The New International Encyclopædia/Schultze, Max Sigismund

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SCHULTZE, Max Sigismund (1825-94). An eminent German anatomist and cytologist. He was born at Freiburg in Breisgau. After 1845 he studied at Greifswald and Berlin. In 1854 he was appointed adjunct professor in Halle, and in 1859 was called to the chair of anatomy in the University of Bonn. His chief works are on turbellarian worms (1851); on the Foraminifera of the Adriatic Sea (1854); on the embryology of various worms and of the lamprey; on the mode of termination of the finer nerves in the organs of sense; and on the electric organs of fishes; but his most notable contribution to general biology was his work on the nature of protoplasm and of cells (q.v.). He was the first, after Dujardin, to establish the nature of protoplasm of rhizopods and to show that it was the fundamental substance of both animals and plants. His results are embodied in his tract Das Protoplasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Zelle (Leipzig, 1863). He adopted Mohl's term ‘protoplasm,’ applied by that botanist to plants alone, and extended it to include that of animals. Schultze was also the founder and editor of the Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie.