Translation:Mikraot Gedolot/Genesis/39:11

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Mikraot Gedolot , translated from Hebrew by Wikisource
Genesis 39:11

Text[edit]

And it was on a certain day, that he came to the house to do his work and no one from the house was in the house:

וַיְהִי֙ כְּהַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֥א הַבַּ֖יְתָה לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת מְלַאכְתּ֑וֹ וְאֵ֨ין אִ֜ישׁ מֵאַנְשֵׁ֥י הַבַּ֛יִת שָׁ֖ם בַּבָּֽיִת׃

Rashi[edit]

And it was on a certain day

וַיְהִי֙ כְּהַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה

This is saying that a special day had arrived, a day of laughter, their festival day everyone went to the house of idolatry. She, [the wife of Potifar], said "I do not have a better day to fulfill my need with Joseph than today". She told them, "I am sick and I can not go".

כלומר ויהי כאשר הגיע יום מיוחד, יום צחוק, יום איד שלהם שהלכו כולם לבית עבודה זרה, אמרה אין לי יום הגון להזקק ליוסף כהיום הזה. אמרה להם חולה אני ואיני יכולה לילך:

to do his work

לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת מְלַאכְתּ֑וֹ

[What this work was is a controversy between] Rav and Samuel. One said, "To do his actual work", and one said "To fulfill his needs with her", but his father’s visage appeared to him [causing him to be reminded that this would be sin], as it says in Tractate Sotah (Sotah 36b).

רב ושמואל, חד אמר מלאכתו ממש, וחד אמר לעשות צרכיו עמה, אלא שנראית לו דמות דיוקנו של אביו וכו', כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (דף לו ב):

Ibn Ezra[edit]

And it was on a certain day

וַיְהִי֙ כְּהַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה

[This occurred, maybe] one week after she spoke to him [saying] "Lay with me", or one month after, or after an entire year and this is the correct [response] in my eyes.

משבוע אחד מהיום שהחלה לדבר לו שכבה עמי, או מחדש אחד, או אחר שנה תמימה והוא הנכון בעיני.

to do his work

לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת מְלַאכְתּ֑וֹ

[This refers to] house work or [work with] money, because he was an official in everything. This is required, as "And there was no man", this in in the singular.

מלאכת הבית או הממון, כי פקיד היה על הכל. ודרש ואין איש דברי יחיד.

Ramban[edit]

because he was for him a son of old age

כִּֽי־בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים ה֖וּא ל֑וֹ

He was born to him in his old age. And Onkelos translated it as, "A son of wisdom he was to him". What he had learned from [the yeshiva of] Shem and Ever, he handed over to him. This is the interpretation of Rashi. And said Rabbi Abraham [ibn Ezra], a son of old age that was born to him in old age, at the age of ninety-one years, and his brother Benjamin [was also] called a "little child of his old age" (Genesis 44:20). But this is not true to me, because Scripture said (above) "and he loved Joseph more than all his sons for he was a child of his old age", but all of his sons were born in his old age, and Issachar and Zebulun were not one year or two years older than Joseph. And seems to me that the custom of the elders was that they take one of their young sons to serve them, and he would lean on his arm and would never be parted from him, and he called him "a son of his old age", for he served him in old age, and here Jacob took Joseph for this thing and was always with him, and therefore he did not work with the sheep when they grazed in far away places. And Onkelos said "A son of wisdom". He wanted to say that he was a wise and knowledgeable son to his father, and he had understanding like elders. In the case of Benjamin, where is says] "child of his old age", [Onkelos] translates as "son of his old age" that it was not written here that said "he was a son of his old age," but [rather] it said "he was to him", which means in his eyes [i.e. that this was the way he perceived him as being wise]. As our sages say (Genesis Rabbah 84:8), what he had learned from [the yeshiva of] Shem and Ever, he handed over to him. This is to say that he [Jacob] told him [Joseph] the wisdom and secrets of the Torah and found him to be an intellectual and a master of the secrets [of the Torah] as if he was an elder and had many years.

שנולד לו בעת זקנתו. ואונקלוס תרגם: ארי בר חכים הוא ליה. שכל מה שלמד משם ועבר מסר לו. דבר אחר: שהיה זיו איקונין שלו דומה לו, לשון רש"י. וכן אמר רבי אברהם: כי בן זקונים שהולידו לזקוניו, והוא בן תשעים ואחת שנה, וגם אחיו בנימין קראו ילד זקונים קטן: ואיננו נכון בעיני, כי הכתוב אמר שאהב את יוסף מכל בניו בעבור שהוא בן זקונים, וגם כל בניו נולדו לו בזקוניו, והנה יששכר וזבולון אינם גדולים מיוסף רק כשנה או שנתים: והנראה בעיני כי מנהג הזקנים שיקחו אחד מבניהם הקטנים להיות עמו לשרתו, והוא נשען על ידו מיד לא יפרד ממנו, והוא נקרא לו בן זקוניו בעבור שישרתו לזקוניו, והנה לקח יעקב את יוסף לדבר הזה והיה עמו תמיד, ועל כן לא ילך עם הצאן ברעותם במקום רחוק: ואונקלוס שאמר: "בר חכים" ירצה לומר שהיה בן דעת וחכם בעיני אביו, וטעמו כטעם זקנים. ותרגם בילד זקונים, בר סבתין, כי לא אמר הכתוב בכאן "כי בן זקונים היה", אבל אמר "הוא לו", שהיה כן בעיניו. וזאת כונתם באמרם (ב"ר פד ח): כל מה שלמד משם ועבר מסר לו, לומר שמסר לו חכמות וסתרי תורה ומצאו משכיל ובעל סוד בהם כאלו היה זקן ורב ימים:

Rashbam[edit]

And Israel loved

וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָהַ֤ב

All of this [extra attention to Joseph] caused jealousy [between the other sons of Jacob]. כל זה גרם הקנאה.
a son of old age

בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים

He was the last born of his [Jacob’s] eleven boys [other than Benjamin], but Benjamin was not born until long after and [this occurred] long before Benjamin was born, so he [Joseph] was "the child of his old age" and [Jacob] began to love him [the most]. כי אחרון היה לי"א בנים, אבל בנימין לא נולד אחרי כן עד זמן מרובה והרבה קודם שנולד בנימין, היה לו בן זקונים והתחיל לאוהבו.
striped

פַּסִּֽים

[This means] a coat.

מעיל.

Sforno[edit]

he made for him ​​a striped coat

וְעָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ כְּתֹ֥נֶת פַּסִּֽים

This was a signal that he [Yosef] will be the leader in the field and in the house, as in the matter of "and I will dress him in your tunic" (Isaiah 22:21), and this is like our sages, of blessed memory, said (Bava Kama 11a), "the eldest of the heirs, as it is in the interest of them all that his words should be respected."

לְאות שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הוּא הַמַּנְהִיג בַּבַּיִת וּבַשָּׂדֶה, כְּעִנְיָן "וְהִלְבַּשְׁתִּיו כֻּתָּנְתֶּךָ" (ישעיהו כב, כא), וּכְאָמְרָם זִכְרונָם לִבְרָכָה: "בִּגְדול אֲחֵי כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלִשְׁתַּמְעָן מִלֵּיהּ" (בבא קמא יא, ב).

Midrash Rabbah[edit]