The World Factbook (1982)/Finland

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Finland.jpg
(See reference map V)


336,700 km2; 8% arable, 58% forested, 34% other

Land boundaries: 2,534 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm; fishing 12 nm; Aland Islands, 3 nm

Coastline: 1,126 km (approx.) excludes islands and coastal indentations


Population: 4,816,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.4%

Nationality: noun—Finn(s); adjective—Finnish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population, small Lappish minority

Religion: 93% Evangelical Lutheran, 1% Greek Orthodox, 1% other, 5% no affiliation

Language: Finnish 92%, Swedish 7%; small Lapp-and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 2.1 million; 11.7% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 26.1% mining and manufacturing, 7.0% construction, 14.3% commerce, 7.8% transportation and communications, 5.6% banking and finance, 25.5% services; 4.6% unemployed (1979 average)

Organized labor: 60% of labor force


Official name: Republic of Finland

Type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Political subdivisions: 12 provinces; 443 communes, 78 towns

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; constitution adopted 1919; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; legal education at Universities of Helsinki and Turku; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December

Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with President and parliament (Eduskunta); executive power vested in President and exercised through coalition Cabinet responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, four superior courts, 193 lower courts

Government leaders: President Mauno KOIVISTO; Prime Minister Kalevi SORSA

Suffrage: universal, 18 years and over; not compulsory

Elections: parliamentary, every four years (last in 1979); presidential, every six years (President Koivisto elected to six-year term in January 1982)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Kalevi Sorsa; Center, Paavo Vayrynen; Peoples Democratic League (Communist front), Kalevi Kivisto; Conservative, lllka Suominen; Liberal, Jaakko Itala; Swedish Peoples Party, Par Stenback; Rural, Pekka Vennamo; Finnish People's Unity Party, Anssi Keski-Vahala; Finnish Communist Party, Aarne Saarinen; Finnish Christian League, Raino Westerholm; Constitutional Right, Georg Ehrnrooth

Voting strength (1979 parliamentary election): 23.9% Social Democratic, 21.6% Conservative, 17.8% Peoples Democratic League, 17.4% Center, 4.8% Christian League, 4.6% Finnish Rural Party, 4.6% Swedish Peoples, 3.7% Liberal Peoples, 1.2% Constitutional Peoples, 0.3% Finnish Peoples Unity Party, 0.1% Socialist Workers Party

Communists: 43,000; an additional 65,000 persons belong to Peoples Democratic League; a further number of sympathizers, as indicated by 517,198 votes cast for Peoples Democratic League in 1979 elections

Member of: ADB, CEMA (special cooperation agreement), DAC, EC (free trade agreement), EFTA (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IFAD,IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG


GNP: $40.3 billion (1980), $8,476 per capita; 57% consumption, 24% investment, 19% government; 3% net exports of goods and services; 1978 growth rate 7.2% (constant prices)

Agriculture: animal husbandry, especially dairying, predominates; forestry important secondary occupation for rural population; main crops — cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient; shortages—food and fodder grains; caloric intake 2,940 calories per day per capita (1970-71)

Major industries: include metal manufacturing and ship-building, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper), copper refining

Shortages: fossil fuels; industrial raw materials, except wood, and iron ore

Crude steel: 2.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 480 kg per capita

Electric power: 11,100,000 kW capacity (1980); 38.5 billion kWh produced (1980), 8,050 kWh per capita

Exports: $14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1980); timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, iron and steel, clothing and footwear

Imports: $15.6 billion (c.i.f., 1980); foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics

Major trade partners: (1979) 38% EC-nine (12% West Germany, 11% UK); 17% USSR, 15% Sweden; 5% US

Aid: donor—bilateral economic aid commitments (ODA), $290 million (1970-79)

Budget: (1979) expenditures $10.88 billion, revenues $9.61 billion

Monetary conversion rate: Finnmark (Fim) 3.7301=US$1 (1980 average, IMF)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 6,038 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total 6,010 km 1.524-meter gauge, 477 km multiple track, and 608 km electrified; 22 km 0.750-meter gauge and 6 km 1.524-meter gauge are privately owned

Highways: about 73,552 km total in national classified network, including 31,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete, bituminous-treated surface) and 42,552 km unpaved (stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); additional 29,440 km of private (state subsidized) roads

Inland waterways: 6,597 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas, 161 km

Ports: 11 major, 14 minor

Civil air: 40 major transport

Airfields: 173 total, 173 usable; 43 with permanent-surface runways; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good telecom service from cable and radio-relay network; 2.24 million telephones (47.0 per 100 popl.); 15 AM, 87 FM, and 143 TV stations; 3 submarine cables


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,289,000; 1,092,000 fit for military service; 36,000 reach military age (17) annually Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $750 million; about 5.3% of proposed central government budget