The New Student's Reference Work/Uniforms of the U. S.: Military and Naval

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The New Student's Reference Work  (1914) 
Uniforms of the U. S.: Military and Naval

Uniforms of the U. S.: Military and Naval. Of recent years, particularly since 1902, considerable changes have been made in the uniforms both of the army and the navy of the United States regular and volunteer forces. These have been introduced with the design of adapting them more effectively to the conditions of active service and to combine an ornamental and tasteful neatness with the idea of utility, but without undue display or ostentation. In accomplishing the changes the cumbrous helmet has been almost entirely discarded for a serviceable peaked cap (blue or khaki), retaining also the soft, felt, buff-colored campaign hat; while khaki, of a now fast dye, has been adopted as the dress of portions of the army regiments (infantry, cavalry and engineers), and white has been retained as the working dress of soldiers in addition to officers in the navy. The prevailing color of the army uniform, for tunics or sacks as well as for the full-dress frock, is blue, with a blue of a lighter shade for the trousers; the khaki is of the same shade both for tunics and pants; while the prevailing color of the naval uniform (outside of white) is a dark blue, alike for tunics, frocks and trousers. The bandman's dress in the navy is the red tunic, with light-blue trousers, and helmet. For general and field officers (army) the full-dress coat is the double-breasted frock, with a double row of buttons, with epaulets for general officers and shoulder-straps for inferior ranks. The general officers wear a stripe of gold color, in full dress, down the trouser-leg; while the full-dress frock is adorned with a breast-cord and tassel of the corps, color of the department or arm of the service to which its bearer belongs. In the navy, on all but the white uniforms, the rank of an officer is indicated by gold-lace on the sleeve and devices on the collar, epaulet and shoulder-strap. Stripes of gold-lace of varying widths mark the rank on the sleeve of the officer from ensign to admiral; while all officers of the line or executive branch wear a gold star on the sleeve above the gold-lace.

The shoulder-straps of a second-lieutenant in the army are plain. A first-lieutenant's have a silver bar at both ends; a captain's two; a lieutenant-colonel's silver oak-leaves; a major's gold oak-leaves; a colonel's a silver eagle; a brigadier's a silver star; a major-general's two stars of silver; a lieutenant-general's three; the general's two silver stars, between which are a gold eagle and a device. All commissioned officers of the navy wear epaulets of gold-bullion on both shoulders, while strips of gold-embroidered, white oak-leaves or of gold-lace and devices on the shoulder-straps indicate the respective ranks.