The New Student's Reference Work/Nicholas I (of Russia)
Nich'olas I of Russia, third son of Paul I, was born at St. Petersburg, July 7, 1796; was carefully educated; and later devoted his time to military studies and political economy. He traveled over Europe, marrying the oldest daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia. Upon the resignation of his older brother he ascended the throne in December, 1825. In 1828 war with Persia began, and at its close occurred a war with Turkey. This was followed by the rising of Poland, which he subdued, reducing the kingdom to a mere province. His rule now became despotic and fierce. He remained inactive until the Hungarian rebellion in 1848–9, when he was called in to aid Austria. This strengthened him with the European powers, and he began to think of absorbing Turkey. The opposition of the western powers led to the Crimean War, during which he died on March 2, 1855.