Translation:Mishnah/Seder Nezikin/Tractate Makkot/Chapter 3/9

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The Rabbis imagined how one could with one action violate up to nine separate commandments.

Hebrew Text[edit]

יש חורש תלם אחד וחיב עליו משום שמונה לאוין, החורש בשור וחמור, והן מקדשים, בכלאים בכרם, ובשביעית, ויום טוב, וכהן ונזיר בבית הטמאה.

חנניא בן חכינאי אומר:
אף הלובש כלאים.

אמרו לו:
אינו השם.

אמר להם:
אף לא הנזיר הוא השם.

English Translation[edit]

There is [the possibility that one could] plow only one furrow and become liable [on that account] for eight prohibited acts:
[This is the case where] one
(1) plows with an ox and a donkey [yoked together] (in violation of Deuteronomy 22:10)
(2 and 3) that are [two animals] dedicated to the sanctuary,
(4) [plowing] mixed seeds [sown] in a vineyard (in violation of Deuteronomy 22:9),
(5) during a Sabbatical year (in violation of Leviticus 25:4),
(6) on a Festival-day (in violation of, for example, Leviticus 23:7),
(7) [when the plower is] a priest (in violation of Leviticus 21:1)
(8) and a Nazirite (in violation of Numbers 6:6) plowing in a contaminated place.

Chananya ben Chachinai says:
Also he may have been wearing [while plowing] a garment of mixed [wool and linen] fabrics (in violation of Leviticus 19:19 and Deuteronomy 22:11).

They said to him:
This is not in the same category [as the other violations].

He said to them:
Neither is the Nazirite in the same category [as the other violations].


In the Babylonian Talmud, the discussion of Mishnah Makkot 3:6 begins on Babylonian Talmud Makkot 21b.

Deuteronomy 22:10 provides: “You shall not plow with an ox and an ass together.”

Deuteronomy 22:9 provides: “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed.”

Leviticus 25:4 provides: “The seventh year shall be a Sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall neither sow your field, nor prune your vineyard.”

Leviticus 23:7 provides: “On the first day [of Passover,] you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no manner of servile work.”

Leviticus 21:1 provides: “No one shall defile himself for the dead among his people.”

Numbers 6:6 provides with regard to a Nazirite, a person who takes a particular vow of consecration: “All the days that he consecrates himself to the Lord he shall not come near a dead body.”

Leviticus 19:19 provides: “Neither shall there come on you a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.”

Deuteronomy 22:11 provides: “You shall not wear mingled stuff, wool and linen together.”