The New Student's Reference Work/Howard, John

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How′ard, John, a philanthropist and prison-reformer, was born in Middlesex, England, about Sept. 2, 1726, and received his education by private tutors. He inherited a fortune from his father, and in 1756 sailed for Lisbon, but was taken prisoner by the French and thrown into prison, where his own experience first gave him his ideas of prison-reform. His life was devoted to prison-reform. To this end he visited all penal institutions. While in Russia he contracted typhus fever and died on Jan. 20, 1790. He published two works on the state of prisons and hospitals. He is honored as one of the most self-denying and benevolent of men. See Lives by Dixon, Field and Stoughton.