torn eyelids, caused by the horns of cattle, or perhaps by teeth, or by nails, or the barbs of wire fences, are also frequent. In such cases the edges should be brought together as promptly as possible, so as to secure union without any unsightly distortions. It is an operation that requires experience and skill.

Lameness. By this is meant any irregularities or derangements of the functions of locomotion. There are innumerable forms of lameness, the sources of many of which are so obscure as to defy location until the resulting disease has gained sufficient headway to be serious. In veterinary nomenclature each two of the legs, as referred to in pairs, are denominated a biped, the two fore legs being the anterior biped, and the two hinder the posterior; the two on one side are designated the lateral; and either the front or the hind biped, with the opposite leg of the hind or the front biped, forms the diagonal biped. In health, each biped as well as each individual leg has to perform an equal and uniform duty and carry an equal share of the total weight of the body, so that the result ought to be a regular, evenly balanced, and smooth displacement of the body. According to the rapidity of the motion of the animal in different gaits, each single leg is required at certain moments to bear the weight which had the moment before rested on its congener; or again the legs of one biped may be required to carry the weight of its opposite biped. Beginning with diseases of the bones as a common source of lameness, the ‘splint’ (q.v.) will be found to be of the commonest occurrence. Indeed, a horse which does not possess one or more belongs to a very small minority. The splint is a bony enlargement on the cannon-bone, between the knee or hock and the fetlock joint. Ringbones (q.v.) usually result from heavy labor before the animal was of sufficient age, and consequently before the bones were sufficiently ossified; or else from bruises, sprains, or othcT forms of violence. Spavin (q.v.), or exostosis of the hock-joint, is a disease of the most serious kind for many reasons, not the least of which is the slowness of its development and the insidiousness of it growth. Fractures are of less serious consequence in the horse than in man, but nevertheless they are always a matter of grave import and demand at once a most skillful treatment. Wind-galls (q.v.) is a name given to the dilated bursæ found at the posterior part of the fetlock joint. Sprains are diseases of the muscles and tendons. Ordinarily the cause of a sprain may be attributed to a fall or overstrain, and subsequent soreness, swelling, and suspension of functions. Rest is the prime essential, the treatment consisting of local applications, stimulating liniments, counter-irritation, and occasionally firing. Lameness of the shoulder from sprain is the most frequent, and is popularly described as slip of the shoulder. With draught-horses it frequently is caused by the effort necessary to move off a heavily loaded vehicle. In the great majority of cases a rest is all that is necessary to effect a cure. Under the general classification of diseases of the fetlock, ankle, and foot are to he found many of the most common as well as most fatal (so far as the value of the animal is concerned) diseases known to veterinary science. Many horses are predisposed to injuries and diseases because of imperfectly formed feet, in consequence of which they are peculiarly liable to diseases of this character. Flat-footed horses are liable to corns, pumiced sole, bruises of the sole, and kindred troubles, owing to the fact that the soles of their feet have little, if any, convexity. The flat foot has no arch, so that the weight of the animal falls on the entire plantar surface instead of on the wall, which allows of little, if any, elasticity in the sole. In clubfoot the feet have the wall set nearly perpendicular, and consequently the heels stand high and the fetlock joint is either thrown forward or knuckled, and the weight of the animal is thrown onto the toes. In crooked foot one side of the wall is higher than the other, causing the animal to be pigeon-toed as well as making it ‘interfere.’ Interfering is when one foot in action strikes the opposite leg. Knuckling is another fault, which causes stumbling, and while not always an unsoundness in itself, yet frequently leads to fracture of the pastern. It is a partial dislocation of the fetlock joint, and is caused more often by heavy work in hilly districts or fast work on race-tracks or hard roads than anything else. The principal remedy for all faults of conformation will be found in suitable horseshoeing; which subject is discussed at some length under Horseshoeing. Sprains of the fetlock are the consequence of knuckling or any diseases which interfere with proper locomotion, such as, navicular disease, chronic laminitis, contracted heels, side bones; or such external causes as a rut or hole in the road, or any accident which causes the animal to fall. For slight injuries cold-water bandages and a few days' rest will be found sufficient. Should there be severe lameness or much swelling, a stream of cold water playing upon the leg will be found very beneficial. On the subsidence of the inflammation a blister should be applied to the joint. When the shoe of the hind foot strikes the heel or quarter of the fore foot the animal is said to overreach, a trouble common to trotting and running horses. When the hind foot catches well back on the heel of the fore foot the horse will frequently be thrown on his knees or the shoe torn from the fore foot, an accident known colloquially as grabbing. The art of the shoeing smith is demanded, if future injuries are to be avoided. Wounds should be dressed with tincture of aloes, oakum, and a roller bandage; and in any case the animal should never be driven at a very fast gait unless his heels and quarters are protected with quarter-boots. Heavy or draught horses are liable to calk wounds, caused from tramping either on themselves or each other. Good shoeing and the use of boots will be found the best remedy. Quittors (q.v.) have been authoritatively divided into four classes: (a) Cutaneous quittor; (b) tendinous quittor: (c) subhorny quittor; and (d) cartilaginous quittor. Thrush (q.v.) is more common with draught-horses than any other breed, and is usually caused by a filthy, ill-kept stable. Corns are injuries to the living horn of the foot, appearing in that part of the sole which is included in the angle between the bar and the outside wall of the hoof. They are described, according to the character of the conditions which follow the primary injury, as the dry, the moist, and the suppurative. The disease is confined almost exclusively to the fore feet, because of the greater weight which they support, and because the heel of the fore foot in action first strikes the ground and thus receives much more shock or concussion than the heel of the hind foot, in which the toe first makes contact with the ground. Faulty shoeing is the great predisposing cause, or else the presence of small stones or other objects between the sole and shoe. Lameness caused by bruises of the frog is best treated by putting the foot at once in a bath of cold water in order to prevent suppuration, which will frequently be effective if the disease is caught at the beginning. If suppuration, however, has already commenced, the horn of the frog and of the bars and branches of the sole, if necessary, is to be pared thin in order that the foot may be poulticed and all pressure removed. When the lameness has subsided and the exposed part covered by a new layer of horn, the foot may be shod. Punctured wounds of the foot are of everyday occurrence, and when they, as frequently happens, involve the more important organs contained in the hoof, no disease or wound can be more serious. Most frequently a ‘picked-up’ nail is the cause of trouble, and again the wounds may happen from sharp pieces of rock, glass, wire, etc. The nearer the injury is to the centre of the foot the more possibilities there are of disastrous results. Punctured wounds of the anterior parts of the sole are the more dangerous because of the possibility of injury to the coffin-bone, the most serious wounds being those which puncture the centre of the foot. Sometimes it happens that a nail has penetrated the frog and remained there for several days without causing lameness, the first evidence of an injury betraying itself when the foot is being cleaned. It must be remembered that if the injury is not too deep, suppuration will be established before lameness develops, so that the feet should always be most closely scrutinized. Should the coffin-joint have been penetrated either by the external cause or by the process of suppuration, an acute inflammation of the joint will follow, which will be invariably accompanied by high fever as well as loss of appetite. The treatment recommended in all cases of punctured wounds is the thinning down of the horn near the seat of injury, a free opening created for the escape of suppurated matter, and the foot itself placed in a poultice. Where the injury is not serious, recovery in a few days' time is ordinarily assured; but where serious injuries have been inflicted, the foot should be treated to a cold bath or the stream of cold water described in the treatment for quittor (q.v.). Contracted heels, or, as it is more frequently called, hoof-bound, is common among saddle-horses and those kept on hard floors in dry stables. Ordinarily, but one foot is affected at a time, and it affects the fore feet principally. The disease itself is an atrophy or shrinking of the tissues of the foot, which diminishes in particular the diameter of the heels. Another very prevalent cause is faulty shoeing, although it sometimes happens that it results from other diseases of the foot, as, for instance, thrush, side bones, corns, etc. The disease is indicated by a pinched and shrunken frog, high heels, long bars, straight walls, and hoof so dry that it is almost impossible to cut it. The treatment consists first of all of preventive measures. The feet are kept moist and the horn is prevented from drying out by the use of moist sawdust, occasional poultices of boiled turnips, and a free use of greasy hoof ointments to the sole and walls of the feet. Careful shoeing, however, will he found to be one-half of the cure. Sand-cracks may happen on any part of the wall, although usually they appear directly in front and are called toe-cracks, or on the lateral parts of the walls, and are known as quarter-cracks (q.v.). The latter usually affect the fore feet, and the former the hind feet. A sand-crack, which is a solution of continuity or fissure in the horn of the wall of the foot, may be superficial, involving only the outer parts of the wall, or it may be deep, involving the whole thickness of the wall as well as the soft tissues beneath. The disease is most serious when it involves the coronary band; and may be further complicated by hemorrhage, inflammation of the laminæ, suppuration, and gangrene. The predisposing cause of sand-cracks is the relative dryness of the horn, although excessive dryness is not more dangerous than alternate changes from damp to dry. Other predisposing causes are heavy shoes, large nails, and bad shoeing in general, together with such diseases as canker, quittor, and suppurative corns. Very little can be done in the way of prevention, but the suppleness of the horn may be maintained by the use of ointments, damp floor, bedding, etc., as well as by proper shoeing. After the fissure has made its appearance, all efforts should be directed to prevent its growing longer and deeper, the usual method being to arrest all motion in the edges. A very simple appliance for holding the borders of a toe-crack together is the vachette clasp. They are made of stiff steel wire and are strong enough to prevent all motion in the borders of the crack. Where these instruments cannot be obtained a good substitute is to drill a hole through the horn across the fissure, and close the crack by means of a thin nail made of tough iron and neatly clinched at each end.

Care of the Horse. Careless and improper feeding and watering are responsible for most of the digestive disorders with which the horse may be troubled. With the horse, digestion takes place principally in the intestines, and in selecting food for a horse the anatomical arrangement of its digestive organs and the physiological functions they perform should be carefully studied. All food should be wholesome and clean; the animal should be fed regularly, and because of his small stomach, in small quantities, and frequently. A horse should never be fed too soon after a hard day's work. He may be given a small quantity of hay, but one or two hours should elapse before he gets his regular meal. When it is contemplated to change the food, care should be taken to make the change very gradually, and in any case, the quantity of food given must be in a direct proportion to the amount of labor performed. Should the horse stand several days in the stable, his food should be of a more laxative nature. The following foods are considered the best: The best hay for horses is ‘timothy,’ but care should be taken that it is about one year old, of a greenish color, and possessing a sweet aroma. A horse fed on grain should be allowed from ten to twelve pounds of good hay a day. Straw should not be fed unless cut and mixed with hay and crushed grain. Wheat and rye chaff should never be used. Of the grain foods, oats easily take the precedence. The best oats are one year old, plump, short, hard, bright, and sweet. They are given either whole or crushed. A fair allowance for the average horse is about twelve quarts of good oats a day. Wheat and rye should not be used except in small quantities and mixed with other grains or hay. The bran of wheat is the one most used, although its value is variously estimated. It is always fed with other grains and tends to keep the bowels open. Maize or corn is not suitable as an exclusive food for young horses, owing to its deficiency in salts. Corn on the cob is generally used as food for horses affected with ‘lampas.’ It is better given ground, and fed in quantities of from one to two quarts at a meal, mixed with crushed oats or bran. Linseed is occasionally fed with other foods to improve the condition of the skin and keep the bowels open. It is of particular service during convalescence. Steamed or boiled roots and potatoes are frequently used as an article of food, but carrots make the best diet, particularly during sickness. Grass is the natural food of the horse, but it is not sufficient to keep it in condition for work. The amount of water required by the horse varies according to the character of his food; but roundly stated, about eight quarts a day will be a fair average. When resting, water should be given three times a day; when at work, more frequently. The very prevalent impression that when a horse is warm he should not be allowed to drink is very erroneous. No matter how warm a horse may be, it is always safe to allow him from six to ten swallows of water. The danger is not in the water, but in the excessive quantity that the animal will take when warm, if not restrained. It should never be given when ice-cold. A water-trough should always be placed in such position that the sun may shine on it during the winter mornings.

Bibliography. Janssen, Die Pferderassen der Gegenwart (Wandsbek, 1881); Flower, The Horse, a Study in Natural History (London, 1891); Simonoff and Moerder, Les races chevalines, avec une étude spéciale sur les chevaux russes (Paris, 1894); Schwarznecker, Rassen, Zuchtung und Haltung des Pferdes (3d ed., Berlin, 1894).

Varieties: Du Hays, The Percheron Horse, translated (New York, 1890); Des Farges, Race Horses, translated (London, 1890); Bruce, The Thoroughbred Horse (New York, 1892); Tweedie, The Arabian Horse, His Country and People (Edinburgh, 1893); Wallace, The Horse of America in His Derivation, History, and Development (New York, 1897); Hayes, Among Horses in Russia (London, 1900); Wasser, The Horses of the World's Armies, United Service, series 3, vol. i. (New York, 1902).

Points: Goubaux and Barrier, L'extérieur du cheval (Paris, 1882-84); Rueff, Das Aeussere des Pferdes und seine Fehler (Stuttgart, 1885); Müller, Lehre vom Exterieur des Pferdes (5th ed. Vienna, 1895); Hayes, Points of the Horse (London, 1897).

Breeding, Care, and Training: Leisering and Hartmann, Der Fuss des Pferdes in Rücksicht auf Bau, Verrichtungen und Hufbeschlag (Dresden, 1870; Clarke, Horses' Teeth (New York, 1886); Day, The Horse, How to Breed and Rear Him (n. p., 1890); Sanders, Horse-Breeding (Chicago, 1893); Hayes, Illustrated Horse-Breaking (London, 1889); Merwin, Road, Track, and Stable (Boston, 1892); Marvin, Training the Trotting Horse (n. p., 1893); and for bibliography, Huth, Works on Horses and Equitation, a Bibliographical Record (London, 1887).