The World Factbook (1982)/Zambia

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Zambia.jpg
(See reference map VII)


745,920 km2; 5% under cultivation, 5% arable, 10% grazing, 13% dense forest, 6% marsh, 61% scattered trees and grassland

Land boundaries: 6,003 km


Population: 6,222,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.2%

Nationality: noun—Zambian(s); adjective—Zambian

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% European, 0.2% other

Religion: 82% animist, about 17% Christian, and under 1% Hindu and Muslim

Language: English official; wide variety of indigenous languages

Literacy: 28%

Labor force: 402,000 wage earners; 375,000 Africans, 27,000 non-Africans; 15% mining, 9% agriculture, 9% domestic service, 19% construction, 9% commerce, 10% manufacturing, 23% government and miscellaneous services, 6% transport

Organized labor: approximately 238,000 wage earners are unionized


Official name: Republic of Zambia

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lusaka

Political subdivisions: nine provinces

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; new constitution adopted September 1973; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; legal education at University of Zambia in Lusaka; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 24 October

Branches: modified presidential system; legislature; judiciary

Government leaders: President Kenneth David KAUNDA; Prime Minister Nalumino MUNDIA

Suffrage: universal adult

Elections: general election held 12 December 1978; next general election scheduled for 1983

Political parties and leaders: United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda; former opposition party banned in December 1972 when one-party state proclaimed

Voting strength (1978 election): 70% of eligible voters went to polls; Kaunda was only candidate for President; National Assembly seats were contested by members of UNIP

Communists: no Communist party, but socialist sympathizers in upper levels of government and UNIP

Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, 1DB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


GNP: $2.8 billion (1980), $483 per capita; real annual average growth rate, 0.65% (1971-81)

Agriculture: main crops—corn, tobacco, cotton; net importer of most major agricultural products

Major industries: copper and cobalt production

Electric power: 1,453,000 kW capacity (1980); 7.3 billion kWh produced (1980), 969 kWh per capita

Exports: $1,378 million (f.o.b., 1980); copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco

Imports: $1,383 million (c.i.f., 1980); machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures

Major trade partners: EEC, Japan, China, South Africa

Budget: (1980) revenue $950 million (est.), current expenditures $1,279 million (est.), development expenditures $241 million (est.)

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Zambia kwacha=US$1.2446 (official)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 2,014 km, all narrow gauge (1.067 m); 13 km double track

Highways: 36,809 km total; 5,565 km paved, 8,374 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,250 km including Zambezi River, Luapula River, Lake Kariba, Lake Bangweulu, Lake Tanganyika; Mpulungu is small port on Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: 724 km crude oil

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 136 total, 129 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 60,500 telephones; (1.1 per 100 popl.); 7 AM, 1 FM, and 5 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,327,000; 691,000 fit for military service