The World Factbook (1982)/Mozambique

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World Factbook (1982) Mozambique.jpg
(See reference map VII)


786,762 km2; 30% arable, of which 1% cultivated, 56% woodland and forest, 14% wasteland and inland water

Land boundaries: 4,627 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; exclusive economic zone 200 nm)

Coastline: 2,470 km


Population: 12,695,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.7%

Nationality: noun—Mozambican(s); adjective—Mozambican

Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African, less than 1% European and Asian

Religion: 65.6% animist, 21.5% Christian, 10.5% Muslim, 2.4% other

Language: Portuguese (official); many tribal dialects

Literacy: 15% (1974 est.)


Official name: People's Republic of Mozambique

Type: "people's republic"; achieved independence from Portugal in June 1975

Capital: Maputo

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces subdivided into about 94 districts; administrators are appointed by central government

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June

Branches: none established

Government leader: President Samora Moisés MACHEL

Suffrage: not yet established

Elections: information not available on future election schedule

Political parties and leaders: the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), led by Samora Machel, is only legal party

Communists: none known

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), ICAO, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO


GNP: $2.8 billion (1980 est.), about $272 per capita; average annual growth rate —1% (1971-81)

Agriculture: cash crops—raw cotton, cashew nuts, sugar, tea, copra, sisal; other crops—corn, wheat, peanuts, potatoes, beans, sorghum, and cassava; self-sufficient in food except for wheat which must be imported

Major industries: food processing (chiefly sugar, tea, wheat, flour, cashew kernels); chemicals (vegetable oil, oil-cakes, soap, paints); petroleum products; beverages; textiles; nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbestos, cement products); tobacco

Electric power: 2,166,000 kW capacity (1980); 11.3 billion kWh produced (1980), 1,080 kWh per capita

Major trade partners: Portugal, South Africa, US, UK, West Germany

Budget: (1978) expenditures, $309 million, revenues, $241 million

Monetary conversion rate: 40.643 escudos=US$1 as of November 1977

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 3,436 km total; 3,288 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km narrow gauge (0.750 m)

Highways: 26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed stone, stabilized soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: approx. 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: crude oil, 306 km (not operating); refined products, 280 km

Ports: 3 major (Maputo, Beira, Nacala), 2 significant minor

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in

Airfields: 292 total, 247 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay; 51,600 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 2 FM, no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,763,000; 1,633,000 fit for military service

Supply: mostly from the USSR and PRC, and to a lesser extent from other Communist countries and Portugal

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1980, $157.8 million; 27.8% of central government budget