The New Student's Reference Work/Cincinnati
Cincinnati (sĭn′sĭn-nä′tĭ), the second largest city of Ohio and tenth in rank in the United States, is situated on the Ohio River in the southwest part of the state. It is built upon two terraces, the first 60 feet and the second 112 feet above the river, surrounded by a circle of hills, about 450 feet high, forming one of the most beautiful amphitheaters on the continent. The city embraces nearly 30 square miles, extending along the Ohio River for about ten miles. The city and its suburbs cover the surrounding hills, which are reached by a series of street-railways with inclined planes, one having a height of 275 feet. The city is noted for the beauty of its suburbs, which stretch for miles in all directions, with costly residences and large and ornamental grounds. The suspension bridge between Cincinnati and Covington is 2,252 feet in length, and was built at a cost of $2,000,000. There are ten parks and a zoölogical garden; Eden park, covering 199 acres, and Burnet woods, with 163½ acres, being the largest. Of the 21 cemeteries, the largest is Spring Grove, containing 600 acres, and said by travelers to be the most picturesque cemetery in the world. The Tyler-Davidson fountain, a bronze fountain cast in Munich at a cost of $200,000, was the gift of a private citizen, and is one of the ornaments of the city. Among buildings of note are the hospital, erected at a cost of $1,000,000; the cathedral, with a stone-spire 224 feet high; the Masonic temple, the Art museum in Eden park, the Havlin and Sinton hotels, Ingall's building, the great Exposition building and Music hall with its noted grand organ.
Cincinnati is an important commercial and manufacturing city, and, since 1870, a port of entry. It for many years was the leading city of the west, called the Queen City. Its trade in pork was the largest in the country until 1863. Its manufactures are numerous and extensive, especially in iron, leather, shoes, paper, soap and carriages. Cincinnati has always been noted for its interest in literary and educational matters, and it also has a wide reputation as an art and musical center. The Cincinnati University, with 199 instructors and 1,475 students, Lane Theological Seminary, medical and law schools, the art-school and museum, a free school of design, a free public library, mercantile library and historical library, Emma Louise Schmidlapp Memorial Library, and the Lloyd Library, devoted to botany and pharmacy, are among its many institutions. Its great school of wood-carving and the Rookwood pottery are each celebrated. The ware from this pottery ranks with the art-product of the most famous potteries of the Old World, and may be found in the best private collections on both sides of the Atlantic.
Cincinnati was permanently settled in 1788, and named in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati. The river trade, which began with the arrival of the first steamboat in 1811, gave it its early importance. It became a city in 1819. In 1845 the first railroad entered the city. The population is largely foreign, one entire part of the city, called “Over the Rhine,” being German. Population, 363,591.