The New Student's Reference Work/Modocs

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Modocs (mo'dŏks), a tribe of American Indians formerly living in northern California, near Lake Klamath. Their houses were pits, roofed with wooden slabs and covered with earth. They had several contests with the white settlers, and finally 41 out of 46 of their warriors were treacherously murdered in 1855 by the whites, when invited guests at a feast. This treachery they never forgot, and became bitter enemies. A part of the tribe, under a chief called Captain Jack, returned to their old home, but were ordered away by the United States troops. They repulsed the troops and retreated to what is known as the lava beds in the mountains, in the fall of 1872, where they defended themselves against repeated efforts to dislodge them until the summer of 1873. Their chiefs were executed, and the rest of band were carried to Indian Territory. Those who had not taken part in the war remained at the Klamath agency.