Translation:Avadhuta Gita/Chapter 1/1:1 semantic field
'īśvara' holds the semantic field: master, lord, prince, king, mistress, queen, a husband, God, the Supreme Being, the supreme soul (आत्मन्), Shiva (शिव), the god of love, Durga (दुर्गा), Lakshmi (लक्ष्मी), of any other of the shaktis (शक्तिs) or female energies of the deities, and it is often glossed 'controller' in English. 'anugraha' holds the semantic field: favour, kindness, showing favour, conferring benefits, promoting or furthering a good object, assistance, facilitating by incantations. Sanskrit often has implied ambiguity and this is an excellent case. A reading of ānugraha is also possible and the prefix 'a' which makes the meaning opposite or converse from the base to which it was affixed. So both favour and disfavour. I have not yet determined whether the particular case-ending of anugraha is lengthened in this case to anugrahā and whether this provides a further specificity and richness. 'deva' similarly due to a possibe reading and inherent ambiguity may also be as well 'adeva'. Deva holds the semantic field: heavenly, divine (also said of terrestrial things of high excellence), a deity, god, (rarely applied to) evil demons, the gods as the heavenly or 'shining ones', a cloud, a name of Indra (इन्द्र) as the god of the sky and giver of rain, the image of a god, an idol, a god on earth or among humanity, a fool. 'pums' (पुंस्) holds the semantic field: to crush, grind, a human being, a servant, attendant, the soul , spirit , spirit of humanity (= पुरुष; with पर or परम , the Supreme Spirit , Soul of the Universe , विष्णु). Importantly and somewhat esoterically, Sanskrit may also overlay phonemes, double-dipping as it may which may run counter to a pure grammatical parsing. I read here also 'sāma' which is the form for 'sāman' in lexical compounds, which holds the semantic field: acquisition, possession, property, wealth, abundance, calming, tranquillizing, "destroying sin", any song or tune (sacred or profane, also the hum of bees). 'advaita' holds the semantic field: destitute of duality , having no duplicate, peerless, sole, unique, non-duality, epithet of Vishnu (विष्णु), identity of (Brahma) ब्रह्मा or of the (Paramatman) परमात्मन् or supreme soul with the (jivatman) जीवात्मन् or human-soul, the identity or unity of spirit and matter, the ultimate truth. 'vāsanā' holds the semantic field: the act of perfuming or fumigating, infusing, steeping, belonging to an abode , fit for a dwelling, abiding , abode, a receptacle for water. This last meaning of vāsanā is also apt when we understand vāsanā as the 'flow' of the mindstream. 'mahadbhaya' holds the semantic field: a great danger or emergency, fear of great people. 'paritrāṇa' holds the semantic field: protection, “To end the cause of distress”, rescue, preservation, deliverance from, protection or means of protection, refuge, retreat, moustache, the hair of the body, self-defence. 'viprāṇām' holds the semantic field: of the brāhmaṇas, of the sages, of that which is worthy of reverence. 'upajāyate' is a verb which holds the semantic field: arises, becomes manifest in.