Translation:Mishnah/Seder Moed/Tractate Pesachim/Chapter 10/4

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This Mishnah is the source for the four questions in the Passover Haggadah traditionally asked by the youngest child at the Passover seder.

Hebrew Text[edit]

מזגו לו כוס שני,
וכאן הבן שואל אביו.

ואם אין דעת בבן, אביו מלמדו,

מה נשתנה הלילה הזה מכל הלילות?

שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלין חמץ ומצה,
הלילה הזה, כלו מצה.

שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלין שאר ירקות,
הלילה הזה, מרור.

שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלין בשר צלי, שלוק, ומבשל,
הלילה הזה, כלו צלי.

שבכל הלילות, אנו מטבילין פעם אחת,
הלילה הזה, שתי פעמים.

ולפי דעתו של בן, אביו מלמדו.

מתחיל בגנות ומסים בשבח,
ודורש מארמי אובד אבי, עד שיגמור כל הפרשה כלה.

English Translation[edit]

They pour a second cup [of wine] for him.

And here the son questions his father.

And if the son has insufficient understanding [to question], his father teaches him [to ask]:

Why is this night different from all [other] nights?

On all [other] nights, we eat leavened and unleavened bread,
[but] on this night, [we eat] only unleavened bread.

On all [other] nights, we eat all kinds of vegetables,
[but] on this night, [we eat only] bitter herbs.

On all [other] nights, we eat meat roasted, stewed or boiled,
[but] on this night, [we eat] only roasted [meat].

On all [other] nights, we dip [vegetables] once,
[but] on this night, we dip [vegetables] twice.

And according to the son's intelligence, his father instructs him.

He beings [answering the questions] with [the account of Israel’s] shame and concludes with [Israel’s] glory,
and expounds from “My father was a wandering Aramean” until he completes the whole passage.


In the Babylonian Talmud, the discussion of Mishnah 10:4 begins on Pesachim 116a.

The question about roasted meat refers to the Passover offering, which Jews ate only during the time of the Temple in Jerusalem. These days, the Passover Haggadah substitutes a question about reclining.

“My father was a wandering Aramean . . . .” refers to the credo at Deuteronomy 26:5–10.