The Sayings of Lao Tzŭ/Chapter 8
MISCELLANEOUS SAYINGS AND PRECEPTS
By many words wit is exhausted; it is better to preserve a mean.
The excellence of a dwelling is its site; the excellence of a mind is its profundity; the excellence of giving is charitableness; the excellence of speech is truthfulness; the excellence of government is order; the excellence of action is ability; the excellence of movement is timeliness.
He who grasps more than he can hold, would be better without any. If a house is crammed with treasures of gold and jade, it will be impossible to guard them all.
He who prides himself upon wealth and honour hastens his own downfall. He who strikes with a sharp point will not himself be safe for long,
He who embraces unity of soul by subordinating animal instincts to reason will be able to escape dissolution. He who strives his utmost after tenderness can become even as a little child.
If a man is clear-headed and intelligent, can he be without knowledge?
The Sage attends to the inner and not to the outer; he puts away the objective and holds to the subjective.
Between yes and yea, how small the difference! Between good and evil, how great the difference!
What the world reverences may not be treated with disrespect.
He who has not faith in others shall find no faith in them.
To see oneself is to be dear of sight. Mighty is he who conquers himself.
He who raises himself on tiptoe cannot stand firm; he who stretches his legs wide apart cannot walk.
Racing and hunting excite man's heart to madness.
The struggle for rare possessions drives a man to actions injurious to himself.
The heavy is the foundation of the light; repose is the ruler of unrest.
The wise prince in his daily course never departs from gravity and repose. Though he possess a gorgeous palace, he will dwell therein with calm indifference. How should the lord of a myriad chariots conduct himself with levity in the Empire? Levity loses men's hearts; unrest loses the throne.
The skilful traveller leaves no tracks; the skilful speaker makes no blunders; the skilful reckoner uses no tallies. He who knows how to shut uses no bolts—yet you cannot open. He who knows bow to bind uses no cords—yet you cannot undo.
Among men, reject none; among things, reject; nothing. This is called comprehensive intelligence.
The good man is the bad man's teacher; the bad man is the material upon which the good man works. If the one does not value his teacher, if the other does not love his material, I then despite their sagacity they must go far I astray. This is a mystery of great import.
As unwrought material is divided up and made into serviceable vessels, so the Sage turns his simplicity to account, and thereby becomes the ruler of rulers.
The course of things is such that what was in front is now behind; what was hot is now cold; what was strong is now weak; what was complete is now in ruin. Therefore the Sage avoids excess, extravagance, and grandeur.
Which is nearer to you, fame or life? Which is more to you, life or wealth? Which is the greater malady, gain or loss?
Excessive ambitions necessarily entail great sacrifice. Much hoarding must be followed by heavy loss. He who knows when he has enough will not be put to shame. He who knows when to stop will not come to harm. Such a man can look forward to long life.
There is no sin greater than ambition; no calamity greater than discontent; no vice more sickening than covetousness. He who is content always has enough.
Do not wish to be rare like jade, or common like stone.
The Sage has no hard and fast ideas, but he shares the ideas of the people and makes them his own. Living in the world, he is apprehensive lest his heart be sullied by contact with the world. The people all fix their eyes and ears upon him. The Sage looks upon all as his children.
I have heard that he who possesses the secret of life, when travelling abroad, will not flee from rhinoceros or tiger; when entering a hostile camp, he will not equip himself with sword or buckler. The rhinoceros finds in him no place to insert its horn; the tiger has nowhere to fasten its claw; the soldier has nowhere to thrust his blade. And why? Because he has no spot where death can enter.
To see small beginnings is clearness of sight. To rest in weakness is strength.
He who knows how to plant, shall not have his plant uprooted; he who knows how to hold a thing, shall not have it taken away. Sons and grandsons will worship at his shrine, which shall endure from generation to generation.
Knowledge in harmony is called constant. Constant knowledge is called wisdom. Increase of life is called felicity. The mind directing the body is called strength.
Be square without being angular. Be honest without being mean. Be upright without being punctilious. Be brilliant without being showy.
Good words shall gain you honour in the market-place, but good deeds shall gain you friends among men.
To the good I would be good; to the not-good I would also be good, in order to make them good.
With the faithful I would keep faith; with the unfaithful I would also keep faith, in order that they may become faithful.
Even if a man is bad, how can it be right to cast him off?
Requite injury with kindness.
The difficult things of this world must once have been easy; the great things of this world must once have been small. Set about difficult things while they are still easy; do great things while they are still small. The ^ Sage never affects to do anything great, and therefore he is able to achieve his great results.
He who always thinks things easy is sure to find them difficult. Therefore the Sage ever anticipates difficulties, and thus it is he never encounters them.
While times are quiet, it is easy to take action; ere coming troubles have cast their shadows, it is easy to lay plans.
That which is brittle is easily broken; that which is minute is easily dissipated. Take precautions before the evil appears; regulate things before disorder has begun.
The tree which needs two arms to span its girth sprang from the tiniest shoot. Yon tower, nine storeys high, rose from a little mound of earth. A journey of a thousand miles began with a single step.
A great principle cannot be divided; therefore it is that many containers cannot contain it.
The Sage knows what is in him, but makes no display; he respects himself, but seeks not honour for himself.
To know, but to be as though not knowing, is the height of wisdom. Not to know, and yet to affect knowledge, is a vice. If we regard this vice as such, we shall escape it. The Sage has not this vice. It is because he regards it as a vice that he escapes it.
Use the light that is in you to revert to your natural clearness of sight. Then the loss of the body is unattended by calamity. This is called doubly enduring.
In the management of affairs, people constantly break down just when they are nearing a successful issue. If they took as much care at the end as at the beginning, they would not fail in their enterprises.
He who lightly promises is sure to keep but little faith.
He whose boldness leads him to venture, will be slain; he who is brave enough not to venture, will live. Of these two, one has the benefit, the other has the hurt. But who is it that knows the real cause of Heaven's hatred? This is why the Sage hesitates and finds it difficult to act. The violent and stiff-necked die not by a natural death.
True words are not fine; fine words are not true.
The good are not contentious; the contentious are not good.
This is the Way of Heaven, which benefits, and injures not. This is the Way of the Sage, in whose actions there is no element of strife.
- There is a play on the word p'u, simplicity, the original meaning of which is "unwrought material"
- There must always be a due harmony between mind and body, neither of them being allowed to outstrip the other. Under such circumstances, the mental powers will be constant, invariable, always equally ready for use when called upon. And such a mental condition is what Lao Tzŭ here calls "wisdom."
- That is, a principle which applies to the whole applies also to a part. Because you may divide the containing whole, you are not at liberty to divide the principle.