The World Factbook (1982)/Tanzania

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Tanzania.jpg
(See reference map VII)


939,652 km2 (including islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, 2,642 km2); 6% inland water, 15% cultivated, 31% grassland, 48% bush forest, woodland; on mainland, 60% arable, of which 40% cultivated on islands of Zanzibar and Pemba

Land boundaries: 3,883 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm

Coastline: 1,424 km (this includes 113 km Mafia Island; 177 km Pemba Island; and 212 km Zanzibar)


Population: 19,868,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.2%

Nationality: noun—Tanzanian(s); adjective—Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions: 99% native Africans consisting of well over 100 tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: Mainland—40% Animist, 30% Christian, 30% Muslim; Zanzibar—almost all Muslim

Language: Swahili official, English primary language of commerce, administration and higher education; Swahili widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy: 61%

Labor force: 456,000 in paid employment, over 90% in agriculture

Organized labor: 15% of labor force


Official name: United Republic of Tanzania

Type: republic; single party on the mainland and on Zanzibar

Capital: Dar es Salaam

Political subdivisions: 25 regions—20 on mainland, 5 on Zanzibar islands

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, customary law, and German civil law system; permanent constitution adopted 1977, replaced interim constitution adopted 1965; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; legal education at University of Dar es Salaam; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: "Union Day," 26 April

Branches: President Julius Nyerere has full executive authority on the mainland; National Assembly dominated by Nyerere and the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party); National Assembly consists of 233 members, 72 from Zanzibar, of which 10 are directly elected, 65 appointed from the mainland, plus 96 directly elected from the mainland; Vice President Aboud Jumbe (President of Zanzibar) and the Revolutionary Council still run Zanzibar except for certain specifically designated union matters

Government leaders: President Julius K. NYERERE; Prime Minister Cleopa D. MSUYA

Suffrage: universal over 18

Political party and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party), only political party, dominated by Nyerere and Vice President Jumbe, his top lieutenant; party was formed in 1977 as a result of the earlier union of the Tanganyika African National Union, the sole mainland party, and the Afro-Shirazi Party, the only party in Zanzibar

Voting strength (October 1980 national elections): close to 7 million registered voters; Nyerere received 93% of about 6 million votes cast; general elections scheduled for late 1985

Communists: a few Communist sympathizers, especially on Zanzibar




GDP: $4.6 billion (1979), $271 per capita; real growth rate, 3.7% (1979)

Agriculture: main crops—cotton, coffee, sisal on mainland

Major industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products

Electric power: 275,000 kW capacity (1980); 964 million kWh produced (1980), 51 kWh per capita

Exports: $684 million (f.o.b., 1979); coffee, cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, meat, diamonds, cloves, tobacco, tea

Imports: $1,194 million (f.o.b., 1979); manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs

Major trade partners: exports—China, UK, Hong Kong, India, US; imports—UK, China, West Germany, US, Japan

External public debt and ratio: $1.2 billion, 7.3% (1979)

Budget: (1979/80) revenue $890 million, current expenditures $1,110 million, development expenditures $525 million

Monetary conversion rate: 8.1898 Tanzanian shillings=US$1 (June 1980)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


GNP: $35 million (1967)

Agriculture: main crops—cloves, coconuts

Industries: agricultural processing

Electric power: see Mainland (above)

Exports: $504 million (f.o.b., 1977); cloves and clove products, coconut products

Imports: $723 million (c.i.f., 1977); mainly foodstuffs and consumer goods

Major trade partners: imports—China, Japan, and mainland Tanzania; exports—Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Pakistan

Aid: economic aid commitments from Western (non-US) countries (1970-79), ODA and OOF, $100 million; US, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $200 million

Exchange rate: 8.00 Tanzanian shillings=US$1

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km meter gauge (1.00 m), 6.4 km double track; 962 km Tan-Zam Railroad 1.067-meter gauge in Tanzania

Highways: total 34,227 km, 3,588 km paved; 5,529 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

Inland waterways: 1,168 km of navigable streams; several thousand km navigable on Lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, and Malawi

Ports: 3 major (Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga)

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 95 total, 88 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 45 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 88,700 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 5 AM and no FM stations, 1 TV station; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,220,000; 2,421,000 fit for military service

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1981, $179 million; 9% of central government budget