The New Student's Reference Work/Bechuanaland Protectorate, The

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Bechuanaland Protectorate, The, has an area of about 275,000 square miles, about that of British Columbia, and a population (1905) of 137,832, only 1,000 being whites. It is bounded west and north by German Southwest Africa, north by Zambezi River and British Central Africa, east by Matabeleland and Transvaal and south by British Bechuanaland and Molopo River. The chief tribes are the Bamangwato, Bakwena and Bangwaketse. These and the others are governed by a resident British agent responsible to the High Commissioner of South Africa, but Khama and two other chiefs rule their peoples in subordination to the resident. No licenses for the sale of spirits are granted. Herding and farming are the chief industries. Much of the land is held by native chiefs, who also collect the hut-tax, but the people are peaceful and contented. The Cape-to-Cairo Railway passes through the protectorate, and the telegraph connects it with Cape Town, Portuguese East Africa, Rhodesia, Ujiji and the whole world. In 1905-6 the income was almost $143,265; the expenditure about $373,915; and the grant-in-aid for 1906-7, $220,000.