The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects/Index

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INDEX.


  • Aceras anthropophora, 26; pollen-tubes, 258
  • —— longibracteata, 26
  • ——, monstrous flowers, 255
  • Acianthus exsertus, 90
  • —— fornicatus, 90, 280
  • —— sinclairii, 90; fertilised by insects, 280
  • Acontia luctuosa with pollen-masses, 31
  • Acropera, pollinia of, 154, 156; upper petals, 276
  • —— loddigesii, 166
  • —— luteola, 166; vessels of, 239
  • Adaptations, how far special, 267; diversity of, 282
  • Aerides, movement of poUinia, 156; secretion of nectar, 265
  • —— cornutun, 265
  • —— odorata, 158
  • —— virens, 156
  • Amici, on number of pollen-grains in Orchis morio, 278
  • Anderson, Mr., on Dendrobium, 142; on the Epidendrea, 147
  • Angræcum, viscid matter in, 251
  • —— distichum, 154
  • —— eburneum, 155
  • —— sesquipedale, 154, 162, 282; nectary of, 265
  • Antennæ of the rostellum of Catasetam, 184, 187
  • Anthers, rudimentary, 240
  • Apostasia, 248
  • Arethuseæ, 80
  • Auricles, or papillæ, rudimentary, 241, 242
 
  • Babington, Prof., on the rostellum, 255
  • Baillon, M., on Catasetum, 191
  • Barkeria, 146.
  • Bateman, Mr., obligations to, 105, 162; on Cycnoches, 224.
  • Battershy, Dr., obligations to, 106
  • Bauer, Mr., on pollen-grains in Cephalanthera, 80, 82; on pollen-masses of Bletia, 143
  • Bee Ophrys, 52
  • Beer, J. G., on Catasetum, 197; on Cyonoches, 224
  • Bees with attached pollinia, 30
  • Belt, Mr., on Angræcum sesquipedale, 165
  • Bentham on monstrous flowers of Orchis pyramidalis, 38
  • Bird's-nest Orchis, 125
  • Bolbophyllum, 274; upper petals, 276
  • —— barbigerum, 138
  • —— cocoinum, 137
  • —— cupreum, 137; nectary of, 265
  • —— rhizophoræ, 137
  • Bonatea speciosa, 71, 76; vessels of, 244; modified structure, 264; caudicle, 361
  • Bond, Mr. F., on moths with attached pollinia, 30; obligations to, 72, 75
  • Bracteæ, secreting nectar, 266
  • Brassia, movement of pollinia, 156
  • Bree, Mr., on seed of Epipactis latifolia, 278
  • Brongniart, M., on secretion of nectar, 41; on Catasetum, 196; spiral vessels in Orchids, 235; on Uropedium, 240
  • Bronn, Prof., on Stanhopea devoniensis, 171; classification of organic beings, 264
  • Brown, C, on Sobralia macrantha, 91
  • ——, Robert, on the fertilisation of Orchids, 3; viscidity of stigma, 13; Ophrys apifera, 54; utriculi of the stigma, 202; homologies of Orchids, 234, 235, 237; rostellum of Orchids, 247; Apostasia, 248; pollen-tubes, 258; Sprengel's work, 275
  • Butterflies with attached polli,ia, 31
  • Butterfly orchis, 69
  • ——, lesser, 73
 
  • Caladenia dimorpha, 89
  • Calæna, 89
  • Calanfhe dominii, 161
  • —— masuca, structure of flower, 161; long nectary, 267, 269
  • —— veratrifolia, 280
  • —— vestita, 162
  • Carpenter, Dr., on Myanthus and Catasetum, 196
  • Catasetidæ, 178
  • Catasetum, peculiar rostellum, 256; labellum, 270
  • —— callosum, 192, 195
    • —— luridum, 191
  • —— mentosum, 206
  • —— planiceps, 193
  • —— saccatum, structure of flower, 180–185; vessels of, 239
  • —— tabulare, 192
  • —— tridentatum, structure of flower, 191; three forms on the same plant, 196; a male orchid, 197; vessels of, 239; peculiar form of rostellum, 256; nectar-receptacle, 269
  • Cattleya, structure of flower, 143–148; vessels of, 239; nectary, 265
  • —— crispa, 147
  • Caudicles of pollinia in the Vandex, 152; development of, 252; structure, 260, 261
  • Cephalanthera, number of seeds, 277
  • —— ensifolia, 86
  • —— grandiflora, structure of flower, 80–86; vessels, 239, 242; change of colour in viscid secretion, 249; pollen, 259; labellum, 269; number of seed, 277; upright position of flower, 287; partially self-fertile, 290
  • Cheeseman, Mr., on Pterostylis trullifolia, 88; Acianthus sinclairii, 90; imperfect fertilisation of Pterostylis, 280
  • Chysis, 146
  • Cirrhæa, contracted stigma, 171
  • Clinandrum, the, 241
  • Cœlogyne cristata, 146
  • Coryanthes, 90, 173; nectary, 232; secretion of nectar, 265
  • —— fieldingii, 175
  • —— macrantha, 175
  • —— speciosa, structure of flower, 174
  • —— triloba, partially self-sterile, 281
  • Crüger, Dr., on the Epidendreæ, 147; Gongora maculata, 168; Stanhopea, 171; Coryanthes, 173; C. macrantha, 175;

Catasetum, 197, 200; female pollen-masses, 202; Selenipedium palmifolium, 232; homologies in Orchids, 235; bees gnawing the labellum, 270

  • Cyonoches egertonianum, 224
  • —— ventricosum, structure of flower, 220–224
  • Cymbidium giganteum, 155; pollinia, 252, 260; modification of form, 263
  • Cypripedium, structure of flower, 226; secretion from, 229; pollen, 262; labellum, 275
  • —— acaule, 229
  • —— barbatum, vessels of, 239
  • —— calceolus, 229–231; fertilised only by small bees, 282
  • —— candidum, 235
  • —— pubescens, 229, 230
  • —— purpuratum, vessels of, 239
  • Cyrtostylis, 90
 
  • Darwin, Francis, on the movement of the awn of Stipa, 273
  • ——, George, insects fertilising Herminium monorchis, 61; Gymnadenia conopsea, 67
  • ——, William, on Epipactis palustris, 99, 100
  • Delpino on insects being deceived by the presence of a nectary not containing nectar, 41; sterility of Spider Ophrys, 50, 51; Cephalanthera ensifolia, 86; movements of pollinia, 155; fertilisation of Cypripedium calceolus, 231; imperfect fertilisation of Ophrys aranifera in Liguria, 280
  • Dendrobium, length of anther, 287
  • —— bigibbum, 142
  • —— cretaceum, 142, 291
  • Dendrobium chrysanthum, structure of, 138–142; nectary, 265
  • —— formosum, 142
  • —— speciosum, partially sterile, 281
  • —— tortile, 142
  • Descent, lines of, 262–265
  • Dickie, Prof., obligations to, 124
  • Disa, secretion of nectar, 265
  • —— cornuta, 78
  • —— grandifiora, 77; partially self-sterile, 281
  • —— macrantha, 78; partially self-fertile, 290
  • Disc, viscidity, of, in the Ophreæ, 43; in Catasetum, 190; double in the Ophreæ, 254; of Gymnadenia conopsea, 272
  • Disperis, secretion of nectar, 265
  • Duchartre, M., on Catasetum and Myanthus, 196
  • Dyer, Mr. Thiselton, obligations to, 175
 
  • Epidendreæ, 142; few seed capsules produced, 281
  • Epidendrwm cochleatum, viscid secretion of, 249
  • —— floribundum, 146; viscid secretion, 249
  • —— glaucum, 146
  • Epipactis, vessels of, 239; viscidmatter, 251
  • —— latifolia, 100, 101; pollen, 259; fertilised only by wasps, 282; use of knob of anther, 287
  • —— microphylla, 102
  • —— palustris, structure of flower, 93–100; labellum, 275
  • —— purpurata, 102
  • —— rubiginosa, 102
  • —— viridiflora, 102; self-fertile, 291
  • Epipogium gmelini, 103
  • Eulophia viridis, 156; nectary of, 269
  • Evelyna, nectary of, 265
  • —— carivata, 146; vessels of, 239; clinandrum, 241
 
  • Farrer, T. H., obligations to, 46; on Bee Ophrys, 55; Peristylis viridis, 63
  • Fertilisation, summary on, 290
  • Fertility of English Orchids 33
  • Fitzgerald, R. D., on Pterostylis longifolia, 89; Caladenia dimorpha, 89; Acianthus fornicatus, and exsertus, 90; Vanilla aromatica, 91; Spiranthes australis, 115; Thelymitra carnea and longifolia, 127; numbers of Orchideæ collected near Sydney, 279; self-fertilisation of Thelymitra carnea, 280; Dendrobium speciosum, 281
  • Flowers, use of external envelopes, 274
  • Fly Ophrys, 46
  • Frog Orchis, structure of flower, 62; secretion of nectar, 63
 
  • Galeandra funkii, 155
  • Gärtner on viscid matter of stigma, 249; pollen-grains in Orchids, 288
  • Gerard, M. M., pollinia adhering to longicorn beetle, 16
  • Glossodia, 237
  • Gongora, labellum of, 276
  • —— atro-purpurea, 169
  • —— maculata, 168
  • —— truncata, 169
  • Goodyera, vessels of, 239; caudicle in a nascent condition, 260
  • —— discolor, 105
  • —— pubescens, 105
  • —— repens, 103, 105
  • Gordon, Rev. G., obligations to, 103
  • Gosse, Mr., on self-fertilised seeds of Epidendreæ, 147, 148
  • Gradation of organs, 247
  • Gray, Prof. Asa, on Gymnadenia tridentata, 68; Platanthera, 75; Goodyera repens, 105; Spiranthes gracilis and cernua; 111; Cypripedium, 229, 230, 235
  • Gymnadenia, viscid matter, 251
  • —— albida, 43, 68
  • —— conopsea, transplanted, 32; secretion of nectar, 40, 43; structure of flower, 65; vessels, 238, 239; rostellum, 255; movements of pollinia, 271; disc, 272
  • —— odoratissima, 68
  • —— tridentata, 68; self-fertile, 291
 
  • Habenaria bifolia, 78; secretion of nectar, 40, 43; viscid matter, 251
  • Habenaria chlorantha, 43, 69; vessels of, 239, 244; viscidity of exterior surface, 251
  • Hance, Dr., on Catasetum, 197
  • Herbert, Dean, on Catasetum luridum and Myanthus, 196
  • Herminium monorchis, 59; fertilised by insects, 61; rostellum, 255
  • Hildebrand, F., on the ovules in Orchids, 172
  • Homologies of Orchids, 232
  • Hooker, Dr., on Listera, 3, 115; labellum of Calæna, 89; obligations to, 115, 128, 244; spiral vessels in Orchids, 235; variability of the labellum of Orchids, 238; on the rostellum, 254
  • Horwood, Mr., assistance from, 129
 
  • Insects, frequency of visits to Orchids, 33; attracted by bright colours, 275
  • Irmisch on Epipogium, 103; Neottia nidus-avis, 125; flower-bud of Cypripedium, 240
 
  • Krünitz, secretion of nectar by Orchis, 36
  • Kurr, on Orchids secreting nectar, 38; secretion from hairs in Cypripedium calceolus, 229; nectar secreted from bracteæ, 266
 
  • Labellum easily vibratile, 138; cup of, not secreting nectar in the Vandeæ, 269; excrescences on, 269; gnawed by insects, 270; its importance to the flower, 275; of Sarcanthus, 276
  • Ladies' slipper, 227
  • —— tresses, 106
  • Lælia, 146
  • —— cinnabarina, 148
  • Lepidoptera with attached pollinia, 30, 31
  • Leptotes, 146
  • Lindley, Dr., obligations to, 129; arrangement of Orchids, 128; on forms of Catasetum, 197; of Cycnoches, 224; homologies of Orchids, 235; on the number of genera and species, 279
  • Link on homologies of Orchids, 235, 238
  • Liparis pendula, vessels of, 239; clinandrum, 241
  • Listera, viscid matter, 251; crest of rostellum, 287
  • —— cordata, 124
  • —— ovata, structure of, 115–124; labellum, 276
  • Lycaste skinnerii, 155; pollen of 260
 
  • Malaxeæ, 128
  • Malaxis, viscid matter, 251; upper petals, 276
  • —— paludosa, transplanted, 32; structure of flower, 129–135; vessels, 239, 241; clinandrum, 241; pollen-tubes, 258; position of labellum affected by ovarium, 284
  • Malden, Rev. B. S., obligations to, 35, 64
  • Male flowers of Catasetum, 198
  • Marantaceæ, 238
  • Marshall, Mr., on sterility of transplanted Orchids, 32; Habenaria chlorantha, 72,
  • Masdevallia, clinandrum of, 241; sepals, 274; upper petals, 276
  • —— fenestrata, 135, 136, 142
  • Maxillaria, movements of pollinia, 156; number of pollen-grains in anther, 278
  • —— ornithorhyncha, movement of pollinia, 157, 159
  • Megaclinium falcatum, labellum of, 138
  • Ménière M., on insects visiting Orchids, 30; secretion of nectar by Coryanthes, 173; movement of Catasetum, 187, 191; the nectar-receptacle, 269
  • Microstylus rhedii, 132, 135
  • Miltonia clowesii, pollinia of, 154, 155
  • Modifioations in Orchids, 246
  • Moggridge, J. Traherne, on Ophrys scolopax, 52, 292; Ophrys apifera, 56, 58, 59; flowering of the Ophreæ, 59
  • Monaohanthus viridis, 196, 197, 198, 201
  • More, Mr. A. G., on fertility of Bee Ophrys, 55; Epipactis palustris, 39, 97, 99; obligations to, 106
  • Mormodes ignea, structure of flower, 208–219; viscid secretion, 249; use of labellum, 276, 283
  • —— luxata, 219
  • Morren, on Vanilla aromatica, 91
  • Moths with attached pollinia, 21, 30, 31; intellect of, 37
  • Movements of pollinia, 271
  • Müller, Fritz, on Epidendreæ, 148; pollinium of Ornithocephalus, 159, 160; Sphinx moth, 163; contracted stigma, 171, 172; ovules of Epidendreæ and Vandeæ, 173; Catasetum mentosum, 206; bracteæ of the Oncidium secreting nectar, 266; labellum gnawed by insects 271; number of seeds in capsule of Maxillaria, 278; number of Orchideæ in South Brazil, 279; the orchideous tribes failing to be fertilised, 280; prepotency of pollen, 289
  • ——, Hermann, on fertilisation of Orchis mascula, 13; bees visiting the flowers of Orchis latifolia, 16; Nigritella angustifolia, 27; fertilisation of Orchids, 29; insects puncturing laburnum flowers, 41; Gymnadenia odoratissima, 68; Habenaria bifolia and chlorantha, 74; Epipactis rubiginosa, microphylla, and viridiflora, 102; Neottia nidus-avis, 125; Cypripedium calceolus, 231; secretion of nectar, 267
  • Musk Orchis, structure of flower, 59
  • Myanthus barbatus, 192, 199, 203; quite sterile, 205
 
  • Nectar, secretion of, by British Ophreæ, 37, 39; in foreign Orchids, 229; from bracteæ, 229
  • Nectary cut off to test the intellect of moths, 37; length of, in Angræcum sesquipedale, 265
  • Neotinia intacta, 27, 291
  • Neotteæ, 93; vessels of, 241
  • Neottia nidus-avis, 125; pollen-tubes, 258; partially self-fertile, 290
  • Nevill, Lady Dorothy, obligations to, 129
  • Nicotiana, stigma of, 249
  • Nigritella angustifolia, 27
  • Notylia, contracted stigma, 171
 
  • Odontoglossum, 156
  • Oliver, Prof., obligations to, 129
  • Oncidium, pollinia, 153, 156, 158; vessels of, 239; viscidity, 251; bracteæ secreting nectar, 266
  • —— unguiculatum, development of caudicles, 252
  • Ophreæ, 6; vessels of, 241
  • Ophrys apifera, structure of flower, 52; fertility of, 54–58; pollen, 259; self-fertilisation, 279, 291
  • —— arachnites, 51
  • —— aranifera, 50; imperfect fertilisation, 280
  • —— muscifera, transplanted, 32; structure, 45; fertility, 49; self-sterile, imperfectly fertilised by insects, 280
  • —— scolopax, 52, 292
  • Orchideæ, modifications in, 246
  • Orchis fusca, 15; imperfect fertilisation, 35; secretion of nectar, 37
  • —— hircina, 25; nectary, 39; movement of pollinia, 273
  • —— latifolia, 15; imperfect fertilisation, 35; secretion of nectar, 37; two distinct discs, 255
  • —— maculata, 15, 34; transplanted, 32; imperfect fertilisation, 35: secretion of nectar, 37, 39; two distinct discs, 255; rostellum, 255; number of seeds, 277, 278;
  • Orchis mascula, structure of flower, 6; movement of pollinia, 273; number of pollen-grains, 278
  • —— militaris, sterility of, 36; secretion of nectar, 37
  • —— morio, 15, 128; fertility of, in cold season, 33; secretion of nectar, 37, 39; number of pollen-grains, 278
  • —— pyramidalis, structure of flower, 16; movements of pollinia, 21, 272, 273; fertility in different stations, 84; secretion of nectar, 37, 39; monstrous flowers, 38; single disc, 254; rostellum, 256; pollen-grains, 260, 261; contrivances for its fertilisation, 264
  • —— ustulata, 25
  • Organs, gradation of, 247
  • Ornithocephalus, 160
  • Ovaria of Orchids, 284
  • Oxenden, Mr. G. C, obligations to, 25; on Epipactis purpurata, 102
 
  • Parfitt, Mr., on attached pollinia, 31
  • Parker, Mr. R., obligations to, 129
  • Pedicel of pollinium, 253; elasticity of, 283
  • Percy, Dr., analysis of labellum of Warrea, 270
  • Peristylus viridis, secretion of nectar, 43, 63; rostellum, 255
  • Petals, uses of, 274
  • Phaius, 146
  • —— grandifolius, 280
  • Phalanopsis, viscidity of stigma, 153; movement of pollinia, 159; labellum, 276
  • —— amabilis, 159
  • —— grandiflora, 159; projection of labellum, 269
  • Platanthera, 75
  • —— chlorantha, 69
  • —— dilatata, 77
  • —— flava, 76, 77
  • —— hookeri, 75
  • —— hyperborea, 76; self-fertile, 291
  • Pleurothallis ligulata, 135
  • —— prolifera, 135
  • Pogonia ophioglossoides, 86
  • Pollen-masses, rudimentary in Monochanthus, 201; gradation of, 257, 288
  • Pollen-tubes emitted from anther, 258
  • Pollinia, movements of, in Orchis mascula, 12–15; in O. pyramidalis, 21; of the Vandeæ, 154; of Catasetum, ejection of, 184; attachment to rostellum, 251; gradation, 257; movements, 271
  • Pterostylis, nectary of, 232
  • —— longiflora, 87, 89
  • —— trullifolia, 86, 88; imperfect fertilisation in New Zealand, 280
 
  • Rodgers, Mr., obligations to, 129; on Myanthus and Monochanthus, 196; secretion of nectar in Orchids, 265; in Vanilla, 266
  • Rodriguezia secunda, 159
  • —— suaveolens, movement of pollinia, 156, 159
  • Rohrbach, Dr., on Epipogium gmelini, 103
  • Rostellum, a single organ in the Ophreæ, 45; of the Vandeæ, 150; aborted, 242; gradation of, 247; of Apostasia, 248; diversity of structure, 250; crest of, in the Ophreæ, 255; in Catasetum, 256
  • Rucker, Mr., obligations to, 129, 180, 192, 208
 
  • Saccolabium, viscidity of stigma, 153, 156
  • Saint-Hilaire, A. de, on pollen of Orchids, 259
  • Sarcanthus, labellum of, 276
  • —— parishii, 142
  • —— teretifolius, pollinia of, 154, 156; viscidity, 268
  • Scheinsaftblumen, 37
  • Schomburgk, Sir R., on Catasetum, 196
  • Scott, Mr., on flowers of Acropera, 168, 172; of Gongora, 169; nectar-receptacle, 269; number of seeds in capsule of Acropera, 278; prepotency of pollen, 289
  • Scudder, Mr., on Pogonia ophioglossoides, 86
  • Secretion of nectar, 36, 229, 265
  • Seeds, production and number of, 276, 277
  • Selenipedium palmifolium, 232
  • Self-fertilisation, summary on, 293
  • Sepals, uses of, 274
  • Serapias cordigera, 27
  • Sexes of Orchids, 196
  • Smith, Sir James, on position of flowers in Malaxis, 129
  • ——, Mr. G. E., on bees visiting the Bee Ophrys, 55
  • Sobralia macrantha, 91
  • Sophronitis, 146
  • Spider Ophrys, 50
  • Spiranthes australis, 114; labellum, 275; self-fertile, 291
  • —— autumnalis, structure of flower, 106–114; vessels of, 239
  • —— cernua, 111
  • —— gracilis, 111
  • Sprengel, C. K., on fertilisation of Orchis militaris, 36; secretion of nectar by Orchis, 36; on Epipactis latifolia, 101; Listera, 115, 123; colours attracting insects, 275; value of his work, 275
  • Stamens in Orchids, 242
  • Stanhopea, pollinia of, 155; labellum, 276
  • —— devoniensis, 171
  • —— oculata, 171
  • Stelis, use of the sepals, 274
  • —— racemiflora, 135
  • Sterility of English Orchids, 35
  • Stigma, viscidity of, in the Vandeæ, 152; utriculi, 197; gradation, 248; structure, 249
  • Stipa, movements of, 273
  • Structure, diversity of, 282, 285
  • Structure, importance of trifling details, 286, 287
 
  • Thelymitra, self-fertile, 291
  • —— carnea, 127; self-fertile, 280
  • —— longiflora, 127
  • Thomson, R. B., on Goodyera repens, 105
  • Tilley, H. A., on Vanilla aromatica, 91
  • Trevelyan, Sir C., on Bombus with attached pollen-masses from Cattleya, 145
  • Treviranus on the secretion of nectar, 41; on Bee Ophrys, 56
  • Trimen, R., obligations to, 40; on Bonatea speciosa, 76, 77; Disa grandiflora, 77, 78
  • Turnbull, Mr., obligations to, 129
  • Tway-blade, 115
 
  • Uropedium, 240
  • Utriculli of stigma, 197, 218
 
  • Vandeæ, 156
  • ——, structure of, 149; pollinia, 253, 258
  • Vanilla aromatica, 90
  • Vanillideæ, 90; few seed capsules produced, 281
  • Veitch, Mr. J., obligations to, 129, 180, 220
  • Vessels, spiral, of Orchids, 235
  • Viscidity of disc in British Ophreæ, 35; in Catasetum, 190
  • —— of rostellum and stigma, 248, 249
 
  • Waetcher on fertilisation of the Orchids, 2
  • Walker, Mr. F., obligations to, 100
  • Wallis, Mr., obligations to, 129
  • Warrea, 155; analysis of labellum, 270
  • Weale, J. Mansell, on Habenaria, 76; Bonatea, 77; Disa and Disperis, 78; Disa macrantha, 290
  • Weddell, Dr., on hybrids of Aceras, 26
  • Wright, Mr. C, on the movement of pollinia, 156
 
  • Zygopetalum mackai, 155