The World Factbook (1982)/Mexico

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Mexico.jpg
(See reference map II)


1,978,800 km2; 12% cropland, 40% pasture, 22% forested, 26% other (including waste, urban areas and public lands)

Land boundaries: 4,220 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; 200 nm exclusive economic zone)

Coastline: 9,330 km


Population: 71,330,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.4%

Nationality: noun—Mexican(s); adjective—Mexican

Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo, 30% Indian or predominantly Indian, 9% white or predominantly white, 1% other

Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 3% other

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 65% estimated; 84% claimed officially

Labor force: 18.0 million (1978) (defined as those 12 years of age and older); 33.0% agriculture, 16.0% manufacturing, 16.6% services, 16.8% construction, utilities, commerce, and transport, 3% government, 5.4% unspecified activities; 10% unemployed, 40% underemployed

Organized labor: 20% of total labor force


Official name: United Mexican States

Type: federal republic operating in fact under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Political subdivisions: 31 states and the Federal District

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; constitution established in 1917; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September

Branches: dominant executive, bicameral legislature, Supreme Court

Government leader: President Jose LOPEZ PORTILLO y Pacheco

Suffrage: universal over age 18; compulsory but unenforced

Elections: presidential election July 1982

Political parties and leaders: Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Pedro Ojeda Paullada; National Action Party (PAN), Abel Vincencio Tovar; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Jorge Cruickshank García; Authentic Party of the Revolution (PARM), Jesús Guzmán Rubío; Mexican Democratic Party (PDM), Gumersindo Magaña; Socialist Workers Party (PST), Rafael Aguilar Talamantes; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Ernesto Sanchez Aguilar; Revolutionary Pary of the Workers (PRT), Rosario Ibarra de Piedra; Mexican People's Party (PPM), Alejandro Gascón Mercado; Socialist Revolutionary Party (PSR), Roberto Jaramillo Gonzales; Mexican Workers Party (PMT), Heberto Castillo; Socialist Action and Unity Movement (MAUS), Miguel Velasco; Mexican Communist Party (PCM), Arnoldo Martínez Verdugo; in November 1981 the PCM, MAUS, PPM, PSR, and the Popular Action Movement (MAP) merged to form the United Socialist Party of Mexico (PSUM)

Voting strength: 1979 congressional election: 69.8% PRI; 11% PAN; 5.1% PCM; 8.1% other opposition; 5.9% annulled

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO), National Confederation of Campesinos (CNC), National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP), Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC)

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, LAFTA, NAMUCAR (Caribbean Multinational Shipping Line—Naviera Multinacional del Caribe), OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GDP: $170 billion (1980), $2,520 per capita; 67% private consumption, 12% public consumption, 13% private investment, 12% public investment (1979); net foreign balance -4%; real growth rate 1980, 8.3%

Agriculture: main crops—corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, sorghum, oilseeds, pulses, and vegetables; general self-sufficiency with minor exceptions in meat and dairy products; caloric intake, 2,700 calories per day per capita (1975)

Fishing: catch 1,257,129 metric tons (1980); exports valued at $429 million, imports at $22.9 million (1980)

Major industries: processing of food, beverages, and tobacco; chemicals, basic metals and metal products, petroleum products, mining, textiles and clothing, and transport equipment

Crude steel: 9.8 million metric tons capacity (1980); 7.2 million metric tons produced (1980)

Electric power: 14,320,000 kW capacity (1981); 60.0 billion kWh produced (1981), 769 kWh per capita

Exports: $15,308 million (f.o.b., 1980); cotton, coffee, nonferrous minerals (including lead and zinc), sugar, shrimp, petroleum, sulfur, salt, cattle and meat, fresh fruit, tomatoes, machinery and equipment

Imports: $18,572 million (c.i.f., 1980); machinery, equipment, industrial vehicles, and intermediate goods

Major trade partners: exports—62% US, 14% EC, 4% Japan (1980); imports—65% US, 19% EC, 5% Japan

Aid: economic—(including Ex-Im Credits) extensions (FY70-80) from US, $1,673.0 million; (1970-79) from Communist countries, $35.0 million; from other Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF (1970-79), $1,956.0 million

Budget: 1980 public sector, revenues $58.1 billion, expenditures $66.9 billion

Monetary conversion rate: floating; 22.951 pesos=US$1 (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 20,270 km total; 19,380 km standard gauge (1.435 m); 890 km narrow gauge (0.914 m); 20 km electrified; 20,160 km government owned, 110 km privately owned

Highways: 213,190 km total; 66,375 km paved, 119,050 km otherwise improved, 27,765 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,910 km; refined products, 3,490 km; natural gas, 5,710 km

Ports: 12 major, 19 minor

Civil air: 134 major transport aircraft, including 6 leased in

Airfields: 2,196 total, 2,060 usable; 164 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m, 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 291 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed telecom system with extensive radio-relay links; connection into Central American microwave net; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite ground station; 3.71 million telephones (5.6 per 100 popl.); 574 AM, 109 FM, and 83 TV stations; and about 100 low-power relay stations; second satellite station planned


Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,358,000; 12,971,000 fit for military service; reach military age (18) annually, 810,000

Military budget: for year ending 31 December 1981, $1,656.0 million; 2.3% of central government budget