The World Factbook (1982)/Chad

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Chad.jpg
(See reference map VII)


1,284,640 km2; 17% arable, 35% pastureland, 2% forest and scrub, 46% other uses and waste

Land boundaries: 5,987 km


Population: 4,852,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.3%; this estimate does not take into account migration between Cameroon and from Chad during recent years

Nationality: noun—Chadian(s); adjective—Chadian

Ethnic divisions: some 200 distinct ethnic groups, including Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Fulani, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Mayo-Kebbi, and Chari) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, 3,000 of them French

Religion: about half Muslim, 5% Christian, remainder animist

Language: French official; Chadian Arabic is lingua franca in north, Sara and Sangho in south

Literacy: estimated 5%-10%

Labor force: only 55% of population in economically active group, of which 90% are engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and fishing; 50,000 wage earners in industry and civil service

Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force


Official name: Republic of Chad

Type: republic; transitional Government of National Unity

Capital: N'Djamena

Political subdivisions: 14 prefectures

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; constitution adopted 1962; constitution suspended and National Assembly dissolved April 1975; judicial review of legislative acts in theory a power of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 13 April

Branches: presidency; Council of Ministers

Government leaders: President GOUKOUNI Weddeye; Vice President Lt. Col KAMOUGUE Wadal Abdel Kader; Minister of Defense Adoum TOGOI; Foreign Minister ACYL Ahmat

Suffrage: universal

Elections: none planned pending OAU efforts to encourage reconciliation among Chad's feuding factions

Political parties and leaders: political parties banned

Communists: no front organizations or underground party; probably a few Communists and some sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: the development of a stable government will be hampered by prolonged tribal and regional antagonisms of the numerous factions now ruling Chad and by insurgent forces of rebel leader Hissein Habre

Member of: AFDB, CEAO, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EEC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, ISCON, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


GDP: $500 million (1980), $109 per capita; estimated real annual growth rate 0.6% (1971-81)

Agriculture: commercial—cotton, gum arabic, livestock, fish; food crops—peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, dates; imports food

Fishing: catch 70,000 metric tons (1978 est.)

Major industries: agricultural and livestock processing plants (cotton textile mill, slaughterhouses, brewery), natron

Electric power: 38,000 kW capacity (1980); 63 million kWh produced (1980), 13 kWh per capita

Exports: $90.5 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); cotton 80%, livestock and animal products

Imports: $179.6 million (f.o.b., 1978 est); cement, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery, textiles, and motor vehicles

Major trade partners: France (about 40% in 1973) and UDEAC countries; preferential tariffs to EC and franc zone countries

Budget: (1978 est.) public revenue $67.4 million, current revenue $89.0 million

Monetary conversion rate: 212.72 Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) francs=US$1 (1979)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: none

Highways: 27,505 km total; 242 km bituminous, 4,385 km gravel and laterite, and remainder unimproved

Inland waterways: approximately 2,000 km navigable

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 65 total, 61 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; satellite ground station; 5,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM and no FM stations; most facilities inoperative


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,093,000; 565,000 fit for military service; about 46,000 reach military age (20) annually

Supply: primarily dependent on France

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $22.2 million; about 33% of total budget