The World Factbook (1982)/Mongolia

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World Factbook (1982) Mongolia.jpg
(See reference map VIII)


1,564,619 km2; almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert wasteland, varying in usefulness, less than 1% arable, 10% forested

Land boundaries: 8,000 km


Population: 1,759,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.8%

Nationality: noun—Mongolian(s); adjective—Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other

Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

Literacy: about 80%

Labor force: primarily agricultural, over half the population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of Mongolian women; shortage of skilled labor (no reliable information available)


Official name: Mongolian People's Republic

Type: Communist state

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Political subdivisions: 18 provinces and 2 autonomous municipalities (Ulaanbaatar and Darhan)

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; new constitution adopted 1960; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Ulaanbaatar State University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July

Branches: constitution provides for a People's Great Hural (national assembly) and a highly centralized administration

Party and government leaders: Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal, First Secretary of the MPRP and Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural; Jambyn Batmonh, Chairman of the Council of Ministers

Suffrage: universal; age 18 and over

Elections: national assembly elections theoretically held every four years; last election held June 1977

Political party: Mongolian People's Revolutionary (Communist) Party (MPRP); estimated membership, 67,000 (1976)



Agriculture: livestock raising predominates; main crops—wheat, oats, barley

Industries: processing of animal products; building materials; mining

Electric power: 452,500 kW capacity (1981); 1.56 billion kWh produced (1981), 905 kWh per capita

Exports: beef for slaughter, meat products, wool, fluor-spar, other minerals

Imports: machinery and equipment, petroleum, clothing, building materials, sugar, and tea

Major trade partners: nearly all trade with Communist countries (approx. 85% with USSR); total turnover about $1.0 billion (1977)

Aid: heavily dependent on USSR

Monetary conversion rate: 3.11 tugriks=US$1 (June 1978); arbitrarily established

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,585 km (1979); all broad gauge (1.524 m)

Highways: 83,280 km total; 400 km concrete, asphalt; 9,920 km crushed stone, gravel; 72,960 km earth (1975)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1979)

Freight carried: rail—9.0 million metric tons, 3,126 million metric ton/km (1979); highway—20.3 million metric tons, 1,342 million metric ton/km (1979); waterway—0.04 million metric tons, 5.4 million metric ton/km (1979)


Military manpower: males 15-49, 396,000; 259,000 fit for military service; about 18,000 reach military age (18) annually

Supply: military equipment supplied by USSR

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, 405 million tugriks, 12% of total budget