Translation:Mishnah/Seder Nashim/Tractate Kiddushin/Chapter 1/1
- האישה נקנית בשלוש דרכים,
- וקונה את עצמה בשתי דרכים.
- נקנית בכסף, ובשטר, ובביאה.
- בית שמאי אומרין בדינר ובשווה דינר;
- ובית הלל אומרין בפרוטה ובשווה פרוטה.
- כמה היא פרוטה? אחד משמונה באיסר האיטלקי.
- וקונה את עצמה בגט, ובמיתת הבעל.
- היבמה נקנית בביאה,
- וקונה את עצמה בחליצה, ובמיתת היבם.
- A woman is acquired in three ways,
- and she acquires herself in two ways.
- She is acquired through money, through a contract, or through sexual intercourse.
- Through money:
- The House of Shamai say: with a dinar or with the equivalent value of a dinar;
- and the House of Hillel say: with a peruta or with the equivalent value of a peruta.
- How much is a peruta? One eighth of the Italian issar.
- She acquires herself through a get or through the death of the husband.
- A levirate wife is acquired through sexual intercourse,
- and acquires herself through the shoe-removal ceremony or through the death of the levirate husband.
is acquired: This is kiddushin ("betrothal"), the first stage of marriage (the second is nissuin). The Talmud notes that there are two aspects to kiddushin; that of sanctification and that of acquisition. The woman does not become chattel in this acquisition, and may not be transfered in any way to another person. The woman is "acquired" in that the husband obtains the sole right to have her as his wife, and after kiddushin is performed, sexual relations with another man would be considered adultery.
levirate wife: When a man dies without children to carry on his name, one of his surviving brothers is required to marry the widow. Their first born child will carry on his brother's name, and will be his sole heir.
shoe-removal ceremony: (Hebrew: halitza) The ceremony includes the removal of the brother's shoe as a sign of shame for not fulfilling his levirate obligation.