The New Student's Reference Work/Baden, The Grand Duchy of
Baden (bä' den), The Grand Duchy of, The Grand Duchy of, lies in the southwestern corner of the German empire, separated from Switzerland by the Rhine. It is divided into a plain and highlands, and of the latter the Black Forest is the most important part. It is drained by the Rhine and Danube, and so pours its waters into two opposite seas. The country is fertile, especially the Rhine valley, and rich in minerals. It is famous for its mineral springs. Among its manufactures the wooden clocks and straw plaitings of the Black Forest are known over the world; of clocks alone over seventy thousand are made yearly. The manufactures of jewelry at Pforzheim are the most important in Germany. Baden has a good school system, a Protestant university at Heidelberg and a Catholic university at Freiburg. The population is 2,010,728, of which a large majority are Catholics. A parliament of two houses limits the power of the sovereign, whose home is at Karlsruhe.
The earliest people of Baden were the Alemanni, and the present house of Baden began in the 11th century. At the time of the French Revolution, the spirit of change which was abroad in all Germany passed into Baden. The Grand Duke Leopold was driven out, but was restored to his throne by the aid of the Prussians. In 1867 though Baden had sided with Austria against Prussia, it was forced to enter the North German Confederation. The troops of Baden fought with distinction in the Franco-Prussian War, and the Grand Duchy became a part of the restored German empire. The present grand duke is Frederick I, who came to the throne in 1852. The area of the duchy is 5,823 square miles; Karlsruhe (population, 111,249) is the capital; but Mannheim (population, 163,693) is the chief town.