The Periplus of Hanno/Chapter 4

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  b. c.
Migration of the Phœnicians from the Persian Gulf to South Arabia and the Mediterranean, about 2800
Phœnician cities on the Mediterranean subject alternately to Babylon and Egypt. Rise of Assyria, about 1300
Greek activity and extension of Israel; fall of Troy, about 1183
Temporary weakness of both Assyria and Egypt makes possible the independence and alliance of Israel and Phœnicia, 1049-976
Phœnician colonies westward, about 1000
Founding of Carthage, about 878
At this period the Semitic commercial system centering in Mesopotamia, Phœnicia and Carthage controlled the trade of the world; continued expansion of Greece, and foundation of Greek colonies in Asia Minor and the Black Sea and westward in Italy, Sicily and Gaul, 800-600
Founding of Rome, 753
Decline of Assyria under this competition, 650
Greek colony established at Cyrene in North Africa, 631
Greek commercial agency established on the Nile, 630
Fall of Nineveh, 606
Extension of Carthaginian dominions in Africa, Sicily and Sardinia, 550
Defeat of the Carthaginians by the Greeks, 539
Fall of Babylon and rise of the Persian Empire, 538
War between Carthage and Syracuse for the possession of Sicily, 533
Change of Carthaginian policy toward African tribes and enforcement of tribute, 533
Rome under Etruscan kings extends its dominion in Italy, 528
Egypt conquered by the Persians, 525
Cyrene, and Africa as far as the Carthaginian possessions, conquered by the Persians, 524
Invasion of Italy by the Gauls, 520
Northern India conquered by the Persians, 512
Expulsion of the Tarquins and establishment of the Republic of Rome, 509
The Persians advance into Thrace, 505
Persian advance continues into Greece until checked by the defeat of Marathon, 490
Second effort of the older civilization against Greece under Xerxes, this time employing all its forces from India in the east to Carthage in the west, ends in double victory by the Greeks over the Carthaginians at Himera in Sicily and over the Persians at Salamis, 480
Battle of Plataea; expulsion of the Persians from Greece, 479
Probable date of the voyage of Hanno, marking the decline of Carthaginian supremacy in the northern Mediterranean and the movement to extend its trade westward by the Atlantic Ocean, 470
At this period Carthage was by far the richest city on the Mediterranean.
Invasion of Italy by the Gauls, capture and destruction of Rome, 390
Defeat of the Etruscans by the Romans, 310
Defeat of the Samnites, Nubians and Gauls by the Romans, 295
Invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus and his defeat by the Romans, 280-275
Basis of Roman wealth and power laid by the capture and sack of Tarentum, 272
First Punic war ending in the loss of Sicily to Rome, 264-241
Second Punic war ending in the loss of Spain, Sardinia and Corsica to Rome, 218-201
Third Punic war ending in the total destruction of Carthaginian power, 145-146
Capture and destruction of both Carthage and Corinth and transfer of their wealth to Rome, 146
Steady advance of Roman power in all directions ending with complete possession of the Mediterranean at the death of Augustus, 13