Translation:Mishnah/Seder Nezikin/Tractate Sanhedrin/Chapter 3/8

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Sanhedrin deals primarily with the court and with court cases. The third chapter of Sanhedrin is focused on witnesses and court proceedings.

The eighth mishnah of this chapter deals with procedures after a trial finishes, specifically the appeals process.

Hebrew Text[edit]

כל זמן שמביא ראיה, סותר את הדין.
אמרו לו, כל ראיות שיש לך הבא מכאן עד שלשים יום.
מצא בתוך שלשים יום, סותר.
לאחר שלשים יום, אינו סותר.
אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל, מה יעשה זה שלא מצא בתוך שלשים ומצא לאחר שלשים.
אמרו לו הבא עדים ואמר אין לי עדים, אמרו הבא ראיה ואמר אין לי ראיה, ולאחר זמן הביא ראיה ומצא עדים, הרי זה אינו כלום.
אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מה יעשה זה שלא היה יודע שיש לו עדים ומצא עדים, לא היה יודע שיש לו ראיה ומצא ראיה.
אמרו לו הבא עדים, אמר אין לי עדים, הבא ראיה ואמר אין לי ראיה, ראה שמתחיב בדין ואמר קרבו פלוני ופלוני והעידוני או שהוציא ראיה מתוך אפנדתו, הרי זה אינו כלום.

English Translation[edit]

Each time that he brings evidence (anew), overturn the (previous) judgment. They say to him: "all evidence that you have, bring it here within thirty days." (If it is) found within thirty days, overturn (the previous judgment). After thirty days, do not overturn. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel said, "what could he have done that it is not found within thirty days but it is found after thirty?" (If) they say to him, "bring witnesses" and he says, "I have no witnesses," or they say to him, "bring evidence" and he says, "I have no evidence," and after a time he brings evidence or finds witnesses, behold this is nothing. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said, "what could he have done that he did not know there were witnesses and then found witnesses, or that he did not know there was evidence and then found evidence?" (If) they say to him, "bring witnesses" and he says "I have no witnesses" or "bring evidence" and he says "I have no evidence," and he sees that he will be convicted in the court, and he says, "Come, So-and-so and So-and-so, and serve as witnesses for me or bring evidence from your wallet," behold this is nothing.


This mishnah gives a few rules for the appeals process. We are first told that if one can bring evidence or witnesses after the verdict, the verdict can be overturned. This is bounded by a time frame of thirty days, and only in the case that a litigant initially made an attempt to defend himself. In either case in which a litigant attempts to defend himself only after the verdict is handed down, we are told that "this is nothing" - i.e. that such evidence is not considered valid and cannot overturn the verdict.