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The New International Encyclopædia/Lewal, Jules Louis

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LEWAL, le-vȧl', Jules Louis (1823— ). A French general. He was born in Paris; entered the army in 1846; served in the Italian campaign of 1859, with the French troops in Mexico (1862), and, after coöperation with Niel in the army reforms, in the Franco-Prussian War. He was promoted to brigadier in 1874; became head of the Military Academy three years after; in 1885 was Minister of War in Ferry's Cabinet; and in 1888 was appointed inspector-general. He wrote: La réforme de l'armée (1871); Etudes de guerre (1872 and 1890); Tactique (1875-83); Stratégie de marche (1893); and Stratégie de combat (1895 sqq.).