The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898/Volume 1/Appendix

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The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803, Volume 1
edited by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES
1493–1803

LIST OF ROMAN PONTIFFS

Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia, or Lenzuoli).—Born Jan. 1, 1431; became pontiff, Aug. 11, 1492; died Aug. 18, 1503.

Pius III (Francesco Todischini Piccolomini).—Born May 9, 1439; became pontiff, Sept. 22, 1503; died Oct. 18, 1503.

Julius II (Guiliano della Rovere).—Born Dec. 15, 1443; became pontiff, Oct. 31 or Nov. 1, 1503; died Feb. 2, 1513.

Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici).—Born Dec. 11, 1475; became pontiff, March 11, 1513; died Dec. 1, 1521.

Hadrianus VI (Florian Boyers).—Born Mar. 2, 1459; became pontiff, Jan. 9, 1522; died Sept. 14, 1523.

Clemens VII (Giulio de' Medici).—Born 1475 (?); became pontiff, Nov. 19, 1523; died Sept. 26, 1534.

Paulus III (Alessandro Farnese).—Born Feb. 28, 1468; became pontiff, Oct. 13, 1534; died Nov. 10, 1549.

Julius III (Giovanni Maria de Ciocchi del Monte).—Born Sept. 10, 1487; became pontiff, Feb. 8, 1550; died Mar. 23, 1555.

Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini).—Born May 6, 1501; became pontiff, Apr. 9, 1555; died May 1, 1555.

Paulus IV (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa).—Born June 28, 1476; became pontiff, May 23, 1555; died Aug. 18, 1559.

Pius IV (Giovanni Angelo de' Medici).—Born Mar. 31, 1499; became pontiff, Dec. 26, 1559; died Dec. 9, 1565.

Pius V (Michele Ghisleri).—Born Jan. 17, 1504; became pontiff, Jan. 7, 1566; died May 1, 1572.

Gregorius XIII (Ugo Buoncompagno).—Born Feb. 7, 1502; became pontiff, May 13, 1572; died Apr. 10, 1585.

Sixtus V (Felice Peretto).—Born Dec. 13, 1521; became pontiff, Apr. 24, 1585; died Aug. 27, 1590.

Urbanus VII (Giovanni Battista Castagna).—Born Aug. 4, 1521; became pontiff, Sept. 15, 1590; died Sept. 27, 1590.

Gregorius XIV (Nicola Sfondrati).—Born Feb. 11, 1535; became pontiff, Dec. 5, 1590; died Oct. 15, 1591.

Innocentius IX (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti).—Born July 20, 1519; became pontiff, Oct. 29, 1591; died Dec. 30, 1591.

Clemens VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini).—Born Feb. 24, 1536; became pontiff, Jan. 30, 1592; died Mar. 3, 1605.

Leo XI (Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici).—Born 1535; became pontiff, Apr. 1, 1605; died Apr. 27, 1605.

Paulus V (Camillo Borghese).—Born Sept. 17, 1552; became pontiff, May 16, 1605; died Jan. 28, 1621.

Gregorius XV (Alessandro Ludovisio).—Born Jan. 9, 1554; became pontiff, Feb. 9, 1621; died July 8, 1623.

Urbanus VIII (Maffeo Barberini).—Born Mar. 26, 1568; became pontiff, Aug. 6, 1623; died July 29, 1644.

Innocentius X (Giovanni Battista Pamfilio).—Born Mar. 7, 1572 (or 1573); became pontiff, Sept. 15, 1644; died Jan. 7, 1655.

Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi).—Born Feb. 13. 1599; became pontiff, Apr. 7, 1655; died May 22, 1667.

Clemens IX (Giulio Rospigliosi).—Born Jan. 28, 1600; became pontiff, June 20, 1667; died Dec. 9, 1669.

Clemens X (Giovanni Battista Emilio Altieri).—Born July 15, 1590; became pontiff, Apr. 29, 1670; died July 22, 1676.

Innocentius XI (Benedetto Odescalchi).—Born May 16, 1611; became pontiff, Sept. 21, 1676; died Aug. 12, 1689.

Alexander VIII (Pietro Ottoboni).—Born Apr. 10, 1610; became pontiff, Oct. 6, 1689; died Feb. 1, 1691.

Innocentius XII (Antonio Pignatelli).—Born Mar. 13, 1615; became pontiff, July 12, 1691; died Sept. 27, 1700.

Clemens XI (Giovanni Francesco Albani).—Born July 23, 1649; became pontiff, Nov. 23, 1700; died Mar. 19, 1721.

Innocentius XIII (Michel Angelo Conti).—Born May 15, 1655; became pontiff, May 8, 1722; died Mar. 7, 1724.

Benedictus XIII (Vicenzo Marco Orsino).—Born Feb. 2, 1649; became pontiff, May 29, 1724; died Feb. 21, 1730.

Clemens XII (Lorenzo Corsini).—Born Apr. 11 (?), 1652; became pontiff, July 12, 1730; died Feb. 6, 1740.

Benedictus XIV (Prospero Lambertini).—Born Mar. 31, 1675; became pontiff, Aug. 17, 1740; died May 3, 1758.

Clemens XIII (Carlo Rezzonico).—Born Mar. 17, 1693; became pontiff, July 6, 1758; died Feb. 2, 1769.

Clemens XIV (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli).—Born Oct. 31, 1705; became pontiff, May 19, 1769; died Sept. 22, 1774.

Pius VI (Giovanni Angelo Braschi).—Born Dec. 27, 1717; became pontiff, Feb. 15, 1775; died Aug. 29, 1799.

Pius VII (Gregorio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti).—Born Aug. 14, 1742; became pontiff, Mar. 14, 1800; died Aug. 20, 1823.

LIST OF THE RULERS OF SPAIN

HOUSE OF CASTILLA AND ARAGON

Isabel I of Castilla.—Born at Madrigal de las Altas Torres (Avila), April 22, 1451; daughter of Juan II of Castilla and Isabel of Portugal. Married Fernando II of Aragón, Oct. 18 or 19, 1469. Succeeded her brother Enrique IV on the throne of Castilla and León; proclaimed queen Dec. 13, 1474. Died at Medina del Campo (Valladolid), Nov. 26, 1504. Named as her heirs her daughter Juana and the latter's husband, Philip of Austria; and appointed Fernando (now V of Castilla) regent of Castilla and León during the minority of Juana's son Cárlos. Fernando and Isabel were styled "the Catholic Sovereigns."

Fernando V of Castilla (II of Aragón and Navarra).—Born at Sos (Zaragoza), May 10, 1452; son of Juan II and Juana Enriquez of Aragón and Navarra. Died at Madrigalejo, Jan. 23, 1516. During Isabel's life, was king-consort, and governed her dominions only by virtue of this relation; after her death, was regent only of Castilla, which dignity he held until his death, except from June 27, 1506, to Aug. 21, 1507, during which period he retired to Aragón, in favor of Juana's husband Philip. Inheriting the throne of Aragón and Navarra (Jan. 20, 1479), his marriage with Isabel (1469) and their conquest of Granada (1492) united under one monarchy the provinces now comprised in the country of Spain.

Juana.—Born at Toledo, in 1479; second daughter of Isabel and Fernando. Married Philip of Austria, Oct. 20 or 21, 1496. Died at Tordesillas, April 11, 1555. Reigned from Nov. 26, 1504, until her death—jointly with her husband, during his life; and with her son thereafter—but under her father's regency until 1516; during her reign she was more or less subject to insanity, and was but nominally queen, seldom exercising royal powers, and living in strict seclusion. Known as "la Loca," "the Mad."

HOUSE OF AUSTRIA

Felipe I (Philip of Austria).—Born at Bruges, July 22, 1478; son of Maximilian I, emperor of Germany, and Maria de Borgoña. By his marriage to Juana, was king-consort of Castilla from Nov. 26, 1504, until his death. Died at Burgos, Sept. 25, 1506. Styled "el Hermoso," "the Beautiful."

Cárlos I (Charles V, emperor of Germany).—Born at Ghent, Feb. 25, 1500; son of Felipe I and Juana. Landed in Spain in 1517. Married Isabel of Portugal (daughter of Manoel), March 11, 1526. Abdicated in favor of his son Felipe II, Jan. 16, 1556; died at monastery of Yuste, Aug. 30, 1558. Elected Emperor of Germany in June, 1519. Reigned over Spain jointly with Juana. During his minority, Fernando was regent until his death (1516); thereafter Cardinal Jiminez (Ximenes) de Cisneros acted in that capacity until the latter's death (Nov. 8, 1517); with the cardinal was associated, nominally, Adrian, dean of Louvain.

Felipe II.—Born at Vallodolid, May 21, 1527; son of Cárlos I and Isabel. Married Maria, daughter of João III of Portugal, Nov. 15, 1543; Mary Tudor of England, July 25, 1554; Marie Elisabeth of Valois, Feb. 2, 1560; Anna of Austria, in 1570. Acted as regent for his father from June 23, 1551 until March 28, 1556, when he was proclaimed king. Died at the Escorial, Sept. 13, 1598. Became king of Portugal in April, 1581, taking the oath at Lisbon.

Felipe III.—Born at Madrid, April 14, 1578; son of Felipe II and Anna of Austria. Married Margaret of Austria, Nov. 13, 1598, two months after his accession to the throne. Died at Madrid, March 31, 1621. Surnamed "el Piadoso," "the Pious."

Felipe IV.—Born at Valladolid, April 8, 1605; son of Felipe III and Margaret. Married Isabel of Bourbon, in 1615; Mariana of Austria, in 1649. Succeeded his father as king, and died at Madrid, Sept. 17, 1665. The sovereignty of Spain over Portugal ceased Dec. 1, 1640.

Cárlos II.—Born Nov. 6, 1661; son of Felipe IV and Mariana. Married Marie Louise of Orleans, in 1679; Mariana of Bavaria, in 1690. Died Nov. 1, 1700, the last Spanish ruler of the house of Austria. During his minority his mother was regent (Sept. 17, 1665 to Nov. 16, 1675). Surnamed "el Hechizado," "the Bewitched."

HOUSE OF BOURBON.

Felipe V (Philip of Anjou).—Born at Versailles, Dec. 19, 1683; son of Louis, dauphin of France, and Mariana of Bavaria. Proclaimed king Nov. 24, 1700. Married Maria Louisa of Savoy, Sept. 11, 1701; Isabel Farnese, Sept. 16, 1714. Abdicated in favor of his son Luis I, Jan. 10, 1724; but resumed the government on Sept. 6 following, in consequence of Luis's death. Died at Madrid, July 9, 1746. The Spanish crown was bequeathed to him by Cárlos II.

Luis I.—Born Aug. 5, 1707; son of Felipe V and Maria Louisa. Married Louise Elisabeth of Orleans, Nov. 16, 1721. By his father's abdication of the throne Luis was nominally king from Jan. 19, 1724 until his death, Aug. 31 following.

Fernando VI.—Born Sept. 23, 1713; son of Felipe V and Maria Louisa. Married Maria Teresa Barbara of Braganza, Jan. 19, 1729. Died at Villaviciosa de Odon (Madrid), Aug. 10, 1759.

Cárlos III.—Born at Madrid, Jan. 20, 1716; son of Felipe V and Isabel Farnese. Married Maria Amalia of Saxony. Died at Madrid, Dec. 14, 1788.

Cárlos IV.—Born Nov. 11, 1748; son of Cárlos III. Married Maria Louisa of Parma. Proclaimed king, Jan. 17, 1789; abdicated the throne March 18, 1808; died at Naples, Jan. 19, 1819.

LIST OF THE RULERS OF PORTUGAL

HOUSE OF AVIZ

João II.—Born at Lisbon, May 3, 1455; son of Affonso V. Married Leonor de Lancaster, Jan. 22, 1471. Reigned from Aug. 31, 1481 until his death. Died at Villa de Alvor, Oct. 25, 1495. Styled "the Perfect Prince," also "the Great," and "the Severe."

Manoel.—Born May 31, 1469; cousin of João II. Married Isabel of Castilla (eldest daughter of Fernando and Isabel), in 1497; Maria, her sister, Oct. 30, 1500; Leonora, sister of Charles V of Germany in 1518. Died Dec. 13, 1521. Styled "the Fortunate."

João III.—Born at Lisbon, June 6, 1502; son of Manoel and Maria. Reigned from Dec. 19, 1521, until his death, June 11, 1557. Married Catarina, sister of Charles V of Germany.

Sebastião.—Born Jan. 20, 1554; grandson of João III. Slain in battle, Aug. 4, 1578. His grandmother Catarina acted as regent during his minority (1557–68).

Henrique.—Born at Lisbon, Jan. 31, 1512; son of Manoel; became a cardinal in the Roman church. Reigned from Aug. 29, 1578 until Jan. 31, 1580; had been associated with Catarina in the regency.

Antonio.—Born in 1531; grandson (but regarded by most writers as illegitimate) of Manoel. Reigned from June 19 to Sept. 2, 1580.

HOUSE OF AUSTRIA (SPAIN)

Filippe I.—Reigned from Sept. 2, 1580 (taking oath at Lisbon in April, 1581), to Sept. 13, 1598. See Felipe II of Spain.

Filippe II.—Reigned from Sept. 13, 1598 to Mar. 31, 1621. See Felipe III of Spain.

Filippe III.—Reigned from Mar. 31, 1621 to Nov. 31, 1640. See Felipe IV of Spain.

HOUSE OF BRAGANZA

João IV.—Born March 19, 1604; son of Theodosio II, duke of Braganza, and Ana de Velasco. Married Luiza de Guzmán, Jan. 13, 1633. Reigned from Dec. 1, 1640 until his death, Nov. 6, 1656. Styled "the Fortunate."

Affonso VI.—Born Aug. 21, 1643; son of João IV and Luiza. Married Maria Francesca Isabel of Savoy, in 1666. Compelled to renounce the throne, as incompetent, Nov. 23, 1667. Died at Cintra, Sept. 12, 1683. During his minority, his mother acted as regent (Nov. 6, 1656 to June 22, 1662); during the latter part of his reign, his brother Pedro.

Pedro II.—Born April 26, 1648; son of João IV. Married Maria Francesca Isabel of Savoy, March 27, 1668; Maria Sophia Elizabeth of Bavaria, in 1687. Died Dec. 9, 1706. Regent for Affonso, from Nov. 23, 1667 until the latter's death; king, from Sept. 12, 1683 to Dec. 9, 1706.

João V.—Born at Lisbon, Oct. 22, 1689; son of Pedro II. Married Maria Anna of Austria, July 9, 1708. Reigned from Jan. 1, 1707 until his death, July 31, 1750.

José I.—Born June 6, 1714; son of João V. Married Mariana Victoria, Dec. 27, 1727. Reigned from his father's death until his own, Feb. 24, 1777.

María I.—Born in 1734; daughter of José I. Married Pedro, younger brother of José (and her uncle), in 1760. Died at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1816. Reigned jointly with her husband, Feb. 24, 1777 until his death (1786); but as she became insane, her son João VI acted as regent until her death.

Pedro III.—Reigned jointly with his wife, María I, until his death (1786).

João VI.—Born at Lisbon, May 13, 1769; son of María I and Pedro III. Married Carlotta of Spain. Reigned from Mar. 16, 1816 to March 10, 1826; but had been regent for María since 1799, and had been in charge of the government from March 10, 1792.

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