The New International Encyclopædia/Whymper, Edward

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WHYMPER, hwĭm'pẽr, Edward (1840—). An English traveler, born in London. He was trained as a draughtsman on wood. In 1860 he was sent by a London publisher to sketch the Alpine peaks. In 1861 he reached the summit of Mount Pelvoux and in 1864 ascended the Point des Ecrins. In 1865 he scaled the Matterhorn, until then found inaccessible. In 1867 and 1872 he visited Greenland. One result of his explorations was the collection of rare fossil plants now in the British Museum. His discovery of magnolia cones demonstrated the former existence of luxurious vegetation in that country. He visited the Ecuadorian Andes in 1879-80, and succeeded in reaching the summit of Chimborazo, a feat which had been unsuccessfully attempted by Humboldt and others. During this journey he discovered the Andean glaciers and made further collections of fossil, plant, and animal specimens. In addition to his Scrambles Amongst the Alps in the Years 1860-69 (1871; illustrated by himself), he described his travels in Travels Among the Great Andes of the Equator (1892); Chamonix and Mont Blanc (1896); and Zermatt and the Matterhorn (1897).