The Story of Mankind

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The Story of Mankind  (1921) 
by Hendrik Willem van Loon

THE STORY OF MANKIND

By HENDRIK VAN LOON, AB. Ph.D.

Author of The Fall of the Dutch Republic, The Rise of the Dutch Kingdom. The Golden Book of the Dutch Navigators, A Short Story of Discovery, Ancient Man.


This book is fully illustrated with eight three-color pages, over one hundred black and white pictures and numerous animated maps and half-tones drawn by the author.

The Story of Mankind - Frontispiece.png

THE SCENE OF OUR HISTORY IS LAID UPON A LITTLE PLANET, LOST IN THE VASTNESS OF THE UNIVERSE.

The Story of Mankind - Title Frame.png

THE STORY OF
MANKIND

BY

HENDRICK VAN LOON

BONI and LIVERIGHT

1921

To JIMMIE

"What is the use of a book without pictures?" said Alice.


The Story of Mankind - ToJimmie.png

FOREWORD

For Hansje and Willem:

When I was twelve or thirteen years old, an uncle of mine who gave me my love for books and pictures promised to take me upon a memorable expedition. I was to go with him to the top of the tower of Old Saint Lawrence in Rotterdam.

And so, one fine day, a sexton with a key as large as that of Saint Peter opened a mysterious door. "Ring the bell," he said, "when you come back and want to get out," and with a great grinding of rusty old hinges he separated us from the noise of the busy street and locked us into a world of new and strange experiences.

For the first time in my life I was confronted by the phenomenon of audible silence. When we had climbed the first flight of stairs, I added another discovery to my limited knowledge of natural phenomena—that of tangible darkness. A match showed us where the upward road continued. We went to the next floor and then to the next and the next until I had lost count and then there came still another floor, and suddenly we had plenty of light. This floor was on an even height with the roof of the church, and it was used as a storeroom. Covered with many inches of dust, there lay the abandoned symbols of a venerable faith which had been discarded by the good people of the city many years ago. That which had meant life and death to our ancestors was here reduced to junk and rubbish. The industrious rat had built his nest among the carved images and the ever watchful spider had opened up shop between the outspread arms of a kindly saint.

The next floor showed us from where we had derived our light. Enormous open windows with heavy iron bars made the high and barren room the roosting place of hundreds of pigeons. The wind blew through the iron bars and the air was filled with a weird and pleasing music. It was the noise of the town below us, but a noise which had been purified and cleansed by the distance. The rumbling of heavy carts and the clinking of horses’ hoofs, the winding of cranes and pulleys, the hissing sound of the patient steam which had been set to do the work of man in a thousand different ways—they had all been blended into a softly rustling whisper which provided a beautiful background for the trembling cooing of the pigeons.

Here the stairs came to an end and the ladders began. And after the first ladder (a slippery old thing which made one feel his way with a cautious foot) there was a new and even greater wonder, the town-clock. I saw the heart of time. I could hear the heavy pulsebeats of the rapid seconds—one—two—three—up to sixty. Then a sudden quivering noise when all the wheels seemed to stop and another minute had been chopped off eternity. Without pause it began again—one—two—three—until at last after a warning rumble and the scraping of many wheels a thunderous voice, high above us, told the world that it was the hour of noon.

On the next floor were the bells. The nice little bells and their terrible sisters. In the centre the big bell, which made me turn stiff with fright when I heard it in the middle of the night telling a story of fire or flood. In solitary grandeur it seemed to reflect upon those six hundred years during which it had shared the joys and the sorrows of the good people of Rotterdam. Around it, neatly arranged like the blue jars in an old-fashioned apothecary shop, hung the little fellows, who twice each week played a merry tune for the benefit of the country-folk who had come to market to buy and sell and hear what the big world had been doing. But in a corner—all alone and shunned by the others—a big black bell, silent and stern, the bell of death.

Then darkness once more and other ladders, steeper and even more dangerous than those we had climbed before, and suddenly the fresh air of the wide heavens. We had reached the highest gallery. Above us the sky. Below us the city—a little toy-town, where busy ants were hastily crawling hither and thither, each one intent upon his or her particular business, and beyond the jumble of stones, the wide greenness of the open country.

It was my first glimpse of the big world.

Since then, whenever I have had the opportunity, I have gone to the top of the tower and enjoyed myself. It was hard work, but it repaid in full the mere physical exertion of climbing a few stairs.

Besides, I knew what my reward would be. I would see the land and the sky, and I would listen to the stories of my kind friend the watchman, who lived in a small shack, built in a sheltered corner of the gallery. He looked after the clock and was a father to the bells, and he warned of fires, but he enjoyed many free hours and then he smoked a pipe and thought his own peaceful thoughts. He had gone to school almost fifty years before and he had rarely read a book, but he had lived on the top of his tower for so many years that he had absorbed the wisdom of that wide world which surrounded him on all sides.

History he knew well, for it was a living thing with him. "There," he would say, pointing to a bend of the river, "there, my boy, do you see those trees? That is where the Prince of Orange cut the dikes to drown the land and save Leyden." Or he would tell me the tale of the old Meuse, until the broad river ceased to be a convenient harbour and became a wonderful highroad, carrying the ships of De Ruyter and Tromp upon that famous last voyage, when they gave their lives that the sea might be free to all.

Then there were the little villages, clustering around the protecting church which once, many years ago, had been the home of their Patron Saints. In the distance we could see the leaning tower of Delft. Within sight of its high arches William the Silent had been murdered and there Grotius had learned to construe his first Latin sentences. And still further away, the long low body of the church of Gouda, the early home of the man whose wit had proved mightier than the armies of many an emperor, the charity-boy whom the world came to know as Erasmus.

Finally the silver line of the endless sea and as a contrast, immediately below us, the patchwork of roofs and chimneys and houses and gardens and hospitals and schools and railways, which we called our home. But the tower showed us the old home in a new light. The confused commotion of the streets and the market-place, of the factories and the workshop, became the well-ordered expression of human energy and purpose. Best of all, the wide view of the glorious past which surrounded us on all sides, gave us new courage to face the problems of the future when we had gone back to our daily tasks.

History is the mighty Tower of Experience, which Time has built amidst the endless fields of bygone ages. It is no easy task to reach the top of this ancient structure and get the benefit of the full view. There is no elevator, but young feet are strong and it can be done.

Here I give you the key that will open the door.

When you return, you too will understand the reason for my enthusiasm.

Hendrik Willem van Loon.

CONTENTS

  1. page
  2. 1.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    3
  3. 2.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    9
  4. 3.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    13
  5. 4.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    17
  6. 5.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    22
  7. 6.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    27
  8. 7.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    29
  9. 8.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32
  10. 9.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  11. 10.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  12. 11.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  13. 12.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
  14. 13.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  15. 14.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  16. 15.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62
  17. 16.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  18. 17.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  19. 18.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  20. 19.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  21. 20.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  22. 21.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  23. 22.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    88
  24. 23.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  25. 24.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  26. 25.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  27. 26.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    124
  28. 27.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    131
  29. 28.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138
  30. 29.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  31. 30.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  32. 31.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  33. 32.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  34. 33.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  35. 34.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    168
  36. 35.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    174
  37. 36.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    184
  38. 37.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    191
  39. 38.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  40. 39.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  41. 40.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    219
  42. 41.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    224
  43. 42.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    241
  44. 43.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    251
  45. 44.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    262
  46. 45.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    279
  47. 46.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    296
  48. 47.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    301
  49. 48.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    308
  50. 49.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    313
  51. 50.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    317
  52. 51.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    323
  53. 52.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    334
  54. 53.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    349
  55. 54.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    361
  56. 55.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    373
  57. 56.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    381
  58. 57.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    402
  59. 58.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    413
  60. 59.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    420
  61. 60.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    427
  62. 61.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    433
  63. 62.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    446
  64. 63.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    456
  65. 64.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    467
  66. 65.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    473
  67. 66.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    475
  68. 67.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    484

LIST OF COLORED PICTURES

  1. The Scene of Our History is Laid Upon a Little Planet, Lost in the Vastness of the Universe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    Frontispiece
  2. facing
    page
  3. Greece
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  4. Rome
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  5. The Norsemen Are Coming
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  6. The Castle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  7. The Medieval World
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  8. A New World
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    238
  9. Buddha Goes into the Mountains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    246
  10. Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    306

LIST OF HALF TONE PICTURES

  1. facing
    page
  2. The Temple
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  3. The Mountain-pass
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  4. The Mediæval Town
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    180
  5. The Cathedral
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220
  6. The Blockhouse in the Wilderness
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    328
  7. Off for Trafalgar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    362
  8. The Modern City
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    404
  9. The Dirigible
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    430

LIST OF PICTURES AND ANIMATED MAPS

  1. page
  2. 1.
    High Up in the North
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  3. 2.
    It Rained Incessantly
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    4
  4. 3.
    The Ascent of Man
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    5
  5. 4.
    The Plants Leave the Sea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    6
  6. 5.
    The Growth of the Human Skull
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    9
  7. 6.
    Pre-history and History
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    11
  8. 7.
    Prehistoric Europe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    15
  9. 8.
    The Valley of Egypt
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    23
  10. 9.
    The Building of the Pyramids
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    25
  11. 10.
    Mesopotamia, the Melting-pot of the Ancient World
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    30
  12. 11.
    A Tower of Babel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  13. 12.
    Nineveh
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35
  14. 13.
    The Holy City of Babylon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36
  15. 14.
    The Wanderings of the Jews
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    39
  16. 15.
    Moses Sees the Holy Land
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  17. 16.
    The Phœnician Trader
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  18. 17.
    The Story of a Word
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  19. 18.
    The Indo-Europeans and Their Neighbours
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  20. 19.
    The Trojan Horse
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
  21. 20.
    Schliemann Digs for Troy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49
  22. 21.
    Mycenæ in Argolis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  23. 22.
    The Ægean Sea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  24. 23.
    The Island-Bridges Between Asia and Europe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  25. 24.
    An Ægean City on the Greek Mainland
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  26. 25.
    The Achæans Take an Ægean City
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  27. 26.
    The Fall of Cnossus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  28. 27.
    Mount Olympus, Where the Gods Lived
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  29. 28.
    A Greek City-State
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    63
  30. 29.
    Greek Society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    67
  31. 30.
    The Persian Fleet is Destroyed Near Mount Athos
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  32. 31.
    The Battle of Marathon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  33. 32.
    Thermopylæ
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    78
  34. 33.
    The Battle of Thermopylæ
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    78
  35. 34.
    The Persians Burn Athens
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  36. 35.
    Carthage
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  37. 36.
    Spheres of Influence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  38. 37.
    How the City of Rome Happened
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  39. 38.
    A Fast Roman Warship
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  40. 39.
    Hannibal Crosses the Alps
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  41. 40.
    Hannibal and the CEF
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    101
  42. 41.
    The Death of Hannibal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  43. 42.
    How Rome Happened
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  44. 43.
    Civilisation Goes Westward
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    107
  45. 44.
    Cæsar Goes West
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    114
  46. 45.
    The Great Roman Empire
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    116
  47. 46.
    The Holy Land
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  48. 47.
    When the Barbarians Got Through With a Roman City
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  49. 48.
    The Invasions of the Barbarians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  50. 49.
    A Cloister
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  51. 50.
    The Goths Are Coming!
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  52. 51.
    The Flight of Mohammed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  53. 52.
    The Struggle Between the Cross and the Crescent
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    143
  54. 53.
    The Holy Roman Empire of German Nationality
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147
  55. 54.
    The Home of the Norsemen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  56. 55.
    The Norsemen Go to Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  57. 56.
    The Normans Look Across the Channel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  58. 57.
    The World of the Norsemen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  59. 58.
    Henry IV at Canossa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    l65
  60. 59.
    The First Crusade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  61. 60.
    The World of the Crusaders
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  62. 61.
    The Crusaders Take Jerusalem
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  63. 62.
    The Crusader's Grave
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173
  64. 63.
    The Castle and the City
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  65. 64.
    The Belfry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    182
  66. 65.
    Gunpowder
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    183
  67. 66.
    The Spreading of the Idea of Popular Sovereignty
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    185
  68. 67.
    The Home of Swiss Liberty
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  69. 68.
    The Abjuration of Philip II
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    189
  70. 69.
    Mediaeval Trade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    199
  71. 70.
    Great Nowgorod
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    202
  72. 71.
    The Hansa Ship
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  73. 72.
    The Mediæval Laboratory
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    209
  74. 73.
    The Renaissance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    210
  75. 74.
    Dante
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    212
  76. 75.
    John Huss
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220
  77. 76.
    The Manuscript and the Printed Book
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    222
  78. 77.
    Marco Polo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    225
  79. 78.
    How the World Grew Larger
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    227
  80. 79.
    The World of Columbus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    230
  81. 80.
    The Great Discoveries. Western Hemisphere
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    233
  82. 81.
    The Great Discoveries. Eastern Hemisphere
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    234
  83. 82.
    Magellan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    237
  84. 83.
    The Three Great Religions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    243
  85. 84.
    The Great Moral Leaders
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    249
  86. 85.
    Luther Translates the Bible
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    257
  87. 86.
    The Inquisition
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    263
  88. 87.
    The Night of St. Bartholomew
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    268
  89. 88.
    Leyden Delivered by the Cutting of the Dikes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    269
  90. 89.
    The Murder of William the Silent
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    270
  91. 90.
    The Armada is Coming!
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    271
  92. 91.
    The Death of Hudson
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    273
  93. 92.
    The Thirty Years War
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    275
  94. 93.
    Amsterdam in 1648
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    277
  95. 94.
    The English Nation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    280
  96. 95.
    The Hundred Years War
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    281
  97. 96.
    John and Sebastian Cabot See the Coast of Newfoundland
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    284
  98. 97.
    The Elizabethan Stage
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    285
  99. 98.
    The Balance of Power
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    299
  100. 99.
    The Origin of Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    303
  101. 100.
    Peter the Great in the Dutch Shipyard
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    308
  102. 101.
    Peter the Great Builds His New Capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    310
  103. 102.
    The Voyage of the Pilgrims
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    318
  104. 103.
    How Europe Conquered the World
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    321
  105. 104.
    Sea Power
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    322
  106. 105.
    The Fight for Liberty
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    323
  107. 106.
    The Pilgrims
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    324
  108. 107.
    How the White Man Settled in North America
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    325
  109. 108.
    In the Cabin of the Mayflower
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    327
  110. 109.
    The French Explore the West
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    328
  111. 110.
    The First Winter in New England
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    329
  112. 111.
    George Washington
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    331
  113. 112.
    The Great American Revolution
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    332
  114. 113.
    The Guillotine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    337
  115. 114.
    Louis XVI
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    339
  116. 115.
    The Bastille
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    342
  117. 116.
    The French Revolution Invades Holland
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    347
  118. 117.
    The Retreat from Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    355
  119. 118.
    The Battle of Waterloo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    358
  120. 119.
    Napoleon Goes Into Exile
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    359
  121. 120.
    The Spectre Which Frightened the Holy Alliance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    364
  122. 121.
    The Real Congress of Vienna
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    367
  123. 122.
    The Monroe Doctrine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    385
  124. 123.
    Giuseppe Mazzini
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    395
  125. 124.
    The First Steamboat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    407
  126. 125.
    The Origin of the Steamboat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    408
  127. 126.
    The Origin of the Automobile
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    409
  128. 127.
    Man-power and Machine-power
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    414
  129. 128.
    The Factory
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    416
  130. 129.
    The Philosopher
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    427
  131. 130.
    Galileo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    429
  132. 131.
    Gothic Architecture
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    437
  133. 132.
    The Troubadour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    442
  134. 133.
    The Pioneer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    447
  135. 134.
    The Conquest of the West
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    451
  136. 135.
    War
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    457
  137. 137.
    Animated Chronology
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    467
  138. 142.
    The End
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    472