The New International Encyclopædia/Rattazzi, Urbano

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RATTAZZI, Urbano (1808-73). An Italian statesman, born at Alessandria, Piedmont. He studied law at Turin and became an advocate at Casale. In 1848 he was elected a member of the Sardinian Parliament, and after sitting in the Casati Cabinet was called into the Ministry of Gioberti. He was one of those who urged Charles Albert into a continuance of the war with Austria in 1849, and after the defeat of Novara he was obliged to retire from the Ministry. He became the leader of the Left Centre, or Moderate Radical Party. In 1851, when Napoleon's coup d'état complicated foreign relations, an alliance was concluded between Cavour and Rattazzi, who had hitherto been opponents. Rattazzi took the portfolio of Justice in 1853, and subsequently that of the Interior in the Cavour Ministry. He disagreed with Cavour on the French alliance and retired from the Cabinet in 1858, but returned upon Cavour's resignation after the Peace of Villafranca. He was opposed to the surrender of Savoy and Nice to France, and he again retired in 1860. In March, 1862, after the failure of Ricasoli's Ministry, he was intrusted with the formation of a new Cabinet, but resigned after a few months. He returned to office in 1867, but his ambiguous attitude regarding Garibaldi's expedition against Rome in that year led to the downfall of his Ministry in October. He died at Frosinone. Consult: Lettres inédites du comte de Cavour an Commandeur Urbain Rattazzi (Paris, 1862); S. G., Urbano Rattazzi (Turin, 1861); De Rute, Rattazzi et son temps (Paris, 1881-87). An edition of his speeches, edited by Scovazzi, was published at Rome (8 vols., 1876-80).