The World Factbook (1982)/El Salvador

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
El Salvador

EL SALVADOR[edit]

World Factbook (1982) El Salvador.jpg
(See reference map III)

LAND[edit]

21,400km2; 32% cropland (9% corn, 5% cotton, 7% coffee, 11% other), 26% meadows and pastures, 31% nonagricultural, 11% forested

Land boundaries: 515 km

WATER[edit]

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm

Coastline: 307 km

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 4,617,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate -2.4%

Nationality: noun—Salvadoran(s); adjective—Salvadoran

Ethnic divisions: 92% mestizo; Indian and white minorities, 4% each at most

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic, probably 97%-98%

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 50% literacy in urban areas, 30% in rural areas

Labor force: 1.7 million (est. 1982); 50% agriculture, 14% manufacturing and construction, 7% commerce, 29% public and private services; shortage of skilled labor and large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training programs improving situation

Organized labor: 8% total labor force; 10% agricultural labor force; 7% urban labor force (1982)

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Republic of El Salvador

Type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Political subdivisions: 14 departments

Legal system: based on Spanish law, with traces of common law; constitution adopted 1962; military coup on 15 October 1979; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of El Salvador; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September

Branches: Constituent Assembly elected on 28 March 1982 (60 seats)

Government leaders: military/civilian junta composed of José Napoleón DUARTE (President), Army Col. Jaime Abdul GUTIERREZ (Vice President), José Antonio MORALES Ehrlich, Dr. Ramón AVALOS Navarrete

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: 28 March 1982 Constituent Assembly election; Constituent Assembly to write new constitution and appoint new provisional government until scheduled presidential elections in 1983

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Julio Samayoa; National Conciliation Party (PCN), Raul Molina; Democratic Action (AD), Rene Fortin Magaña; Salvadoran Popular Party (PPS), Francisco Quiftonez; Popular Orientation Party (POP), Gen. José Alberto Medrano; National Republican Alliance (ARENA), Maj. Roberto D'Aubuisson; Renovative Action Party (PAR), Ernesto Oyarbide

Voting strength: PDC 24 seats, ARENA 19 seats, PNC 14 seats, AD 2 seats, POP seats, and PPS 1 seat; ACAN-EFE Coalition (composed of ARENA, PCN, AD, POP, and PPS) controls 36 of 60 seats

Leftist revolutionary movement (Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front—FMLN): armed insurgents—Unified Revolutionary Directorate (DRU; alliance of guerrilla groups), Farabundo Marti Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of the National Resistance (FARN), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Communist Party of El Salvador/Liberation Armed Forces (PCES/FAL), and Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC); militant front organizations—Revolutionary Coordinator of Masses (CRM; alliance of front groups), Popular Revolutionary Bloc (BPR), Unified Popular Action Front (FAPU), 28 February Popular Leagues (LP-28), National Democratic Union (UDN), and Popular Liberation Movement (MLP); revolutionary coalition—Revolutionary Democratic Front (FDR), coalition of CRM and Democratic Front (FD), controlled by DRU; FD consists of moderate leftist groups—Independent Movement of Professionals and Technicians of El Salvador (MIPTES), National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and Popular Social Christian Movement (MPSC)

Extreme rightist vigilante organizations: National Democratic Organization (ORDEN), White Warriors Union (UGB), Death Squadron (EM), Mano Blanca (MANO), Organization for Liberation from Communism (OLC)

Labor organizations: Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; General Confederation of Trade Unions (CGS); United Confederation of Workers (CUT), leftist; Popular Democratic Unity (UPD), moderate political pressure group headed by FESINCONSTRANS, UCS, and other democratic labor organizations

Business organizations: National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive Alliance (AP), moderate; National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), moderate

Member of: Central American Common Market (CACM), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY[edit]

GDP: $3.5 billion (1980), $667 per capita; 83% private consumption, 17% government consumption, 24% gross domestic investment; -24% net foreign balance; real growth rate, -10.0% (1980) Agriculture: main crops—coffee, cotton, corn, sugar, rice, beans; caloric intake, 2,051 calories per day per capita (1977); protein intake 51 grams per day per capita (1974)

Fishing: catch 5,487 metric tons (1978)

Major industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, petroleum products

Electric power: 480,000 kW capacity (1981); 1.3 billion kWh produced (1981), 266 kWh per capita

Exports: $969 million (f.o.b., 1980); coffee, cotton, sugar

Imports: $907 million (c.i.f., 1980); machinery, automotive vehicles, petroleum, foodstuffs, fertilizer

Major trade partners: exports—32% US, 22% CACM, 33% EC, 13% other (1977); imports—28% US, 24% CACM, 14% EC, 8% Japan, 26% other (1979)

Aid: economic—authorized from US, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $149 million; ODA and OOF committed by other Western countries (1970-79), $71 million; military—from US (FY70-80), $16 million

Budget: (1980) $412 million current revenues, $569 million expenditures

Monetary conversion rate: 2.5 colones=US$1 (official)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads: 602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single tracked

Highways: 10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Lempa River partially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 1,051 km; refined products 431 km; natural gas 365 km

Ports: 2 major (Acajutla, La Unión), 1 minor

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 158 total, 146 usable; 5 with permanent-surfaced runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: nationwide trunk radio-relay system; connection into Central American microwave net; 70,000 telephones (1.5 per 100 popl.); 60 AM, 9 FM, and 5 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean Satellite station

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,057,000; 673,000 fit for military service; 55,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $133.9 million; central government budget unknown