The New Student's Reference Work/Garibaldi, Giuseppe
Garibaldi (găr′ĭ-bal′dĭ), Giuseppe, an Italian patriot, was born at Nice, July 4, 1807. Beginning his career as a sailor, his voyages filled him with that democratic ardor which marked his whole life. In 1834 he was concerned in the Young Italy movement of Mazzini, and was condemned to death, but escaped and went to South America. Here he assisted the province of Rio Grande in its rebellion against the emperor of Brazil, distinguished himself as a guerrilla and privateer, and married a beautiful Creole who became the companion of his early campaigns. After various adventures he entered the service of the Montevideans.
In 1848 he returned to his native country, and entered with ardor into the struggle for Italian independence. He won fresh laurels as a leader, but in the following year was compelled to leave Italy. He came to the United States, where he remained till 1854. He then once more sought Italy, and in 1859 the outbreak of the war of Italian liberation called him again to arms. He placed his sword at the disposal of Victor Emanuel, and though much hampered by conflicting parties, he and his Red Shirts, as his men were called, won many victories. He freed Naples and Sicily from the Bourbons and turned them over to Victor Emanuel. But in an attack on Rome he was wounded and captured. Soon after he made a journey to England, on behalf of Denmark, and was received with the wildest enthusiasm. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 he once more figured, and in another attack on Rome was captured, but escaped in a boat to Caprera, his island home. He came to the assistance of the French republic in its struggle with Germany, and was elected to the national French assembly.
During the latter part of his life he remained a helpless invalid at Caprera, except when he came forth to take his seat in the chamber of deputies at Rome. He died on June 2, 1882. Though Garibaldi made many mistakes, his patriotism is undoubted, and he will always remain a central figure in the story of Italian independence. See J. T. Brent's Life of Garibaldi.