Translation:The Fundamental Equations for Electromagnetic Processes in Moving Bodies

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The Fundamental Equations for Electromagnetic Processes in Moving Bodies  (1908) 
by Hermann Minkowski, translated from German by Meghnad Saha and  Wikisource
German Original: Die Grundgleichungen für die elektromagnetischen Vorgänge in bewegten Körpern (1908), Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, pp. 53–111
Presented in the session of December 21, 1907. Published in 1908.
  • Saha's Translation: The Principle of Relativity (1920), Calcutta: University Press, pp. 1-69, (transcription project)
  • In this Wikisource edition, Saha's notation is replaced by Minkowski's original notation, the original footnotes of Minkowski were included and translated, and some additional corrections in the translation were made.


At the present time, different opinions are being held about the fundamental equations of Electrodynamics for moving bodies. The Hertzian[1] forms must be given up, for it has appeared that they are contrary to many experimental results.

In 1895 H. A. Lorentz[2] published his theory of optical and electrical phenomena in moving bodies; this theory was based upon the atomistic conception (vorstellung) of electricity, and on account of its great success appears to have justified the bold hypotheses, by which it has been ushered into existence. In his theory[3], Lorentz proceeds from certain equations, which must hold at every point of "Æther"; then by forming the average values over "physically infinitely small" regions, which however contain large numbers of electrons, the equations for electro-magnetic processes in moving bodies can be successfully built up.

In particular, Lorentz's theory gives a good account of the non-existence of relative motion of the earth and the luminiferous "Æther"; it shows that this fact is connected with the covariance of the original equation, at certain simultaneous transformations of the space and time co-ordinates; these transformations have obtained from H. Poincaré[4] the name of Lorentz-transformations. The covariance of these fundamental equations, when subjected to the Lorentz-transformation, is a purely mathematical fact; I will call this the Theorem of Relativity; this theorem rests essentially on the form of the differential equations for the propagation of waves with the velocity of light.

Now without recognizing any hypothesis about the connection between "Æther" and matter, we can expect these mathematically evident theorems to have their consequences so far extended — that thereby even those laws of ponderable media which are yet unknown may anyhow possess this covariance when subjected to a Lorentz-transformation; by saying this, we do not indeed express an opinion, but rather a conviction, — and this conviction I may be permitted to call the Postulate of Relativity. The position of affairs here is almost the same as when the Principle of Conservation of Energy was postulated in cases, where the corresponding forms of energy were unknown.

Now if hereafter, we succeed in maintaining this covariance as a definite connection between pure and simple observable phenomena in moving bodies, the definite connection may be styled the Principle of Relativity.

These differentiations seem to me to be useful for enabling us to characterise the present day position of the electro-dynamics for moving bodies.

H. A. Lorentz has found out the Relativity theorem and has created the Relativity postulate as a hypothesis that electrons and matter suffer contractions in consequence of their motion according to a certain law.

A. Einstein[5] has brought out the point very clearly, that this postulate is not an artificial hypothesis but is rather a new way of comprehending the time-concept which is forced upon us by observation of natural phenomena.

The Principle of Relativity has not yet been formulated for electro-dynamics of moving bodies in the sense characterized by me. In the present essay, while formulating this principle, I shall obtain the fundamental equations for moving bodies in a sense which is uniquely determined by this principle. But it will be shown that none of the forms hitherto assumed for these equations can exactly fit in with this principle.

We would at first expect that the fundamental equations which are assumed by Lorentz for moving bodies would correspond to the Relativity Principle. But it will be shown that this is not the case for the general equations which Lorentz has for any possible, and also for magnetic bodies; but this is approximately the case (if we neglect the square of the velocity of matter in comparison to the velocity of light) for those equations which Lorentz hereafter infers for non-magnetic bodies. But this latter accordance with the relativity principle is due to the fact that the condition of non-magnetisation has been formulated in a way not corresponding to the relativity principle; therefore the accordance is due to the fortuitous compensation of two contradictions to the relativity postulate. But meanwhile enunciation of the Principle in a rigid manner does not signify any contradiction to the hypotheses of Lorentz's molecular theory, but it shall become clear that the assumption of the contraction of the electron in Lorentz's theory must be introduced at an earlier stage than Lorentz has actually done.

In an appendix, I have gone into discussion of the position of Classical Mechanics with respect to the relativity postulate. Any easily perceivable modification of mechanics for satisfying the requirements of the Relativity theory would hardly afford any noticeable difference in observable processes; but would lead to very surprising consequences. By laying down the relativity postulate from the outset, sufficient means have been created for deducing henceforth the complete series of Laws of Mechanics from the principle of conservation of energy (and statements concerning the form of the energy) alone.

§ 1. NOTATIONS.[edit]

Let a rectangular system (x, y, z, t,) of reference be given in space and time. The unit of time shall be chosen in such a manner with reference to the unit of length that the velocity of light in space becomes unity.

Although I would prefer not to change the notations used by Lorentz, it appears important to me to use a different selection of symbols, for thereby certain homogeneity will appear from the very beginning. I shall denote the vector

electric force by \mathfrak{E}, the magnetic induction by \mathfrak{M}, the electric induction by \mathfrak{e} and the magnetic force by \mathfrak{m},

so that \mathfrak{E,M,e,m} are used instead of Lorentz's \mathfrak{E,B,D,H} respectively.

I shall further make use of complex magnitudes in a way which is not yet current in physical investigations, i.e., instead of operating with t, I shall operate with it, where i denotes \sqrt{-1}. If now instead of (x, y, z, it), I use the method of writing with indices, certain essential circumstances will come into evidence; on this will be based a general use of the suffixes (1, 2, 3, 4). The advantage of this method will be, as I expressly emphasize here, that we shall have to handle symbols which have a purely real appearance; we can however at any moment pass to real equations if it is understood that of the symbols with indices, such ones as have the suffix 4 only once, denote imaginary quantities, while those which have not at all the suffix 4, or have it twice denote real quantities.

An individual system of values of x, y, z t, i. e., of x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} shall be called a space-time point.

Further let \mathfrak{w} denote the velocity vector of matter, \epsilon the dielectric constant, \mu, the magnetic permeability, \sigma the conductivity of matter, while \varrho denotes the density of electricity in space, and \mathfrak{s} the vector of "Electric Current" which we shall come across in §7 and §8.

PART I. Consideration of the Limiting Case Æther.[edit]

§ 2. The Fundamental Equations for Æther.[edit]

By using the electron theory, Lorentz in his above mentioned essay traces the Laws of Electrodynamics of Ponderable Bodies to still simpler laws. Let us now adhere to these simpler laws, whereby we require that for the limiting case \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1,\ \sigma = 0, they should constitute the laws for ponderable bodies. In this ideal limiting case \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1,\ \sigma = 0, we shall have \mathfrak{E}=\mathfrak{e},\mathfrak{M}=\mathfrak{m}. At every space time point x, y, z, t we shall have the equations:

(I) & \qquad & curl\ \mathfrak{m}-\frac{\partial e}{\partial t} & =\varrho\mathfrak{w,}\\
\\(II) &  & div\ \mathfrak{e} & =\mathfrak{\varrho,}\\
\\(III) &  & curl\ \mathfrak{e}+\frac{\partial\mathfrak{m}}{\partial t} & =0,\\
\\(IV) &  & div\ \mathfrak{m} & =0.\end{array}

I shall now write x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} for x, y, z, it \left(i=\sqrt{-1}\right) and

\varrho_{1},\ \varrho_{2},\ \varrho_{3},\ \varrho_{4}


\varrho\mathfrak{w}_{x},\ \varrho\mathfrak{w}_{y},\ \varrho\mathfrak{w}_{z},\ i\varrho
i.e. the components of the convection current \varrho\mathfrak{w}, and the electric density multiplied by \sqrt{-1}.

Further I shall write

f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12},\ f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34}


\mathfrak{m}_{x},\ \mathfrak{m}_{y},\ \mathfrak{m}_{z},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{x},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{y},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{z},

i.e., the components of \mathfrak{m} and -i\mathfrak{e} along the three axes; now if we take any two indices h, k out of the series

f_{kh} = -f_{hk},


f_{32} = -f_{23},\ f_{13} = -f_{31},\ f_{21} = -f_{12},

f_{41} = -f_{14},\ f_{42} = -f_{24},\ f_{43} = -f_{34},

Then the three equations comprised in (I), and the equation (II) multiplied by i becomes

(A) \begin{array}{ccccccccc}
 &  & \frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{13}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & \varrho_{1},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{21}}{\partial x_{1}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{23}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{24}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & \varrho_{2},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{32}}{\partial x_{2}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{34}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & \varrho_{3},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{41}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{42}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{43}}{\partial x_{3}} &  &  & = & \varrho_{4}.\end{array}

On the other hand, the three equations comprised in (III) multiplied by -i, and equation (IV) multiplied by -1, become

(B) \begin{array}{ccccccccc}
 &  & \frac{\partial f_{34}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{42}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{23}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{43}}{\partial x_{1}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{24}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{41}}{\partial x_{2}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{32}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{13}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{21}}{\partial x_{3}} &  &  & = & 0.\end{array}

By means of this method of writing we at once notice the perfect symmetry of the 1st as well as the 2nd system of equations as regards permutation with the indices (1,2,3,4).

§ 3. The Theorem of Relativity of Lorentz.[edit]

It is well-known that by writing the equations I) to IV) in the symbol of vector calculus, we at once set in evidence an invariance (or rather a (covariance) of the system of equations A) as well as of B), when the co-ordinate system is rotated through a certain amount round the null-point. For example, if we take a rotation of the axes round the z-axis. through an amount \varphi, keeping \mathfrak{e,m,w} fixed in space, and introduce new variables x'_{1},\ x'_{2},\ x'_{3},\ x'_{4} instead of x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4}, where

x'_{1}=x_{1}\cos\varphi+x_{2}\sin\varphi,\ x'_{2}=-x_{1}\sin\varphi+x_{2}\cos\varphi,\ x'_{3}=x_{3},\ x'_{4}=x_{4},

and introduce magnitudes

\varrho'_{1},\ \varrho'_{2},\ \varrho'_{3},\ \varrho'_{4},


\varrho'_{1}=\varrho_{1}\cos\varphi+\varrho_{2}\sin\varphi,\ \varrho'_{2}=-\varrho_{1}\sin\varphi+\varrho_{2}\cos\varphi,\ \varrho'_{3}=\varrho_{3},\ \varrho'_{4}=\varrho_{4},

and f'_{12},\dots f'_{34}, where

f'_{23}=f_{23}\cos\varphi+f_{31}\sin\varphi,\ f'_{31}=-f_{23}\sin\varphi+f_{31}\cos\varphi,\ f'_{12}=f_{12},

f'_{14}=f_{14}\cos\varphi+f_{24}\sin\varphi,\ f'_{24}=-f_{14}\sin\varphi+f_{24}\cos\varphi,\ f'_{34}=f_{34},

f'_{kh} = - f'_{hk}\qquad (h, k = 1, 2, 3, 4),

then out of the equations (A) would follow a corresponding system of dashed equations (A') composed of the newly introduced dashed magnitudes.

So upon the ground of symmetry alone of the equations (A) and (B) concerning the suffixes (1, 2, 3, 4), the theorem of Relativity, which was found out by Lorentz, follows without any calculation at all.

I will denote by i\psi a purely imaginary magnitude, and consider the substitution

(1) \begin{array}{ccc}
 & x'_{1}=x_{1},\ x'_{2}=x_{2},\\
x'_{3}=x_{3}\cos\ i\psi+x_{4}\sin\ i\psi, &  & x'_{4}=-x_{3}\sin\ i\psi+x_{4}\cos\ i\psi\end{array}


(2) -i\ tg\ i\psi=\frac{e-e^{-\psi}}{e^{\psi}+e^{-\psi}}=q,\ \psi=\frac{1}{2}\log\ nat\ \frac{1+q}{1-q}
We shall have
\cos\ i\psi=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \sin\ i\psi=\frac{iq}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},

where -1 < q < 1, and \sqrt{1-q^{2}} is always to be taken with the positive sign.

Let us now write

(3) x'_{1} = x',\ x'_{2} = y',\ x'_{3} = z',\ x'_{4} = it',

then the substitution 1) takes the form

(4) x'=x,\ y'=y,\ z'=\frac{z-qt}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ t'=\frac{-qz+t}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}

the coefficients being essentially real.

If now in the above-mentioned rotation round the z-axis, we replace 1, 2, 3, 4 throughout by 3, 4, 1, 2, and \varphi by i\psi, we at once perceive that simultaneously, new magnitudes \varrho'_{1},\ \varrho'_{2},\ \varrho'_{3},\ \varrho'_{4}, where

 & \varrho'_{1}=\varrho_{1},\ \varrho'_{2}=\varrho_{2},\\
\varrho'_{3}=x_{3}\cos\ i\psi+\varrho_{4}\sin\ i\psi, &  & \varrho'_{4}=-\varrho_{3}\sin\ i\psi+\varrho_{4}\cos\ i\psi\end{array}

and f'_{12},\dots f'_{34}, where

f'_{41}=f_{41}\cos\ i\psi+f_{13}\sin\ i\psi,\ f'_{13}=-f_{41}\sin\ i\psi+f_{13}\cos\ i\psi,\ f'_{34}=f_{34},

f'_{32}=f_{32}\cos\ i\psi+f_{42}\sin\ i\psi,\ f'_{42}=-f_{32}\sin\ i\psi+f_{42}\cos\ i\psi,\ f'_{12}=f_{12},

f'_{kh} = - f'_{hk}\qquad (h, k = 1, 2, 3, 4),

must be introduced. Then the systems of equations in (A) and (B) are transformed into equations (A'), and (B'), the new equations being obtained by simply dashing the old set.

All these equations can be written in purely real figures, and we can then formulate the last result as follows.

If the real transformations 4) are taken, and x', y', z', t' be taken as a new frame of reference, then we shall have

(5) \varrho'=\varrho\left(\frac{-q\mathfrak{w}_{z}+1}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}\right),\ \varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{z'}=\varrho\left(\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{z}-q}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}\right),

\varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{x'}=\varrho\mathfrak{w}_{x},\ \varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{y'}=\varrho\mathfrak{w}_{y},


(6) e'_{x'}=\frac{\mathfrak{e}_{x}-q\mathfrak{m}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{m}'_{y'}=\frac{-q\mathfrak{e}_{x}+\mathfrak{m}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{e}'_{z'}=\mathfrak{e}_{z}


(7) \mathfrak{m}'_{x'}=\frac{\mathfrak{m}_{x}+q\mathfrak{e}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{e}'_{y'}=\frac{q\mathfrak{m}_{x}+\mathfrak{e}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{m}'_{z'}=\mathfrak{m}_{z}[6]

Then we have for these newly introduced vectors \mathfrak{w',e',m'} with components \mathfrak{w}'_{x},\mathfrak{w}'_{y},\mathfrak{w}'_{z}; \mathfrak{e}'_{x},\mathfrak{e}'_{y},\mathfrak{e}'_{z}; \mathfrak{m}'_{x},\mathfrak{m}'_{y},\mathfrak{m}'_{z} and the quantity \varrho' a series of equations I'), II'), III'), IV) which are obtained from I), II), III), IV) by simply dashing the symbols.

We remark here that e\mathfrak{e}_{x}-q\mathfrak{m}_{y},\ \mathfrak{e}_{y}+q\mathfrak{m}_{x},\ \mathfrak{e}_{z} are components of the vector \mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{vm}], where \mathfrak{v} is a vector in the direction of the positive z-axis, and \left|\mathfrak{v}\right|=q, and [\mathfrak{vm}] is the vector product of \mathfrak{v} and \mathfrak{m}; similarly \mathfrak{m}_{x}+q\mathfrak{e}_{y},\ \mathfrak{m}_{y}-q\mathfrak{e}_{x},\ \mathfrak{m}_{z} are the components of the vector \mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{ve}].

The equations 6) and 7), as they stand in pairs, can be expressed as.

\mathfrak{e}'_{x'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{x'}=(\mathfrak{e}_{x}+i\mathfrak{m}_{x})\cos\ i\psi+(\mathfrak{e}_{y}+i\mathfrak{m}_{y})\sin\ i\psi,

\mathfrak{e}'_{y'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{y'}=-(\mathfrak{e}_{x}+i\mathfrak{m}_{x})\sin\ i\psi+(\mathfrak{e}_{y}+i\mathfrak{m}_{y})\cos\ i\psi,


If \varphi denotes any other real angle, we can form the following combinations : —

(8) (\mathfrak{e'}_{x'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{x'})\cos\ \varphi+(\mathfrak{e'}_{y'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{y'})\sin\ \psi

=(\mathfrak{e}_{x}+i\mathfrak{m}_{x})\cos\ (\varphi+i\psi)+(\mathfrak{e}_{y}+i\mathfrak{m}_{y})\sin\ (\varphi+i\psi),

(9) -(\mathfrak{e'}_{x'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{x'})\sin\ \varphi+(\mathfrak{e'}_{y'}+i\mathfrak{m}'_{y'})\cos\ \varphi

=-(\mathfrak{e}_{x}+i\mathfrak{m}_{x})\sin\ (\varphi+i\psi)+(\mathfrak{e}_{y}+i\mathfrak{m}_{y})\cos\ (\varphi+i\psi)

§ 4. Special Lorentz-Transformation.[edit]

The role which is played by the z-axis in the transformation (4) can easily be transferred to any other axis when the system of axes are subjected to a transformation about this last axis. So we came to a more general law: —

Let \mathfrak{v} be a vector with the components \mathfrak{v}_{x},\ \mathfrak{v}_{y},\ \mathfrak{v}_{z}, and let \left|\mathfrak{v}\right|=q<1. By \mathfrak{\bar{v}} we shall denote any vector which is perpendicular to \mathfrak{v}, and by \mathfrak{r_{v}}, \mathfrak{r_{\bar{v}}} we shall denote components of \mathfrak{r} in direction of \mathfrak{\bar{v}} and \left|\mathfrak{v}\right|.

Instead of x, y, z, t, new magnetudes x,' y,' z,' t' will be introduced in the following way. If for the sake of shortness, \mathfrak{r} is written for the vector with the components x, y, z in the first system of reference, \mathfrak{r}' for the same vector with the components x', y', z' in the second system of reference, then for the direction of \mathfrak{v} we have

(10) \mathfrak{r'_{v}}=\frac{r_{v}-qt}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},

and for every perpendicular direction \mathfrak{\bar{v}}

(11) \mathfrak{r'_{\bar{v}}}=\mathfrak{r_{\bar{v}}},

and further

(12) t'=\frac{-q\mathfrak{r_{v}}+t}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}

The notations \mathfrak{r'_{v}} and \mathfrak{r'_{\bar{v}}} are to be understood in the sense that with the directions \mathfrak{v}, and every direction \mathfrak{v} perpendicular to \mathfrak{\bar{v}} in the system x, y, z are always associated the directions with the same direction cosines in the system x', y', z' ,

A transformation which is accomplished by means of (10), (11), (12) with the condition 0< q < 1 will be called a special Lorentz-transformation. We shall call \mathfrak{v} the vector, the direction of \mathfrak{v} the axis, and the magnitude of \mathfrak{v} the moment of this transformation.

If further \varrho' and the vectors \mathfrak{w}',\ \mathfrak{e}',\ \mathfrak{m}', in the system x', y', z' are so defined that,

(13) \varrho'=\frac{\varrho(-q\mathfrak{w_{v}}+1)}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},
(14) \varrho'\mathfrak{w'_{v}}=\frac{\varrho\mathfrak{w_{v}}-\varrho q}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \varrho'\mathfrak{w'_{\bar{v}}}=\varrho\mathfrak{w_{\bar{v}}},


(15) \begin{array}{c}
(\mathfrak{e}'+i\mathfrak{m}')_{\mathfrak{\bar{v}}}=\frac{(\mathfrak{e}+i\mathfrak{m}-i[\mathfrak{w},\ \mathfrak{e}+i\mathfrak{m}])_{\bar{v}}}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}\\
(\mathfrak{e}'+i\mathfrak{m}')_{\mathfrak{v}}=(\mathfrak{e}+i\mathfrak{m}-i[\mathfrak{w},\ \mathfrak{e}+i\mathfrak{m}])_{\mathfrak{v}}\end{array},

Then it follows that the equations I), II), III), IV) are transformed into the corresponding system with dashes.

The solution of the equations (10), (11), (12) leads to

(16) \mathfrak{r_{v}}=\frac{\mathfrak{r'_{v}}+qt'}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{r_{\bar{v}}}=\mathfrak{r'_{\bar{v}}},\ t=\frac{q\mathfrak{r'_{v}}+t'}{\sqrt{1-q^{2}}}.

Now we shall make a very important observation about the vectors \mathfrak{w} and \mathfrak{w}'. We can again introduce the indices 1, 2, 3, 4, so that we write x'_{1},\ x'_{2},\ x'_{3},\ x'_{4} instead of x,' y,' z,' it' , and \varrho'_{1},\ \varrho'_{2},\ \varrho'_{3},\ \varrho'_{4} instead of \varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{x'}\ \varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{y'}\ \varrho'\mathfrak{w}'_{z'}\ i\varrho'. Like the rotation round the z-axis, the transformation (4), and more generally the transformations (10), (11), (12), are also linear transformations with the determinant +1, so that

(17) x^{2}_{1} + x^{2}_{2} + x^{2}_{3} + x^{2}_{4}, d. i. x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2} - t^{2}

is transformed into

x^{'2}_{1} + x^{'2}_{2} + x^{'2}_{3} + x^{'2}_{4}, d. i. x'^{2} + y'^{2} + z'^{2} - t'^{2}.

On the basis of the equations (13), (14), we shall have


transformed into \varrho'(1-\mathfrak{w}'^{2}) or in other words,

(18) \varrho\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}},

is an invariant in a Lorentz-transformation.

If we divide \varrho_{1},\ \varrho_{2},\ \varrho_{3},\ \varrho_{4} by this magnitude, we obtain the four values

w_{1}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{x}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{2}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{3}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{z}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{4}=\frac{i}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},

so that

(19) w^{2}_{1} + w^{2}_{2} + w^{2}_{3} + w^{2}_{4} = -1.

It is apparent that these four values, are determined by the vector \mathfrak{w} and inversely the vector \mathfrak{w} of magnitude < 1 follows from the 4 values w_{1},\ w_{2},\ w_{3},\ w_{4}, where w_{1},\ w_{2},\ w_{3} are real, -iw_{4} real and positive and condition (19) is fulfilled.

The meaning of w_{1},\ w_{2},\ w_{3},\ w_{4} here is, that they are the ratios of dx_{1},\ dx_{2},\ dx_{3},\ dx_{4} to

(20) \sqrt{-(dx_{1}^{2}+dx_{2}^{2}+dx_{3}^{2}+dx_{4}^{2})}=dt\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}

The differentials denoting the displacements of matter occupying the spacetime point x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} to the adjacent space-time point.

After the Lorentz-transfornation is accomplished the velocity of matter in the new system of reference for the same space-time point x', y', z', t' is the vector \mathfrak{w}' with the ratios \frac{dx'}{dt'},\ \frac{dy'}{dt'},\ \frac{dz'}{dt'} as components.

Now it is quite apparent that the system of values

x_{1} = w_{1},\ x_{2} = w_{2},\ x_{3} = w_{3},\ x_{4} = w_{4}

is transformed into the values

x'_{1} = w'_{1},\ x'_{2} = w'_{2},\ x'_{3} = w'_{3},\ x'_{4} = w'_{4}

in virtue of the Lorentz-transformation (10), (11), (12).

The dashed system has got the same meaning for the velocity \mathfrak{w}' after the transformation as the first system of values has got for \mathfrak{w} before transformation.

If in particular the vector \mathfrak{v} of the special Lorentz-transformation be equal to the velocity vector \mathfrak{w} of matter at the space-time point x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4}, then it follows out of (10), (11), (12) that

w'_{1} = 0,\ w'_{2} = 0,\ w'_{3} = 0,\ w'_{4} = i,

Under these circumstances therefore, the corresponding space-time point has the velocity \mathfrak{w}' = 0 after the transformation, it is as if we transform to rest. We may call the invariant \varrho\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}} as the rest-density of Electricity.

§ 5. Space-time Vectors. Of the 1st and 2nd kind.[edit]

If we take the principal result of the Lorentz transformation together with the fact that the system (A) as well as the system (B) is covariant with respect to a rotation of the coordinate-system round the null point, we obtain the general relativity theorem. In order to make the facts easily comprehensible, it may be more convenient to define a series of expressions, for the purpose of expressing the ideas in a concise form, while on the other hand I shall adhere to the practice of using complex magnitudes, in order to render certain symmetries quite evident.

Let us take a linear homogeneous transformation,

(21) \begin{array}{c}

the Determinant of the matrix is +1, all co-efficients without the index 4 occurring once are real, while \alpha_{14},\ \alpha_{24},\ \alpha_{34}, are purely imaginary, but \alpha_{44} is real and >0, and x^{2}_{1} + x^{2}_{2} + x^{2}_{3} + x^{2}_{4} transforms into x^{'2}_{1} + x^{'2}_{2} + x^{'2}_{3} + x^{'2}_{4}. The operation shall be called a general Lorentz transformation.

If we put x'_{1} = x',\ x'_{2} = y',\ x'_{3} = z',\ x'_{4} = it' then immediately there occurs a homogeneous linear transformation of x, y, z, t in x', y', z', t' with essentially real co-efficients, whereby the aggregrate -x^{2} - y^{2} - z^{2} + t^{2} transforms into -x'^{2} - y'^{2} - z'^{2} + t'^{2}, and to every such system of values x, y, z, t with a positive t, for which this aggregate >0, there always corresponds a positive t'; this last is quite evident from the continuity of the aggregate x, y, z, t.

The last vertical column of co-efficients has to fulfill, the condition

(22) \alpha^{2}_{14} + \alpha^{2}_{24} + \alpha^{2}_{34} + \alpha^{2}_{44} =1

If \alpha_{14}=0,\ \alpha_{24}=0,\ \alpha_{34}=0 then \alpha_{44}=1, and the Lorentz transformation reduces to a simple rotation of the spatial co-ordinate system round the world-point.

If \alpha_{14},\ \alpha_{24},\ \alpha_{34} are not all zero, and if we put

\alpha_{14} : \alpha_{24} : \alpha_{34} : \alpha_{44} = \mathfrak{v}_{x}:\mathfrak{v}_{y}:\mathfrak{v}_{z}:i,

On the other hand, with every set of value of \alpha_{14},\ \alpha_{24},\ \alpha_{34},\ \alpha_{44} which in this way fulfill the condition 22) with real values of \mathfrak{v}_{x}+\mathfrak{v}_{y}+\mathfrak{v}_{z}, we can construct the special Lorentz-transformation (16) with \alpha_{14},\ \alpha_{24},\ \alpha_{34},\ \alpha_{44} as the last vertical column, — and then every Lorentz-transformation with the same last vertical column \alpha_{14},\ \alpha_{24},\ \alpha_{34},\ \alpha_{44} supposed to be composed of the special Lorentz-transformation, and a rotation of the spatial co-ordinate system round the null-point.

The totality of all Lorentz-Transformations forms a group.

Under a space-time vector of the 1st kind shall be understood a system of four magnitudes \varrho_{1},\ \varrho_{2},\ \varrho_{3},\ \varrho_{4} with the condition that in case of a Lorentz-transformation it is to be replaced by the set \varrho'_{1},\ \varrho'_{2},\ \varrho'_{3},\ \varrho'_{4}, where these are the values x'_{1},\ x'_{2},\ x'_{3},\ x'_{4} obtained by substituting \varrho_{1},\ \varrho_{2},\ \varrho_{3},\ \varrho_{4} for x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} in the expression (21).

Besides the time-space vector of the 1st kind x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} we shall also make use of another spacetime vector of the first kind u_{1},\ u_{2},\ u_{3},\ u_{4}, and let us form the linear combination

(23) \begin{array}{c}

with six coefficients f_{23},\dots f_{34}. Let us remark that in the vectorial method of writing, this can be constructed out of the four vectors

x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3}; u_{1},\ u_{2},\ u_{3}; f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12}; f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34}

and the constants x_{4} and u_{4} at the same time it is symmetrical with regard the indices (1, 2, 3, 4).

If we subject x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} and u_{1},\ u_{2},\ u_{3},\ u_{4} simultaneously to the Lorentz transformation (21), the combination (23) is changed to.

(24) \begin{array}{c}

where the coefficients f'_{23},\dots f'_{34} depend solely on f_{23},\dots f_{34} and the coefficients \alpha_{11},\ \alpha_{12},\dots \alpha_{44}.

We shall define a space-time Vector of the 2nd kind as a system of six-magnitudes f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12},\ f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34} with the condition that when subjected to a Lorentz transformation, it is changed to a new system f'_{23},\ f'_{31},\ f'_{12},\ f'_{14},\ f'_{24},\ f'_{34} which satisfies the connection between (23) and (24).

I enunciate in the following manner the general theorem of relativity corresponding to the equations (I) — (IV), — which are the fundamental equations for Æther.

If x, y, z, it (space co-ordinates, and time it) is subjected to a Lorentz transformation, and at the same time \varrho\mathfrak{w}_{x},\ \varrho\mathfrak{w}_{y},\ \varrho\mathfrak{w}_{z},\ i\varrho (convection-current, and charge density × i) is transformed as a space time vector of the 1st kind, further \mathfrak{m}_{x},\ \mathfrak{m}_{y},\ \mathfrak{m}_{z},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{x}\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{y},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{z} (magnetic force, and electric induction × i) is transformed as a space time vector of the 2nd kind, then the system of equations (I), (II), and the system of equations (III), (IV) transforms into essentially corresponding relations between the corresponding magnitudes newly introduced info the system.

These facts can be more concisely expressed in these words: the system of equations (I, and II) as well as the system of equations (III) (IV) are covariant in all cases of Lorentz-transformation, where \varrho\mathfrak{w},\ i\varrho is to be transformed as a space time vector of the 1st kind, \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e} is to be treated as a vector of the 2nd kind, or more significantly, —

\varrho\mathfrak{w},\ i\varrho is a space time vector of the 1st kind, \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e} is a space-time vector of the 2nd kind.

I shall add a few more remarks here in order to elucidate the conception of space-time vector of the 2nd kind. Clearly, the following are invariants for such a vector when subjected to a group of Lorentz transformation.

(25) \mathfrak{m}^{2}-\mathfrak{e}^{2}=f_{23}^{2}+f_{31}^{2}+f_{12}^{2}+f_{14}^{2}+f_{24}^{2}+f_{34}^{2},
(26) \mathfrak{me}=i(f_{23}f_{14}+f_{31}f_{24}+f_{12}f_{34}),

A space-time vector of the second kind \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e}, where \mathfrak{m} and \mathfrak{e} are real magnitudes, may be called singular, when the scalar square (\mathfrak{m}-i\mathfrak{e})^{2}=0, i.e. \mathfrak{m}^{2}-\mathfrak{e}^{2}=0, and at the same time (\mathfrak{me})=0, i.e. the vector \mathfrak{m} and \mathfrak{e} are equal and perpendicular to each other; when such is the case, these two properties remain conserved for the space-time vector of the 2nd kind in every Lorentz-transformation.

If the space-time vector of the 2nd kind is not singular, we rotate the spacial co-ordinate system in such a manner that the vector-product [\mathfrak{me}] coincides with the z-axis, i.e. \mathfrak{m}_{z}=0, \mathfrak{e}_{z}=0. Then


Therefore \frac{\mathfrak{e}_{y}+i\mathfrak{m}_{y}}{\mathfrak{e}_{x}+i\mathfrak{m}_{x}} is different from \pm i, and we can therefore define a complex argument \varphi+i\psi in such a manner that


If then, by referring back to equations (9), we carry out the transformation (1) through the angle \psi and a subsequent rotation round the z-axis through the angle \varphi, we perform a Lorentz-transformation at the end of which \mathfrak{m}_{y}=0,\ \mathfrak{e}_{y}=0, and therefore \mathfrak{m} and \mathfrak{e} shall both coincide with the new x-axis. Then by means of the invariants \mathfrak{m}^{2}+\mathfrak{e}^{2} and (\mathfrak{me}) the final values of these vectors, whether they are of the same or of opposite directions, or whether one of them is equal to zero, would be at once settled.

§ 6. Concept of Time.[edit]

By the Lorentz transformation, we are allowed to effect certain changes of the time parameter. In consequence of this fact, it is no longer permissible to speak of the absolute simultaneity of two events. The ordinary idea of simultaneity rather presupposes that six independent parameters, which are evidently required for defining a system of space and time axes, are somehow reduced to three. Since we are accustomed to consider that these limitations represent in a unique way the actual facts very approximately, we maintain that the simultaneity of two events exists of themselves.[8] In fact, the following considerations will prove conclusive.

Let a reference system x, y, z, t for space time points (events) be somehow known. Now if a space point A(x_{0},\ y_{0},\ z_{0}) at the time t_{0}=0 be compared with a space point P(x, y, z) at the time t and if the difference of time t - t_{0}, (let t > t_{0}) be less than the length 'AP, i.e. less than the time required for the propagation of light from A to P, and if q=\frac{t-t_{0}}{AP}<1, then by a special Lorentz transformation, in which AP is taken as the axis, and which has the moment q, we can introduce a time parameter t' which (see equation 11, 12, § 4) has got the same value t'= 0 for both space-time points A, t_{0}, and P, t. So the two events can now be comprehended to be simultaneous.

Further, let us take at the same time t_{0} = 0, two different space-points A, B, or three space-points A, B, C which are not in the same space-line, and compare therewith a space point P, which is outside the line AB, or the plane ABC at another time t, and let the time difference t - t_{0} be less than the time which light requires for propagation from the line AB, or the plane ABC to P. Let q be the ratio of t - t_{0} by the second time. Then if a Lorentz transformation is taken in which the perpendicular from P on AB, or from P on the plane ABC is the axis, and q is the moment, then all the three (or four) events A,\ t_{0};\ B,\ t_{0};\ (C,\ t_{0}) and P, t are simultaneous.

If four space-points, which do not lie in one plane are conceived to be at the same time to, then it is no longer permissible to make a change of the time parameter by a Lorentz-transformation, without at the same time destroying the character of the simultaneity of these four space points.

To the mathematician, accustomed on the one hand to the methods of treatment of the poly-dimensional manifold, and on the other hand to the conceptual figures of the so-called non-Euclidean Geometry, there can be no difficulty in adopting this concept of time to the application of the Lorentz-transformation. The paper of Einstein which has been cited in the Introduction, has succeeded to some extent in presenting the nature of the transformation from the physical standpoint.


§ 7. Fundamental Equations for bodies at rest.[edit]

After these preparatory works, which have been first developed on account of the small amount of mathematics involved in the limitting case \epsilon=1,\ \mu=1,\ \sigma=1, let us turn to the electro-magnetic phenomena in matter. We look for those relations which make it possible for us — when proper fundamental data are given — to obtain the following quantities at every place and time, and therefore at every spacetime point as functions of x, y, z, t: — the vector of the electric force \mathfrak{E}, the magnetic induction \mathfrak{M}, the electrical induction \mathfrak{e}, the magnetic force \mathfrak{m}, the electrical space-density \varrho, the electric current \mathfrak{s} (whose relation hereafter to the conduction current is known by the manner in which conductivity occurs in the process), and lastly the vector \mathfrak{w}, the velocity of matter.

The relations in question can be divided into two classes.

Firstly — those equations, which, — when \mathfrak{w}, the velocity of matter is given as a function of x, y, z, t, — lead us to a knowledge of other magnitude as functions of x, y, z, t — I shall call this first class of equations the fundamental equations

Secondly, the expressions for the ponderomotive force, which, by the application of the Laws of Mechanics, gives us further information about the vector \mathfrak{w} as functions of x, y, z, t.

For the case of bodies at rest, i.e. when \mathfrak{w}(x,\ y,\ z,\ t) = 0, the theories of Maxwell (Heaviside, Hertz) and Lorentz lead to the same fundamental equations. They are ; —

(1) The Differential Equations: — which contain no constant referring to matter: —

(I) & \qquad & curl\ \mathfrak{m}-\frac{\partial e}{\partial t} & =\mathfrak{s},\\
\\(II) &  & div\ \mathfrak{e} & =\varrho,\\
\\(III) &  & curl\ \mathfrak{E}+\frac{\partial\mathfrak{M}}{\partial t} & =0,\\
\\(IV) &  & div\ \mathfrak{M} & =0\end{array};
(2) Further relations, which characterise the influence of existing matter for the most important case to which we limit ourselves, i.e. for isotopic bodies; — they are comprised in the equations
(V) \mathfrak{e}=\epsilon\mathfrak{E},\ \mathfrak{M}=\mu\mathfrak{m},\ \mathfrak{s}=\sigma\mathfrak{E},

where \epsilon = dielectric constant, \mu = magnetic permeability, \sigma = the conductivity of matter, all given as function of x, y, z, t. \mathfrak{s} is here the conduction current.

By employing a modified form of writing, I shall now cause a latent symmetry in these equations to appear. I put, as in the previous work,

x_{1} = x,\ x_{2} = y,\ x_{3} =z,\ x_{4} = it

and write s_{1},\ s_{2},\ s_{3},\ s_{4} for \mathfrak{s}_{x},\ \mathfrak{s}_{y},\ \mathfrak{s}_{z},\ i\varrho,

further f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12},\ f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34}

for \mathfrak{m}_{x},\ \mathfrak{m}_{y},\ \mathfrak{m}_{z},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{x},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{y},\ -i\mathfrak{e}_{z},

and F_{23},\ F_{31},\ F_{12},\ F_{14},\ F_{24},\ F_{34}

for \mathfrak{M}_{x},\ \mathfrak{M}_{y},\ \mathfrak{M}_{z},\ -i\mathfrak{E}_{x},\ i\mathfrak{E}_{y},\ i\mathfrak{E}_{z};

lastly we shall have the relation f_{kh} = -f_{hk},\ F_{kh} = -F_{hk}, (the letter f, F shall denote the field, s the (i.e. current).

Then the fundamental Equations can be written as

(A) \begin{array}{ccccccccc}
 &  & \frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{13}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & s_{1},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{21}}{\partial x_{1}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{23}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{24}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & s_{2},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{32}}{\partial x_{2}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial f_{34}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & s_{3},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{41}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{42}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{43}}{\partial x_{3}} &  &  & = & s_{4}.\end{array}
and the equations (III) and (IV), are
(B) \begin{array}{ccccccccc}
 &  & \frac{\partial F_{34}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{42}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{23}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial F_{43}}{\partial x_{1}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial F_{14}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{31}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial F_{24}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{41}}{\partial x_{2}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial F_{12}}{\partial x_{4}} & = & 0,\\
\\\frac{\partial F_{32}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{13}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial F_{21}}{\partial x_{3}} &  &  & = & 0.\end{array}

§ 8. The Fundamental Equations for Moving Bodies.[edit]

We are now in a position to establish in a unique way the fundamental equations for bodies moving in any manner by means of these three axioms exclusively.

The first Axion shall be, —

When a detached region of matter is at rest at any moment, therefore the vector \mathfrak{w} is zero, for a system x, y, z, t — the neighbourhood may be supposed to be in motion in any possible manner, then for the spacetime point x, y, z, t the same relations (A) (B) (V) which hold in the case when all matter is at rest, snail also hold between \varrho, the vectors \mathfrak{s,e,m,E,M} and their differentials with respect to x, y, z, t.

The second axiom shall be : —

Every velocity of matter is < 1, smaller than the velocity of propagation of light.

The third axiom shall be : —

The fundamental equations are of such a kind that when x, y, z, it are subjected to a Lorentz transformation and thereby \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e} and \mathfrak{M},\ -i\mathfrak{E} are transformed into space-time vectors of the second kind, \mathfrak{s},\ i\varrho as a space-time vector of the 1st kind, the equations are transformed into essentially identical forms involving the transformed magnitudes.

Shortly I can signify the third axiom as ; —

\mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e} and \mathfrak{M},\ -i\mathfrak{E} are space-time vectors of the second kind, \mathfrak{s},\ i\varrho is a space-time vector of the first kind.

This axiom I call the Principle of Relativity.

In fact these three axioms lead us from the previously mentioned fundamental equations for bodies at rest to the equations for moving bodies in an unambiguous way.

According to the second axiom, the magnitude of the velocity vector \left|\mathfrak{w}\right| is < 1 at any space-time point. In consequence, we can always write, instead of the vector \mathfrak{w}, the following set of four allied quantities

w_{1}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{x}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{2}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{3}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{z}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{4}=\frac{i}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},

with the relation

(27) x^{2}_{1} + x^{2}_{2} + x^{2}_{3} + x^{2}_{4} = -1

From what has been said at the end of § 4, it is clear that in the case of a Lorentz-transformation, this set behaves like a space-time vector of the 1st kind, and we want to call it space-time vector velocity.

Let us now fix our attention on a certain point x, y, z of matter at a certain time t. If at this space-time point \mathfrak{w}=0, then we have at once for this point the equations (A), (B) (V) of § 7. If \mathfrak{w}\ne0, then there exists according to 16), in case \left|\mathfrak{w}\right|<1, a special Lorentz-transformation, whose vector \mathfrak{v} is equal to this vector \mathfrak{w}(x,\ y,\ z,\ t) and we pass on to a new system of reference x', y', z', t' in accordance with this transformation. Therefore for the space-time point considered, there arises as in § 4, the new values

(28) w'_{0} = 0,\ w'_{2} = 0,\ w'_{3} = 0,\ w'_{4} = i,

therefore the new velocity vector \mathfrak{w}'=0, the space-time point is as if transformed to rest. Now according to the third axiom the system of equations for the transformed point x, y, z, t involves the newly introduced magnitude \mathfrak{w}',\varrho',\mathfrak{s',e',m',E',M'} and their differential quotients with respect to x', y', z, t' in the same manner as the original equations for the point x, y, z, t. But according to the first axiom, when \mathfrak{w}'=0 these equations must be exactly equivalent to

(1) the differential equations (A'), (B'), which are obtained from the equations (A), (B) by simply dashing the symbols in (A) and (B).

(2) and the equations

(V') \mathfrak{e}'=\epsilon\mathfrak{E}',\ \mathfrak{M}'=\mu\mathfrak{m}',\ \mathfrak{s}'=\sigma\mathfrak{E}',

where \epsilon,\ \mu,\ \sigma are the dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, and conductivity for the system x', y', z', t', i.e. in the space-time point x, y, z, t of matter.

Now let us return, by means of the reciprocal Lorentz-transformation to the original variables x, y, z, t, and the magnitudes \mathfrak{w},\varrho,\mathfrak{s,e,m,E,M} and the equations, which we then obtain from the last mentioned, will be the fundamentil equations sought by us for the moving bodies.

Now from § 4, and § 6, it is to be seen that the equations A), as well as the equations B) are covariant for a Lorentz-transformation, i.e. the equations, which we obtain backwards from A') B'), must be exactly of the same form as the equations A) and B), as we take them for bodies at rest. We have therefore as the first result: —

The differential equations expressing the fundamental equations of electrodynamics for moving bodies, when written in \varrho and the vectors \mathfrak{s,\ e,\ m,\ E,\ M} are exactly of the same form as the equations for moving bodies. The velocity of matter does not enter in these equations. In the vectorial way of writing, we have

(I) \begin{array}{rcrl}
(I) & \qquad & curl\ \mathfrak{m}-\frac{\partial e}{\partial t} & =\mathfrak{s},\\
\\(II) &  & div\ \mathfrak{e} & =\varrho,\\
\\(III) &  & curl\ \mathfrak{E}+\frac{\partial\mathfrak{M}}{\partial t} & =0,\\
\\(IV) &  & div\ \mathfrak{M} & =0\end{array},

The velocity of matter occurs only in the auxilliary equations which characterise the influence of matter on the basis of their characteristic constants \epsilon,\ \mu,\ \sigma. Let us now transform these auxilliary equations x, y, z into the original co-ordinates x, y, z, and t.)

According to formula 15) in § 4, the component of \mathfrak{e}' in the direction of the vector \mathfrak{w} is the same us that of \mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{wm}], the component of \mathfrak{m}' is the same as that of \mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}], but for the perpendicular direction \mathfrak{\bar{w}}, the components of \mathfrak{e}' and \mathfrak{m}' are the same as those of \mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{wm}] and \mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}], multiplied by \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}. On the other hand \mathfrak{E}' and \mathfrak{M}' shall stand to \mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wM}], and \mathfrak{M}-[\mathfrak{wE}] in the same relation us \mathfrak{e}' and \mathfrak{m}' to \mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{wm}] and \mathfrak{m}+[\mathfrak{we}]. From the relation \mathfrak{e}'=\epsilon\mathfrak{E}', the following equations follow

(C) \mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{wm}]=\epsilon(\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wM}]).

and from the relation \mathfrak{M}'=\mu\mathfrak{m}' we have

(D) \mathfrak{M}-[\mathfrak{mE}]=\mu(\mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}])

For the components in the directions perpendicular to \mathfrak{w}, and to each other, the equations are to be multiplied by \sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}.

Then the following equations follow from the transfermation equations (12), 10), (11) in § 4, when we replace q,\ \mathfrak{r_{v},\ r_{\bar{v}}},t,\mathfrak{r'_{v},\ r'_{\bar{v}}},t' by \left|\mathfrak{w}\right|,\ \mathfrak{s_{w},s_{\bar{w}}},\varrho,\mathfrak{s'_{w},s'_{\bar{w}}},\varrho'.

\varrho'=\frac{-\left|\mathfrak{w}\right|\mathfrak{s_{w}}+\varrho}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ s'_{w}=\frac{s_{w}-\left|\mathfrak{w}\right|\varrho}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ \mathfrak{s'_{\bar{w}}}=\mathfrak{s}_{\bar{w}},
(E) \begin{array}{c}

In consideration of the manner in which \sigma enters into these relations, it will be convenient to call the vector \mathfrak{s}-\varrho\mathfrak{w} with the components \mathfrak{s_{w}}-\varrho\mathfrak{\left|w\right|} in the direction of \mathfrak{w} and \mathfrak{s_{\bar{w}}} in the directions \mathfrak{w} perpendicular to \mathfrak{\bar{w}} the Convection current. This last vanishes for \sigma = 0.

We remark that for \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1 the equations \mathfrak{e'=E',\ m'=M'} immediately lead to the equations \mathfrak{e=E,\ m=M} by means of a reciprocal Lorentz-transformation with -\mathfrak{w} as vector; and for \sigma = 0, the equation \mathfrak{s}'=0 leads to \mathfrak{s}=\varrho\mathfrak{w}, that the "fundamental equations of Æther" discussed in § 2 becomes in fact the limitting case of the equations obtained here with \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1,\ \sigma = 0.

§ 9. The Fundamental Equations in Lorentz's Theory.[edit]

Let us now see how far the fundamental equations assumed by Lorentz correspond to the Relativity postulate, as defined in §8. In the article on Electron-theory (Ency, Math., Wiss., Bd. V. 2, Art 14) Lorentz has given the fundamental equations for any possible, even magnetised bodies (see there page 209, Eq. XXX', formula (14) on page 78 of the same (part).

(IIIa'') & \qquad & curl\ (\mathfrak{H}-[\mathfrak{wE}] & =\mathfrak{F}+\frac{\partial\mathfrak{D}}{\partial t}+\mathfrak{w}\ div\ \mathfrak{D}-curl[\mathfrak{wD}],\\
\\(I'') &  & div\ \mathfrak{D} & =\varrho,\\
\\(IV'') &  & curl\ \mathfrak{E} & =-\frac{\partial\mathfrak{B}}{\partial t},\\
\\(V'') &  & div\ \mathfrak{B} & =0.\end{array}

Then for moving non-magnetised bodies, Lorentz puts (page 223, 3) \mu = 1, \mathfrak{B}=\mathfrak{H}, and in addition to that takes account of the occurrence of the di-electric constant \epsilon, and conductivity \sigma according to equations

(Eq. XXXIV"', p. 227)

(Eq. XXXIII", p. 223)
\mathfrak{D}-\mathfrak{E} & =\left(\epsilon-1\right)\left(\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wB}]\right)\\
\\\mathfrak{F} & =\sigma(\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wB}])\end{array}

Lorentz's \mathfrak{E,B,D,H} are here denoted by \mathfrak{E,M,e,m} while \mathfrak{F} denotes the conduction current.

The three last equations which have been just cited here coincide with eq. (II), (III), (IV), the first equation would be, if \mathfrak{F} is identified with \mathfrak{s}-\mathfrak{w}\sigma (the current being zero for \sigma = 0),

(29) curl\ (\mathfrak{H}-[\mathfrak{wE}])=\mathfrak{s}+\frac{\partial\mathfrak{D}}{\partial t}-curl[\mathfrak{wD}]

and thus comes out to in in a different form than (1) here. Therefore for magnetised bodies, Lorentz's equations do not correspond to the Relativity Principle.

On the other hand, the form corresponding to the relativity principle, for the condition of non-magnetisation is to be taken out of (D) in §8, with \mu=1, not as \mathfrak{B}=\mathfrak{H}, as Lorentz takes, but as

(30) \mathfrak{B}-[\mathfrak{wE}]=\mathfrak{H}-[\mathfrak{wD}] (hier \mathfrak{M}-[\mathfrak{wE}]=\mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}])
Now by putting \mathfrak{H}=\mathfrak{B}, the differential equation (29) is transformed into the same form as eq. (1) here when \mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}]=\mathfrak{M}-[\mathfrak{wE}]. Therefore it so happens that by a compensation of two contradictions to the relativity principle, the differential equations of Lorentz for moving non-magnetised bodies at last agree with the relativity postulate.

If we make use of (30) for non-magnetic bodies, and put accordingly \mathfrak{H}=\mathfrak{B}+[\mathfrak{w},\ \mathfrak{D}-\mathfrak{E}], then in consequence of (C) in §8,

(\epsilon-1)(\mathfrak{E}+(\mathfrak{wB}])=\mathfrak{D}-\mathfrak{E}+(\mathfrak{w}[\mathfrak{w},\ \mathfrak{D}-\mathfrak{E}])

i.e. for the direction of \mathfrak{w}


and for a perpendicular direction \mathfrak{\bar{w}},


i.e. it coincides with Lorentz's assumption, if we neglect \mathfrak{w}^2 in comparison to 1.

Also to the same order of approximation, Lorentz's form for \mathfrak{F} corresponds to the conditions imposed by the relativity principle [comp. (E) § 8] — that the components of \mathfrak{F_{w}}, \mathfrak{F_{\bar{w}}} are equal to the components of \sigma(\mathfrak{E}+(\mathfrak{wB}]) multiplied by \sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}} or \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}} respectively.

§ 10. Fundamental Equations of E. Cohn.[edit]

E. Cohn[9] assumes the following fundamental equations

(31) \begin{array}{c}
curl\ (M+[\mathfrak{wE}])=\frac{\partial\mathfrak{E}}{\partial t}+\mathfrak{w}\ div\ \mathfrak{E}+\mathfrak{F},\\
\\-curl\ (\mathfrak{E}-[\mathfrak{wM}])=\frac{\partial\mathfrak{M}}{\partial t}+\mathfrak{w}\ div\ \mathfrak{M},\end{array}
(32) \mathfrak{F}=\sigma E,\ \mathfrak{E}=\epsilon E-[\mathfrak{w}M],\ \mathfrak{M}=\mu M+[\mathfrak{w}E],

where E, M are the electric and magnetic field intensities (forces), \mathfrak{E,M} are the electric and magnetic polarisation (induction). The equations also permit the existence of true magnetism; if we do not take into account this consideration, div\ \mathfrak{M} is to be put = 0.

An objection to this system of equations, is that according to these, for \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1, the vectors force and induction do not coincide. If in the equations, we conceive E and M and not E-[\mathfrak{wM}] and M+[\mathfrak{wE}] as electric and magnetic forces, and with a glance to this we substitute for \mathfrak{E,M},E,M,div\ \mathfrak{E} the symbols \mathfrak{e,M,\ E}+[\mathfrak{wM}],\ \mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}],\ \varrho, then the differential equations transform to our equations, and the conditions (32) transform into

\mathfrak{F} & =\sigma(\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wM}]),\\
\\\mathfrak{e}+[\mathfrak{w,m}-[\mathfrak{we}]] & =\epsilon(\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wM}]),\\
\\\mathfrak{M}-[\mathfrak{w,\ E}+[\mathfrak{wM}]] & =\mu(\mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}])\end{array};

then in fact the equations of Cohn become the same as those required by the relativity principle, if errors of the order \mathfrak{w}^{2} are neglected in comparison to 1.

It may be mentioned here that the equations of Hertz become the same as those of Cohn, if the auxilliary conditions are

(33) \mathfrak{E}=\epsilon E,\ \mathfrak{M}=\mu M,\ \mathfrak{F}=\sigma E;

§ 11. Typical Representations of the fundamental equations.[edit]

In the statement of the fundamental equations, our leading idea had been that they should retain a covariance of form, when subjected to a group of Lorentz-transformations. Now we have to deal with ponderomotive reactions and energy in the electro-magnetic field. Here from the very first there can be no doubt that the settlement of this question is in some way connected with the simplest forms which can be given to the fundamental equations, satisfying the conditions of covariance. In order to arrive at such forms, I shall first of all put the fundamental equations in a typical form which brings out clearly their covariance in case of a Lorentz-transformation. Here I am using a method of calculation, which enables us to deal in a simple manner with the space-time vectors of the 1st, and 2nd kind, and of which the rules, as far as required are given below.

1°. A system of magnitudes a_{hk}, formed into the matrix

a_{11}, & \dots & a_{1q}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
a_{p1}, & \dots & a_{pq}\end{array}\right|

arranged in p horizontal rows, and q vertical columns is called a p \times q series-matrix,[10] and will be denoted by the letter A.

If all the quantities a_{hk} are multiplied by c, the resulting matrix will be denoted by cA.

If the roles of the horizontal rows and vertical columns be intercharged, we obtain a q \times p series matrix, which will be known as the transposed matrix of A, and will be denoted by A.

a_{11}, & \dots & a_{q1}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
a_{1p}, & \dots & a_{pq}\end{array}\right|.

If we have a second p \times q series matrix B.

b_{11}, & \dots & b_{1q}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
b_{p1}, & \dots & b_{pq}\end{array}\right|,

then A+B shall denote the p \times q series matrix whose members are a_{hk}+b_{hk}.

2° If we have two matrices

a_{11}, & \dots & a_{1q}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
a_{p1}, & \dots & a_{pq}\end{array}\right|,\ B=\left|\begin{array}{ccc}
b_{11}, & \dots & b_{1r}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
b_{p1}, & \dots & b_{qr}\end{array}\right|

where the number of horizontal rows of B, is equal to the number of vertical columns of A, then by AB, the product of the matrices A and B, will be denoted the matrix

c_{11}, & \dots & c_{1r}\\
\vdots &  & \vdots\\
c_{p1}, & \dots & c_{pr}\end{array}\right|


c_{hk}=a_{h1}b_{1k}+a_{h2}b_{2k}+\dots+a_{hq}b_{qk}\quad\left({h=1,2,\dots p\atop k=1,2,\dots r}\right)

these elements being formed by combination of the horizontal rows of A with the vertical columns of B. For such a point, the associative law (AB)S = A(BS) holds, where S is a third matrix which has got as many horizontal rows as B (or AB) has got vertical columns.

For the transposed matrix of  C = AB, we have \bar{C}=\bar{B}\bar{A}.

3°. We shall have principally to deal with matrices with at most four vertical columns and for horizontal rows.

As a unit matrix (in equations they will be known for the sake of shortness as the matrix 1) will be denoted the following matrix (4 ✕ 4 series) with the elements.

(34) \left|\begin{array}{cccc}
e_{11}, & e_{12}, & e_{13}, & e_{14}\\
e_{21}, & e_{22}, & e_{23}, & e_{24}\\
e_{31}, & e_{32}, & e_{33}, & e_{34}\\
e_{41}, & e_{42}, & e_{43}, & e_{44}\end{array}\right| =\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
1, & 0, & 0, & 0\\
0, & 1, & 0, & 0\\
0, & 0, & 1, & 0\\
0, & 0, & 0, & 1\end{array}\right|

For a 4✕4 series-matrix, Det A shall denote the determinant formed of the 4✕4 elements of the matrix. If Det A \ne 0, then corresponding to A there is a reciprocal matrix, which we may denote by A^{-1} so that A^{-1} A = 1

A matrix

0, & f_{12}, & f_{13}, & f_{14}\\
f_{21}, & 0, & f_{23}, & f_{24}\\
f_{31}, & f_{32}, & 0, & f_{34}\\
f_{41}, & f_{42}, & f_{43}, & 0\end{array}\right|,
in which the elements fulfill the relation f_{kh} = -f_{hk}, is called an alternating matrix. These relations say that the transposed matrix \bar{f}=-f. Then by f^{*} will be the dual, alternating matrix
(35) f^{*}=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
0, & f_{34}, & f_{42}, & f_{23}\\
f_{43}, & 0, & f_{14}, & f_{31}\\
f_{24}, & f_{41}, & 0, & f_{12}\\
f_{32}, & f_{13}, & f_{21}, & 0\end{array}\right|,


(36) f^{*}f = f_{32}f_{14} + f_{13}f_{24} + f_{21}f_{34},

i.e. We shall have a 4✕4 series matrix in which all the elements except those on the diagonal from left up to right down are zero, and the elements in this diagonal agree with each other, and are each equal to the above mentioned combination in (36).

The determinant of f is therefore the square of the combination, by Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f we shall denote the expression

(37) Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f = f_{32}f_{14} + f_{13}f_{24} + f_{21}f_{34}

4°. A linear transformation

(38) x_{h} = \alpha_{h1}x'_{1} + \alpha_{h2}x'_{2} + \alpha_{h3}x'_{3} + \alpha_{h4}x'_{4}\qquad (h=1, 2, 3, 4)

which is accomplished by the matrix

\alpha_{11}, & \alpha_{12}, & \alpha_{13}, & \alpha_{14}\\
\alpha_{21}, & \alpha_{22}, & \alpha_{23}, & \alpha_{24}\\
\alpha_{31}, & \alpha_{32}, & \alpha_{33}, & \alpha_{34}\\
\alpha_{41}, & \alpha_{42}, & \alpha_{43}, & \alpha_{44}\end{array}\right|,

will be denoted as the transformation \mathsf{A}

By the transformation \mathsf{A}, the expression

x^{2}_{1} + x^{2}_{2} + x^{2}_{3} + x^{2}_{4}

is changed into the quadratic form

\Sigma a_{hk}x'_{h}x'_{k}\qquad (h,k = 1, 2, 3, 4)
a_{hk} = \alpha_{1h}\alpha_{1k} + \alpha_{2h}\alpha_{2k} + \alpha_{3h}\alpha_{3k} + \alpha_{4h}\alpha_{4k}

are the members of a 4✕4 series matrix which is the product of \mathsf{\bar{A}A}, the transposed matrix of \mathsf{A} into \mathsf{A}. If by the transformation, the expression is changed to

x^{'2}_{1} + x^{'2}_{2} + x^{'2}_{3} + x^{'2}_{4}

we must have

(39) \mathsf{\bar{A}A}=1

\mathsf{A} has to correspond to the following relation, if transformation (38) is to be a Lorentz-transformation. For the determinant of \mathsf{A} it follows out of (39) that (Det \mathsf{A})^{2} = 1, Det \mathsf{A} = \pm 1.

From the condition (39) we obtain

(40) \mathsf{A}^{-1}=\mathsf{\overline{A}}

i.e. the reciprocal matrix of \mathsf{A} is equivalent to the transposed matrix of \mathsf{A}.

For \mathsf{A} as Lorentz transformation, we have further Det \mathsf{A} = + 1, the quantities involving the index 4 once in the subscript are purely imaginary, the other co-efficients are real, and \alpha_{44}>0.

5°. A space time vector of the first kind which is represented by the 1✕4 series matrix,

(41) s=| s_{1},\ s_{2},\ s_{3},\ s_{4} |

is to be replaced by s\mathsf{A} in case of a Lorentz transformation

A space-time vector of the 2nd kind with components f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12},\ f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34} shall be represented by the alternating matrix

(42) f=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
0, & f_{12}, & f_{13}, & f_{14}\\
f_{21}, & 0, & f_{23}, & f_{24}\\
f_{31}, & f_{32}, & 0, & f_{34}\\
f_{41}, & f_{42}, & f_{43}, & 0\end{array}\right|

and is to be replaced by \mathsf{\overline{A}}f\mathsf{A}=\mathsf{A}^{-1}f\mathsf{A} in case of a Lorentz transformation [see the rules in § 5 (23) (24)]. Therefore referring to the expression (37), we have the identity Det^{\frac{1}{2}}(\mathsf{\overline{A}}f\mathsf{A})=Det\ \mathsf{A}\ Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f. Therefore Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f becomes an invariant in the case of a Lorentz transformation [see eq. (26) Sec. § 5].

Looking back to (36), we have for the dual matrix


from which it is to be seen that the dual matrix f^{*} behaves exactly like the primary matrix f, and is therefore a space time vector of the II kind; f^{*} is therefore known as the dual space-time vector of f with components f_{14},\ f_{24},\ f_{34},\ f_{23},\ f_{31},\ f_{12}.

6°.If w and s are two space-time vectors of the 1st kind then by w\bar{s} (as well as by s\bar{w})) will be understood the combination

(43) w_{1}s_{1} + w_{2}s_{2} + w_{3}s_{3} + w_{4}s_{4}

In case of a Lorentz transformation \mathsf{A}, since (w\mathsf{A})(\mathsf{\bar{A}}\bar{s})=w\bar{s} this expression is invariant. — If w\bar{s}=0, then w and s are perpendicular to each other.

Two space-time rectors of the first kind w, s gives us a 2✕4 series matrix

w_{1}, & w_{2}, & w_{3}, & w_{4}\\
s_{1}, & s_{2}, & s_{3}, & s_{4}\end{array}\right|

Then it follows immediately that the system of six magnitudes

(44) w_{2}s_{3} - w_{3}s_{2},\ w_{3}s_{1} - w_{1}s_{3},\ w_{1}s_{2} - w_{2}s_{1},\ w_{1}s_{4} - w_{4}s_{1},\ w_{2}s_{4} - w_{4}s_{2},\ w_{3}s_{4} - w_{4}s_{3}

behaves in case of a Lorentz-transformation as a space-time vector of the II. kind. The vector of the second kind with the components (44) are denoted by [w,s]. We see easily that Det^{\frac{1}{2}}[w,s] =0. The dual vector of [w,s] shall be written as [w,s]*.

If w is a space-time vector of the 1st kind, f of the second kind, wf signifies a 1✕4 series matrix. In case of a Lorentz-transformation \mathsf{A}, w is changed into w'=w\mathsf{A}, f into f'=\mathsf{A}^{-1}f\mathsf{A}, therefore w'f'=w\mathsf{A}\ \mathsf{A}^{-1}f\mathsf{A}=(wf)\mathsf{A}, i.e., wf is transformed as a space-time vector of the 1st kind. We can verify, when w is a space-time vector of the 1st kind, f of the 2nd kind, the important identity

(45) [w,wf]+[w,wf^{*}]^{*}=(w\bar{w})f.
The sum of the two space time vectors of the second kind on the left side is to be understood in the sense of the addition of two alternating matrices.

For example, for w_{1} = 0,\ w_{2} = 0,\ w_{3} =0,\ w_{4} = i

wf=\left|if_{41},\ if_{42},\ if_{43},\ 0\right|;\ wf^{*}=\left|if_{32},\ if_{13},\ if_{21},\ 0\right|;

[w,wf]=0,0,0,f_{41},\ f_{42},\ f_{43};\ [w,wf^{*}]=0,0,0,\ f_{32},\ f_{13},\ f_{21};

The fact that in this special case, the relation is satisfied, suffices to establish the theorem (45) generally, for this relation has a covariant character in case of a Lorentz transformation, and is homogeneous in w_{1},\ w_{2},\ w_{3},\ w_{4}.

After these preparatory works let us engage ourselves with the equations (C,) (D,) (E) by means which the constants \epsilon,\ \mu,\ \sigma will be introduced.

Instead of the space vector \mathfrak{w}, the velocity of matter, we shall introduce the space-time vector of the first kind w with the components.

w_{1}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{x}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{2}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{y}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{3}=\frac{\mathfrak{w}_{z}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},\ w_{4}=\frac{i}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}


(46) w\overline{w}=w_{1}^{2}+w_{2}^{2}+w_{3}^{2}+w_{4}^{2}=-1

and -iw_{4} > 0..

By F and f shall be understood the space time vectors of the second kind \mathfrak{M},\ -i\mathfrak{E}, \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e}.

In \Phi = -wF, we have a space time vector of the first kind with components

\Phi_{1} & = &  &  & w_{2}F_{12} & + & w_{3}F_{13} & + & w_{4}F_{14},\\
\Phi_{2} & = & w_{1}F_{21} &  &  & + & w_{3}F_{23} & + & w_{4}F_{24},\\
\Phi_{3} & = & w_{1}F_{31} & + & w_{2}F_{32} &  &  & + & w_{4}F_{34},\\
\Phi_{4} & = & w_{1}F_{41} & + & w_{2}F_{42} & + & w_{3}F_{43}.\end{array}.

The first three quantities \Phi_{1},\ \Phi_{2},\ \Phi_{3} are the components of the space-vector

(47) \frac{\mathfrak{E}+[\mathfrak{wM}]}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},
and further
(48) \Phi_{4}=\frac{i[\mathfrak{wE}]}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},

Because F is an alternating matrix,

(49) w\overline{\Phi}=w_{1}\Phi_{1}+w_{2}\Phi_{2}+w_{3}\Phi_{3}+w_{4}\Phi_{4}=0,

i.e. \Phi is perpendicular to the vector to w; we can also write

(50) \Phi_{4}=i(\mathfrak{w}_{x}\Phi_{1}+\mathfrak{w}_{y}\Phi_{2}+\mathfrak{w}_{z}\Phi_{3}),

I shall call the space-time vector \Phi of the first kind as the Electric Rest Force.

Relations analogous to those holding between -wF,\ \mathfrak{E,\ M,\ w}, hold amongst -wf,\ \mathfrak{e,\ m,\ w}, and in particular -wf is normal to w. The relation (C) can be written as

{C} wf = \epsilon wF

The expression (wf) gives four components, but the fourth can be derived from the first three.

Let us now form the time-space vector 1st kind \Psi=iwf^{*}, whose components are

\Psi_{1} & = & -i( &  &  & w_{2}f_{34} & + & w_{3}f_{42} & + & w_{4}f_{23}),\\
\Psi_{2} & = & -i( & w_{1}f_{43} &  &  & + & w_{3}f_{14} & + & w_{4}f_{31}),\\
\Psi_{3} & = & -i( & w_{1}f_{24} & + & w_{2}f_{41} &  &  & + & w_{4}f_{12}),\\
\Psi_{4} & = & -i( & w_{1}f_{32} & + & w_{2}f_{13} & + & w_{3}f_{21} &  & ).\end{array}

Of these, the first three \Psi_{1},\ \Psi_{2},\ \Psi_{3} are the x-, y-, z-components of the space-vector

(51) \frac{\mathfrak{m}-[\mathfrak{we}]}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}},

and further

(52) \Psi_{4}=\frac{i[\mathfrak{wm}]}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}};

Among these there is the relation

(53) w\overline{\Psi}=w_{1}\Psi_{1}+w_{2}\Psi_{2}+w_{3}\Psi_{3}+w_{4}\Psi_{4}=0,

which can also be written as

(54) \Psi_{4}=i(\mathfrak{w}_{x}\Psi_{1}+\mathfrak{w}_{y}\Psi_{2}+\mathfrak{w}_{z}\Psi_{3})

The vector \Psi is perpendicular to w; we can call it the Magnetic rest-force.

Relations analogous to these hold among the quantities iwF^{*},\mathfrak{M,E,w} and Relation (D) can be replaced by the formula

{D} wF^{*} = \mu wf^{*}

We can use the relations (C) and (D) to calculate F and f from \Phi and \Psi, we have

wF = -\Phi,\ wF^{*} = -i\mu\Psi,\ wf = -\epsilon\Phi,\ wf^{*} = -i\Psi

and applying the relation (45) and (46), we have

(55) F = [w,\Phi] + i\mu[w,\Psi]^{*},
(56) f = \epsilon[w,\Phi] + i[w,\Psi]^{*},


F_{12} = (w_{1}\Phi_{2} - w_{2}\Phi_{1}) + i\mu(w_{3}\Psi_{4} - w_{4}\Psi_{3}), etc.

f_{12} = \epsilon(w_{1}\Phi_{2} - w_{2}\Phi_{1}) + i(w_{3}\Psi_{4} - w_{4}\Psi_{3}), etc.

Let us now consider the space-time vector of the second kind [\Phi \Psi], with the components

\Phi_{2}\Psi_{3}-\Phi_{3}\Psi_{2},\ \Phi_{3}\Psi_{1}-\Phi_{1}\Psi_{3},\ \Phi_{1}\Psi_{2}-\Phi_{2}\Psi_{1},

\Phi_{1}\Psi_{4}-\Phi_{4}\Psi_{1},\ \Phi_{2}\Psi_{4}-\Phi_{4}\Psi_{2},\ \Phi_{3}\Psi_{4}-\Phi_{4}\Psi_{3},

Then the corresponding space-time vector of the first kind


vanishes identically owing to equations 49) and 53).

Let us now take the vector of the 1st kind

(57) |\Omega = iw[\Phi,\ \Psi]^{*}

with the components

w_{2}, & w_{3}, & w_{4}\\
\Phi_{2}, & \Phi_{3}, & \Phi_{4}\\
\Psi_{2}, & \Psi_{3}, & \Psi_{4}\end{array}\right|, etc.

Then by applying rule (45), we have

(58) |\Phi \Psi] = i[w, \Omega]^{*},


\Phi_{1}\Psi_{2} - \Phi_{2}\Psi_{1} = i(w_{3}\Omega_{4} - w_{4}\Omega_{3}), etc.

The vector \Omega fulfills the relation

(59) (w\bar{\Omega})=w_{1}\Omega_{1}+w_{2}\Omega_{2}+w_{3}\Omega_{3}+w_{4}\Omega_{4}=0,

which we can write as


and \Omega is also normal to w. In case \mathfrak{w} =0, we have \Phi_{4} = 0,\ \Psi_{4} = 0,\ \Omega_{4} = 0, and

(60) \Omega_{1} = \Phi_{2} \Psi_{3} - \Phi_{3} \Psi_{2},\ \Omega_{2} = \Phi_{3} \Psi_{1} - \Phi_{1} \Psi_{3},\ \Omega_{3} = \Phi_{1} \Psi_{2} - \Phi_{2} \Psi_{1},

I shall call \Omega, which is a space-time vector 1st kind the Rest-Ray.

As for the relation E), which introduces the conductivity \sigma, we have


This expression gives us the rest-density of electricity (see §8 and §4). Then

(61) s+(w\bar{s})w

represents a space-time vector of the 1st kind, which since w\bar{w}=1, is normal to w, and which I may call the rest-current. Let us now conceive of the first three component of this vector as the x-, y-, z co-ordinates of the space-vector, then the component in the direction of \mathfrak{w} is


and the component in a perpendicular direction is \mathfrak{s_{\bar{w}}}=\mathfrak{F_{\bar{w}}}.

This space-vector is connected with the space-vector \mathfrak{F}=\mathfrak{s}-\varrho\mathfrak{w}, which we denoted in § 8 as the conduction-current.

Now by comparing with \Phi = -wF, the relation (E) can be brought into the form

(E) s+(w\bar{s})w=-\sigma wF.
This formula contains four equations, of which the fourth follows from the first three, since this is a space-time vector which is perpendicular to w.

Lastly, we shall transform the differential equations (A) and (B) into a typical form.

§ 12. The Differential Operator Lor.[edit]

A 4✕4 series matrix

(62) S=\begin{array}{cccc}
S_{11}, & S_{12}, & S_{13}, & S_{1}\\
S_{21}, & S_{22}, & S_{23}, & S_{24}\\
S_{31}, & S_{32}, & S_{33}, & S_{34}\\
S_{41}, & S_{42}, & S_{43}, & S_{44}\end{array}=\left|S_{hk}\right|

with the condition that in case of a Lorentz transformation it is to be replaced by \mathsf{\bar{A}}S\mathsf{A}, may be called a space-time matrix of the II. kind. We have examples of this in : —

1) the alternating matrix f, which corresponds to the space-time vector of the II. kind, —
2) the product fF of two such matrices, for by a transformation \mathsf{A}, it is replaced by (\mathsf{A}^{-1}f\mathsf{A})(\mathsf{A}^{-1}F\mathsf{A})=\mathsf{A}^{-1}fF\mathsf{A},
3) further when w_{1},\ w_{2},\ w_{3},\ w_{4} and \Omega_{1},\ \Omega_{2},\ \Omega_{3},\ \Omega_{4} are two space-time vectors of the 1st kind, the 4✕4 matrix with the S_{hk}=w_{h}\Omega_{k},
lastly in a multiple L of the unit matrix of 4✕4 series in which all the elements in the principal diagonal are equal to L, and the rest are zero.

We shall have to do constantly with functions of the space-time point x, y, z, it, and we may with advantage employ the 1✕4 series matrix, formed of differential symbols, —

\left|\frac{\partial}{\partial x},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial y},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial z},\ \frac{\partial}{i\partial t}\right|,


(63) \left|\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{1}},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial x_{2}},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial x_{3}},\ \frac{\partial}{x_{4}}\right|
For this matrix I shall use the shortened from lor.

Then if S is, as in (62), a space-time matrix of the II. kind, by lor S' will be understood the 1✕4 series matrix

\left|K_{1},\ K_{2},\ K_{3},\ K_{4}\right|


(64) K_{k}=\frac{\partial S_{1k}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial S_{2k}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial S_{3k}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial S_{4k}}{\partial x_{4}}\qquad (k=1,2,3,4)

When by a Lorentz transformation \mathsf{A}, a new reference system x'_{1},\ x'_{2},\ x'_{3},\ x'_{4} is introduced, we can use the operator

lor'=\left|\frac{\partial}{\partial x'_{1}},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial x'_{2}},\ \frac{\partial}{\partial x'_{3}},\ \frac{\partial}{x'_{4}}\right|

Then S is transformed to S'=\bar{\mathsf{A}}S\mathsf{A}=\left|S'_{hk}\right|, so by lor' Sis meant the 1✕4 series matrix, whose element are

K'_{k}=\frac{\partial S'_{1k}}{\partial x'_{1}}+\frac{\partial S'_{2k}}{\partial x'_{2}}+\frac{\partial S'_{3k}}{\partial x'_{3}}+\frac{\partial S'_{4k}}{\partial x'_{4}}\qquad (k=1,2,3,4)

Now for the differentiation of any function of (x y z t) we have the rule

\frac{\partial}{\partial x'_{k}}=\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{1}}\frac{\partial x_{1}}{\partial x'_{k}}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{2}}\frac{\partial x_{2}}{\partial x'_{k}}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{3}}\frac{\partial x_{3}}{\partial x'_{k}}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{4}}\frac{\partial x_{4}}{\partial x'_{k}}

=\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{1}}\alpha_{1k}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{2}}\alpha_{2k}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{3}}\alpha_{3k}+\frac{\partial}{\partial x_{4}}\alpha_{4k},

so that, we have symbolically

lor'=lor\ (\mathsf{A}

Therefore it follows that

(65) lor'\ S'=lor(\mathsf{A}(\mathsf{A}^{-1}S\mathsf{A}))=(lor\ S)\mathsf{A},

i.e., lor S behaves like a space-time vector of the first kind.

If L is a multiple of the unit matrix, then by lor L will be denoted the matrix with the elements

(66) \left|\frac{\partial L}{\partial x_{1}},\ \frac{\partial L}{\partial x_{2}},\ \frac{\partial L}{\partial x_{3}},\ \frac{\partial L}{\partial x_{4}}\right|

If s=\left|s_{1},\ s_{2},\ s_{3},\ s_{4}\right| is a space-time vector of the 1st kind, then

(67) lor\ \bar{s}=\frac{\partial s_{1}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial s_{2}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial s_{3}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial s_{4}}{\partial x_{4}}

In case of a Lorentz transformation \mathsf{A}, we have

lor'\ \bar{s}'=(lor\ \mathsf{A})(\mathsf{\bar{A}}\bar{s})=lor\ \bar{s},

i.e., lor s is an invariant in a {sc|Lorentz}}-transformation.

In all these operations the operator lor plays the part of a space-time vector of the first kind.

If f represents a space-time vector of the second kind, -lor f denotes a space-time vector of the first kind with the components

 &  & \frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{13}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{4}},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{21}}{\partial x_{1}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial_{23}}{\partial x_{3}} & + & \frac{\partial_{24}}{\partial x_{4}},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial_{32}}{\partial x_{2}} &  &  & + & \frac{\partial_{34}}{\partial x_{4}},\\
\\\frac{\partial f_{41}}{\partial x_{1}} & + & \frac{\partial_{42}}{\partial x_{2}} & + & \frac{\partial_{43}}{\partial x_{3}},\end{array}

So the system o£ differential equations (A) can be expressed in the concise form

{A} lor\ f = -s

and the system (B) can be expressed in the form

{B} lor\ F^{*} = 0

Referring back to the definition (67) for lor\ \bar{s}, we find that the combinations lor (\overline{lor\ f}) and lor (\overline{lor\ F^{*}}) vanish identically, when f and F* are alternating matrices. Accordingly it follows out of (A), that

(68) \frac{\partial s_{1}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial s_{2}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial s_{3}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial s_{4}}{\partial x_{4}}=0,
while the relation
(69) lor\ (\overline{lor\ F^{*}})=0

signifies that of the four equations in (B), only three represent independent conditions.

I shall now collect the results.

Let w denote the space-time vector of the first kind

\frac{\mathfrak{w}}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}, \frac{i}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}
(\mathfrak{w} = velocity of matter),

F the space-time vector of the second kind \mathfrak{M},\ -i\mathfrak{E} (\mathfrak{M} = magnetic induction, \mathfrak{E} = Electric force),

f the space-time vector of the second kind \mathfrak{m},\ -i\mathfrak{e} (\mathfrak{m} = magnetic force,)

\mathfrak{e} = Electric Induction.

s the space-time vector of the first kind \mathfrak{s}, i\varrho (\varrho = electrical space-density,)

\mathfrak{s}-\varrho\mathfrak{w} = conductivity current,

\epsilon = dielectric constant,

\mu = magnetic permeability,

\sigma = conductivity.

then the fundamental equations for electromagnetic processes in moving bodies are

{A} lor f = -s
{B} lor F^{*} = 0
{C} wf = \epsilon wF
{D} wF^{*} = \mu wf^{*}
{E} s+(w\bar{s})w=-\sigma wF.

w\bar{w}=-1, and wF, wf, wF*, wf*, s+(w\bar{s})w which are space-time vectors of the first kind are all normal to w, and for the system {B}, we have

lor\ (\overline{lor\ F^{*}})=0
Bearing in mind this last relation, we see that we have as many independent equations at our disposal as are necessary for determining the processes when proper fundamental data are given, where the motion of matter, thus the vector \mathfrak{w} as a function of x, y, z, t are given.

§ 13. The Product of the Field-vectors fF.[edit]

Finally let us enquire about the laws which lead to the determination of the vector w as a function of x, y, z, t. In these investigations, the expressions which are obtained by the multiplication of two alternating matrices

0, & f_{12}, & f_{13}, & f_{14}\\
f_{21}, & 0, & f_{23}, & f_{24}\\
f_{31}, & f_{32}, & 0, & f_{34}\\
f_{41}, & f_{42}, & f_{43}, & 0\end{array}\right|,\ F=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
0, & F_{12}, & F_{13}, & F_{14}\\
F_{21}, & 0, & F_{23}, & F_{24}\\
F_{31}, & F_{32}, & 0, & F_{34}\\
F_{41}, & F_{42}, & F_{43}, & 0\end{array}\right|

are of much importance. Let us write.

(70) f\ F=\left|\begin{array}{llll}
S_{11}-L, & S_{12}, & S_{13}, & S_{14}\\
S_{21}, & S_{22}-L, & S_{23}, & S_{23}\\
S_{31}, & S_{32}, & S_{33}-L, & S_{34}\\
S_{41}, & S_{42}, & S_{43}, & S_{44}-L\end{array}\right|

Then (71)

(71) S_{11} + S_{22} + S_{33} + S_{44} = 0

Let L now denote the symmetrical combination of the indices 1, 2, 3, 4, given by

(72) L=\frac{1}{2}(f_{23}F_{23}+f_{31}F_{31}+f_{12}F_{12}+f_{14}F_{14}+f_{24}F_{24}+f_{34}F_{34})

Then we shall have

(73) \begin{array}{c}
S_{12}=f_{13}F_{32}+f_{14}F_{42},\ u.s.f.\end{array}

In order to express in a real form, we write

(74) S=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
S_{11}, & S_{12}, & S_{13}, & S_{14}\\
S_{21}, & S_{22}, & S_{23}, & S_{23}\\
S_{31}, & S_{32}, & S_{33}, & S_{34}\\
S_{41}, & S_{42}, & S_{43}, & S_{44}\end{array}\right|=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
X_{x}, & Y_{x}, & Z_{x}, & -iT_{x}\\
X_{y}, & Y_{y}, & Z_{y}, & -iT_{y}\\
X_{z}, & Y_{z}, & Z_{z}, & -iT_{z}\\
-iX_{t}, & -iY_{t}, & -iZ_{t}, & T_{t}\end{array}\right|


(75) X_{x}=\frac{1}{2}(\mathfrak{m}_{x}\mathfrak{M}_{x}-\mathfrak{m}_{y}\mathfrak{M}_{y}-\mathfrak{m}_{z}\mathfrak{M}_{z}+\mathfrak{e}_{x}\mathfrak{E}_{x}-\mathfrak{e}_{y}\mathfrak{E}_{y}-\mathfrak{e}_{z}\mathfrak{E}_{z}),

X_{y}=\mathfrak{m}_{x}\mathfrak{M}_{y}+\mathfrak{e}_{y}\mathfrak{E}_{x},\ Y_{x}=\mathfrak{m}_{y}\mathfrak{M}_{x}+\mathfrak{e}_{x}\mathfrak{E}_{y}, u.s.f.


T_{x}=\mathfrak{m}_{z}\mathfrak{E}_{y}-\mathfrak{m}_{y}\mathfrak{E}_{z}, u.s.f.


(76) L=\frac{1}{2}(\mathfrak{m}_{x}\mathfrak{M}_{x}+\mathfrak{m}_{y}\mathfrak{M}_{y}+\mathfrak{m}_{z}\mathfrak{M}_{z}-\mathfrak{e}_{x}\mathfrak{E}_{x}-\mathfrak{e}_{y}\mathfrak{E}_{y}-\mathfrak{e}_{z}\mathfrak{E}_{z}),

These quantities are all real. In the theory for bodies at rest, the combinations (X_{x},\ X_{y},\ X_{z},\ Y_{x},\ Y_{y},\ Y_{z},\ Z_{x},\ Z_{y},\ Z_{z} are known as Maxwell's Stresses", T_{x},\ T_{y},\ T_{z} are known as the Poynting's Vector, T_{t} as the electromagnetic energy-density, and L as the Langrangian function.

On the other hand, by multiplying the alternating matrices of f and F, we obtain

(77) F^{*}f^{*}=\left|\begin{array}{llll}
-S_{11}-L, & -S_{12}, & -S_{13}, & -S_{14}\\
-S_{21}, & -S_{22}-L, & -S_{23}, & -S_{23}\\
-S_{31}, & -S_{32}, & -S_{33}-L, & -S_{34}\\
-S_{41}, & -S_{42}, & -S_{43}, & -S_{44}-L\end{array}\right|

and hence, we can put

(78) fF = S-L,\ F^{*}f^{*} = -S-L,

where by L, we mean L-times the unit matrix, i.e. the matrix with elements

\left|Le_{hk}\right|\ \left(\begin{array}{c}
e_{hh}=1,\ e_{hk}=0,\ h\gtrless k\\

Since here SL = LS, we deduce that,

F^{*}f^{*}fF = (-S-L)(S-L) = -SS + L^{2},

and find, since f^{*}f = Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f,\ F^{*}F = Det\frac{1}{2}F, we arrive at the interesting conclusion

(79) SS = L^{2} -Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f Det^{\frac{1}{2}}F,

i.e. the product of the matrix S into itself can be expressed as the multiple of a unit matrix — a matrix in which all the elements except those in the principal diagonal are zero, the elements in the principal diagonal are all equal and have the value given on the right-hand side of (79). Therefore the general relations

(80) S_{h1}S_{1k} + S_{h2}S_{2k} + S_{h3}S_{3k} + S_{h4}S_{4k} = 0

h, k being unequal indices in the series 1, 2, 3, 4, and

(81) S_{h1}S_{1h} + S_{h2}S_{2h} + S_{h3}S_{3h} + S_{h4}S_{4h} = L^{2} - Det^{\frac{1}{2}}f Det^{\frac{1}{2}}F

for h = 1,2,3,4.

Now if instead of F and f in the combinations (72) and (73), we introduce the electrical rest-force \Phi, the magnetic rest-force \Psi and the rest-ray \Omega [(55), (56) and (57)], we can pass over to the expressions, —

(82) L=-\frac{1}{2}\epsilon\Phi\bar{\Phi}+\frac{1}{2}\mu\Psi\bar{\Psi},
(83) S_{hk}=-\frac{1}{2}\epsilon\Phi\bar{\Phi}e_{hk}-\frac{1}{2}\mu\Psi\bar{\Psi}e_{hk}


-\Omega_{h}w_{k}-\epsilon\mu w_{h}\Omega_{k}\qquad\qquad  (h, k = 1,2,3,4)

Here we have

\Phi\bar{\Phi}=\Phi_{1}^{2}+\Phi_{2}^{2}+\Phi_{3}^{2}+\Phi_{4}^{2},\ \Psi\bar{\Psi}=\Psi_{1}^{2}+\Psi_{2}^{2}+\Psi_{3}^{2}+\Psi_{4}^{2},

e_{hh}=1,\ e_{hk}=0(h\gtrless k).

The right side of (82) as well as L is an invariant in a Lorentz transformation, and the 4✕4 element on the right side of (83) as well as S_{hk}, represent a space time vector of the second kind. Remembering this fact, it suffices, for establishing the theorems (82) and (83) generally, to prove it for the special case w_{1} = 0,\ w_{2} = 0,\ w_{3} = 0,\ w_{4} = i. But for this case \mathfrak{w} = 0, we immediately arrive at the equations (82) and (83) by means (45), (51), (60) on the one hand, and \mathfrak{e}=\epsilon\mathfrak{E},\ \mathfrak{M}=\mu\mathfrak{m} on the other hand.

The expression on the right-hand side of (81), which equals


is \geqq0, because (\mathfrak{em})=\epsilon\Phi\bar{\Psi},\ (\mathfrak{EM})=\mu\Phi\bar{\Psi}, now referring back to 79), we can denote the positive square root of this expression as Det^{\frac{1}{2}}S.

Since \bar{f}=-f,\ \bar{F}=-F, we obtain for \bar{S}, the transposed matrix of S, the following relations from (78),

(84) Ff=\bar{S}-L,\ f^{*}F^{*}=-\bar{S}-L.
Then is

an alternating matrix, and denotes a space-time vector of the second kind. From the expressions (83), we obtain,

(85) S-\bar{S}=-(\epsilon\mu-1)[w,\Omega],

from which we deduce that [see (57), (58)].

(86) w(S-\bar{S})^{*}=0,
(87) w(S-\bar{S})=(\epsilon\mu-1)\Omega,

When the matter is at rest at a space-time point, \mathfrak{w}=0, then the equation 86) denotes the existence of the following equations

Z_{y} = Y_{z},\ X_{z} = Z_{x},\ Y_{x} = X_{y};

and from 83),

T_{x} = \Omega_{1},\ T_{y} = \Omega_{2},\ T_{z} = \Omega_{3}

X_{t} = \epsilon\mu\Omega_{1},\ Y_{t} = \epsilon\mu\Omega_{2},\ Z_{t} = \epsilon\mu\Omega_{3}

Now by means of a rotation of the space co-ordinate system round the null-point, we can make,

Z_{y} = Y_{z} = 0,\ X_{z} = Z_{x}= 0,\ Y_{x} = X_{y} = 0;

According to 71), we have

(88) X_{x} + Y_{y} + Z_{z} + T_{t} = 0

and according to 83), T_{t} > 0. In special eases, where \Omega vanishes it follows from 81) that

X^{2}_{x} = Y^{2}_{y} = Z^{2}_{z} = T^{2}_{t} = (Det^{\frac{1}{4}}S)^{2}

and if T_{t} and one of the three magnitudes X_{x},\ Y_{y},\ Z_{z} are =+Det^{\frac{1}{4}}S, the two others =-Det^{\frac{1}{4}}S. If \Omega does not vanish let \Omega_{3} \ne 0, then we have in particular from 80)

T_{z}X_{t} = 0,\ T_{z}Y_{t} = 0,\ Z_{z}T_{z}+T_{z}Z_{t}=0

and if \Omega_{1} = 0,\ \Omega_{1} = 0,\ Z_{z} = -T_{t}. It follows from (81), (see also 88) that

X_{x} = - Y_{y} = \pm Det^{\frac{1}{4}}S,


The space-time vector of the first kind
(89) K = lor\ S

is of very great importance for which we now want to demonstrate a very important transformation

According to 78), S = L + fF, and it follows that

lor\ S = lor\ L + lor\ fF.

The symbol lor denotes a differential process which in lor fF, operates on the one hand upon the components of f, on the other hand also upon the components of F. Accordingly lor fF can be expressed as the sum of two parts. The first part is the product of the matrices (lor f)F, lor f being regarded as a 1✕4 series matrix. The second part is that part of lor fF, in which the diffentiations operate upon the components of F alone. From 78) we obtain

fF = -F^{*}f^{*} - 2L;

hence the second part of lor fF = -(lor\ F^{*})f^{*} + the part of -2 lor\ L, in which the differentiations operate upon the components of F alone. We thus obtain

(90) lor\ S = (lor\ f) F - (lor\ F^{*})f^{*} + N,

where N is the vector with the components

\left(N_{h}=\frac{1}{2}(\frac{\partial f_{23}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{23}+\frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{31}+\frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{12}+\frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{14}+\frac{\partial f_{24}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{24}+\frac{\partial f_{34}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{34}\right.\\
\\\left.-f_{23}\frac{\partial f_{23}}{\partial x_{h}}-f_{31}\frac{\partial f_{31}}{\partial x_{h}}-f_{12}\frac{\partial f_{12}}{\partial x_{h}}-f_{14}\frac{\partial f_{14}}{\partial x_{h}}-f_{24}\frac{\partial f_{24}}{\partial x_{h}}-\frac{\partial f_{34}}{\partial x_{h}}F_{34}\right)\end{array}

By using the fundamental relations A) and B), 90) is transformed into the fundamental relation

(91) lor\ S = - sF + N

In the limitting case \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1,\ f = F, N vanishes identically.

Now upon the basis of the equations (55) and (56), and referring back to the expression (82) for L, and from 57) we obtain the following expressions as components of N,—

(92) N_{h}=-\frac{1}{2}\Phi\overline{\Phi}\frac{\partial\epsilon}{\partial x_{h}}-\frac{1}{2}\Psi\overline{\Psi}\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial x_{h}}

+(\epsilon\mu-1)\left(\Omega_{1}\frac{\partial w_{1}}{\partial x_{h}}+\Omega_{2}\frac{\partial w_{2}}{\partial x_{h}}+\Omega_{3}\frac{\partial w_{3}}{\partial x_{h}}+\Omega_{4}\frac{\partial w_{4}}{\partial x_{h}}\right)

for h=1,2,3,4.

Now if we make use of (59), and denote the space-vector which has \Omega_{1},\ \Omega_{2},\ \Omega_{3} as the x-, y-, z-components by the symbol \mathfrak{W}, then the third component of 92) can be expressed in the form

(93) \frac{\epsilon\mu-1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}\left(\mathfrak{W}\frac{d\mathfrak{w}}{dx_{h}}\right)

The round bracket denoting the scalar product of the vectors within it.

§ 14. The Ponderomotive Force.[edit]

Let us now write out the relation K = lor\ S = -sF + N in a more practical form; we have the four equations

(94) K_{1}=\frac{\partial X_{x}}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial X_{y}}{\partial y}+\frac{\partial X_{z}}{\partial z}-\frac{\partial X_{t}}{\partial t}=\varrho\mathfrak{E}_{x}+\mathfrak{s}_{y}\mathfrak{M}_{z}-\mathfrak{s}_{z}\mathfrak{M}_{y}

-\frac{1}{2}\Phi\overline{\Phi}\frac{\partial\epsilon}{\partial x}-\frac{1}{2}\Psi\overline{\Psi}\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial x}+\frac{\epsilon\mu-1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}\left(\mathfrak{W}\frac{\partial\mathfrak{w}}{\partial x}\right),

(95) K_{2}=\frac{\partial Y_{x}}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial Y_{y}}{\partial y}+\frac{\partial Y_{z}}{\partial z}-\frac{\partial Y_{t}}{\partial t}=\varrho\mathfrak{E}_{y}+\mathfrak{s}_{z}\mathfrak{M}_{x}-\mathfrak{s}_{x}\mathfrak{M}_{z}

-\frac{1}{2}\Phi\overline{\Phi}\frac{\partial\epsilon}{\partial y}-\frac{1}{2}\Psi\overline{\Psi}\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial y}+\frac{\epsilon\mu-1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}\left(\mathfrak{W}\frac{\partial\mathfrak{w}}{\partial y}\right),

(96) K_{3}=\frac{\partial Z_{x}}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial Z_{y}}{\partial y}+\frac{\partial Z_{z}}{\partial z}-\frac{\partial Z_{t}}{\partial t}=\varrho\mathfrak{E}_{z}+\mathfrak{s}_{x}\mathfrak{M}_{y}-\mathfrak{s}_{y}\mathfrak{M}_{x}

-\frac{1}{2}\Phi\overline{\Phi}\frac{\partial\epsilon}{\partial z}-\frac{1}{2}\Psi\overline{\Psi}\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial z}+\frac{\epsilon\mu-1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}\left(\mathfrak{W}\frac{\partial\mathfrak{w}}{\partial z}\right),

(97) \frac{1}{i}K_{4}=-\frac{\partial T_{x}}{\partial x}-\frac{\partial T_{y}}{\partial y}-\frac{\partial T_{z}}{\partial z}-\frac{\partial T_{t}}{\partial t}=\mathfrak{s}_{x}\mathfrak{E}_{x}+\mathfrak{s}_{y}\mathfrak{E}_{y}+\mathfrak{s}_{z}\mathfrak{E}_{z}

+\frac{1}{2}\Phi\overline{\Phi}\frac{\partial\epsilon}{\partial t}-\frac{1}{2}\Psi\overline{\Psi}\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial t}+\frac{\epsilon\mu-1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}\left(\mathfrak{W}\frac{\partial\mathfrak{w}}{\partial t}\right).

It is my opinion that when we calculate the ponderomotive force which acts upon a unit volume at the space-time point x,y,z,t, it has got x-, y-, z- components as the first three components of the space-time vector

(98) K+(w\overline{K})w

This vector is perpendicular to w; the law of Energy finds its expression in the fourth relation.

The establishment of this opinion is reserved for a separate tract.

In the limitting case \epsilon = 1,\ \mu = 1,\ \sigma = 0, the vector N = 0,\ \mathfrak{s}=\varrho\mathfrak{w}, and we obtain the ordinary equations in the theory of electrons.

APPENDIX. Mechanics and the Relativity-Postulate.[edit]

It would be very unsatisfactory if the new way of looking at the time-concept, which permits a Lorentz transformation, were to be confined to a single part of Physics.

Now many authors say that classical mechanics stand in opposition to the relativity postulate, which is taken to be the basic of the new Electro-dynamics.

In order to decide this let us fix our attention upon a special Lorentz transformation represented by (10), (11), (12), with a vector \mathfrak{r} in any direction and of any magnitude q < 1, but different from zero. For a moment we shall not suppose any special relation to hold between the unit of length and the unit of time, so that instead of t, t',q we shall write ct, ct', and \frac{q}{c}, where c represents a certain positive constant, and q < c. The above mentioned equations are transformed into

\mathfrak{r'_{\bar{v}}}=\mathfrak{r_{\bar{v}}},\ \mathfrak{r'_{v}}=\frac{c(\mathfrak{r_{v}}-qt)}{\sqrt{c^{2}-q^{2}}},\ t'=\frac{-q\mathfrak{r_{v}}+c^{2}t}{c\sqrt{c^{2}-q^{2}}};

They denote, as we remember, that \mathfrak{r} is the space-vector x, y, z and \mathfrak{r}' the space-vector x', y', z'.

If in these equations, keeping \mathfrak{v} constant, we approach the limit c = \infty, then we obtain from these

\mathfrak{r'_{\bar{v}}}=\mathfrak{r_{\bar{v}}},\ \mathfrak{r'_{v}}=\mathfrak{r_{v}}-qt,\ t'=t.
The new equations would now denote the transformation of a spatial co-ordinate system x, y, z to another spatial co-ordinate system x', y', z' with parallel axes, the null point of the second system moving with constant velocity in a straight line, while the time parameter remains unchanged.

We can, therefore, say that classical mechanics postulates a covariance of Physical laws for the group of homogeneous linear transformations of the expression

(1) - x^{2} - y^{2} - z^{2} +c^{2}t^{2}

when c = \infty.

Now it is rather confusing to find that in one branch of Physics, we shall find a covariance of the laws for the transformation of expression (1) with a finite value of c, in another part for math>c = \infty</math>. It is evident that according to Newtonian Mechanics, this covariance holds for math>c = \infty</math> and not for c = velocity of light. May we not then regard those traditional co-variances for c = \infty only as an approximation consistent with experience, the actual covariance of natural laws holding for a certain finite value of c?

I may here point out that by reforming mechanics, where instead of the Newtonian Relativity-Postulate with c = \infty we assume a relativity-postulate with a finite c, then the axiomatic construction of Mechanics appears to gain considerably in perfection.

The ratio of the time unit to the length unit is chosen in a manner so as to make the velocity of light equivalent to unity.

While now I want to introduce geometrical figures in the manifold of the variables x, y, z, t, it may be convenient to leave y, z out of account, and to treat x and t as any possible pair of co-ordinates in a plane, refered to oblique axes.

A space time null point (x,\ y,\ z,\ t = 0,\ 0,\ 0,\ 0) will be kept fixed in a Lorentz transformation. The figure

(2) -x^{2} - y^{2} - z^{2} -t^{2} = 1,\ t > 0,
which represents a hyperboloidal shell, contains the space-time points A(x,\ y,\ z,\ t = 0,\ 0,\ 0,\ 1), and all points A', which after a Lorentz-transformation enter into the newly introduced system of reference as (x',\ y',\ z',\ t' = 0,\ 0,\ 0,\ 1).

The direction of a radius vector OA' drawn from to the point A' of (2), and the directions of the tangents to (2) at A' are to be called normal to each other.

Let us now follow a definite position. of matter in its course through all time t. The totality of the space-time points x, y, z, t, which correspond to the positions at different times t, shall be called a space-time line.

The task of determining the motion of matter is comprised in the following problem: — It is required to establish for every space-time point the direction of the space-time line passing through it.

To transform a space-time point P(x, y, z, t) to rest is equivalent to introducing, by means of a Lorentz transformation, a new system of reference x', y', z', t', in which the t' axis has the direction OA', OA' indicating the direction of the space-time line passing through P. The space t' = const, which is to be laid through P, is the one which is perpendicular to the space-time line through P. To the increment dt of the time of P corresponds the increment

(3) d\tau=\sqrt{dt^{2}-dx^{2}-dy^{2}-dz^{2}}=dt\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}=\frac{dx_{4}}{w_{4}}[11]

of the newly introduced time parameter t'. The value of the integral

\int d\tau=\int\sqrt{-(dx_{1}^{2}+dx_{2}^{2}+dx_{3}^{2}+dx_{4}^{2})},

when calculated upon the space-time line from a fixed initial point to the variable point P, (both being on the space-time line), is known as the Proper-time of the position of matter we are concerned with at the space-time point P. (It is a generalization of the idea of Positional-time which was introduced by Lorentz for uniform motion.)

If we take a body R^{0} which has got extension in space at time t^{0}, then the region comprising all the space-time line passing through  R^{0}, t^{0} shall be called a space-time filament.

If we have an analytical expression \Theta(x,\ y,\ z,\ t) so that \Theta(x,\ y,\ z,\ t)=0 is intersected by every space time line of the filament at one pointy — whereby
-\left(\frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial x}\right)^{2}-\left(\frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial y}\right)^{2}-\left(\frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial z}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial t}\right)^{2}>0,\ \frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial t}>0

then the totality of the intersecting points will be called a cross section of the filament. At any point P of such across-section, we can introduce by means of a Lorentz transformation a system of reference x' y', z', t', so that according to this

\frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial x'}=0,\ \frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial y'}=0,\ \frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial z'}=0,\ \frac{\partial\Theta}{\partial t'}>0,

The direction of the uniquely determined t'— axis in question here is known as the upper normal of the cross-section at the point P and the value of dJ=\int\int\int dx'dy'dz' for the surrounding points of P on the cross-section is known as the elementary contents (Inhaltslement) of the cross-section. In this sense R^{0},t^{0} is to be regarded as the cross-section normal to the t axis of the filament at the point t = t^{0} and the volume of the body R^{0} is to be regarded as the contents of the cross-section.

If we allow R^{0} to converge to a point, we come to the conception of an infinitely thin space-time filament. In such a ease, a space-time line will be thought of as a principal line and by the term Proper-time of the filament will be understood the Proper-time which is laid along this principal line; under the term normal cross-section of the filament, we shall understand the cross-section upon the space which is normal to the principal line through P.

We shall now formulate the principle of conservation of mass.

To every space R at a time t, belongs a positive quantity — the mass at R at the time t. If R converges to a point x, y, z, t, then the quotient of this mass, and the volume of R approaches a limit \mu(x,\ y,\ z,\ t), which is known as the mass-density at the space-time point x, y, z, t.

The principle of conservation of mass says — that for an infinitely thin space-time filament, the product \mu dJ, where \mu = mass-density at the point x, y, z, t of the filament (i.e., the principal line of the filament), dJ = contents of the cross-section normal to the t axis, and passing through x, y, z, t, is constant along the whole filament.

Now the contents dJ_{n} of the normal cross-section of the filament which is laid through x, y, z, t is

(4) dJ_{n}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}}dJ=-iw_{4}dJ=\frac{dt}{d\tau}dJ

and the function

(5) \nu=\frac{\mu}{-iw_{4}}=\mu\sqrt{1-\mathfrak{w}^{2}}=\mu\frac{d\tau}{dt}

may be defined as the rest-mass density at the position x, y, z, t. Then the principle of conservation of mass can be formulated in this manner: —

For an infinitely thin space-time filament, the product of the rest-mass density and the contents of the normal cross-section is constant along the whole filament.

In any space-time filament, let us consider two cross-sections Q^{0} and Q^{1}, which have only the points on the boundary common to each other; let the space-time lines inside the filament have a larger value of t on Q than on Q^{0}. The finite range enclosed between Q^{0} and Q^{1} shall be called a space-time sickle[WS 1] Q^{0} is the lower boundary, and Q^{1} is the upper boundary of the sickle.

If we decompose a filament into elementary space-time filaments, then to an entrance-point of an elementary filament through the lower boundary of the sickle, there corresponds an exit point of the same by the upper boundary, whereby for both, the product vdJ_{n} taken in the sense of (4) and (5), has got the same value. Therefore the difference of the two integrals \int vdJ_{n} (the first being extended over the upper, the second upon the lower boundary) vanishes. According to a well-known theorem of Integral Calculus the difference is equivalent to

\int\int\int\int\ lor\ v\overline{w}\ dx\ dy\ dz\ dt,

the integration being extended over the whole range of the sickle, and (comp. (67), § 12)

lor\ v\overline{w}\ =\frac{\partial vw_{1}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial vw_{2}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial vw_{3}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial vw_{4}}{\partial x_{4}}

If the sickle reduces to a point, then the differential equation

(6) lor\ v\overline{w}\ =0,
which is the condition of continuity
\frac{\partial\mu\mathfrak{w}_{x}}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial\mu\mathfrak{w}_{y}}{\partial y}+\frac{\partial\mu\mathfrak{w}_{z}}{\partial z}+\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial t}=0.

Further let us form the integral

(7) \mathsf{N}=\int\int\int\int\ \nu\ dx\ dy\ dz\ dt.

extending over the whole range of the space-time sickle. We shall decompose the sickle into elementary space-time filaments, and every one of these filaments in small elements (It of its proper-time, which are however large compared to the linear dimensions of the normal cross-section; let us assume that the mass of such a filament vdJ_{n} = dm and write \tau^{0} and \tau^{1} for the 'Proper-time' of the upper and lower boundary of the sickle.

Then the integral (7) can be denoted by

\int\int \nu dJ_{n}d\tau=\int(\tau^{1}-\tau^{0})dm

taken over all the elements of the sickle.

Now let us conceive of the space-time lines inside a space-time sickle as material curves composed of material points, and let us suppose that they are subjected to a continual change of length inside the sickle in the following manner. The entire curves are to be varied in any possible manner inside the sickle, while the end points on the lower and upper boundaries remain fixed, and the individual substantial points upon it are displaced in such a manner that they always move forward normal to the curves. The whole process may be analytically represented by means of a parameter \vartheta, and to the value \vartheta = 0, shall correspond the actual curves inside the sickle. Such a process may be called a virtual displacement in the sickle.

Let the point x, y, z, t in the sickle \vartheta = 0 have the values x+\delta x,\ y+\delta y,\ z+\delta z,\ t+\delta t, when the parameter has the value \vartheta; these magnitudes are then functions of x,\ y,\ z,\ t,\ \vartheta. Let us now conceive of an infinitely thin space-time filament at the point x, y, z, t with the normal section of contents dJ_{0} and if dJ_{0} + \delta dJ_{n} be the contents of the normal section at the corresponding position of the varied filament, then according to the principle of conservation of mass v + \delta v being the rest-mass-density at the varied position,

(8) (\nu+\delta v)(dJ_{n}+\delta dJ_{n}) = \nu dJ_{n} = dm
In consequence of this condition, the integral (7) taken over the whole range of the sickle, varies on account of the displacement as a definite function \mathsf{N}+\delta\mathsf{N} of \vartheta, and we may call this function \mathsf{N}+\delta\mathsf{N} as the mass action of the virtual displacement.

If we now introduce the method of writing with indices, we shall have

(9) d(x_{h}+\delta x_{h})=dx_{h}+\underset{k}{\sum}\frac{\partial\delta x_{h}}{\partial x_{k}}dx_{k}+\frac{\partial\delta x_{h}}{\partial\vartheta}d\vartheta\qquad\left(\begin{array}{c}

Now on the basis of the remarks already made, it is clear that the value of \mathsf{N}+\delta\mathsf{N}, when the value of the parameter is \vartheta, will be: —

(10) \mathsf{N}+\delta\mathsf{N}=\int\int\int\int v\frac{d(\tau+\delta\tau)}{d\tau}dx\ dy\ dz\ dt,

the integration extending over the whole sickle d(\tau + \delta\tau), where d(\tau + \delta\tau) denotes the magnitude, which is deduced from

\sqrt{-(dx_{1}+d\delta x_{1})^{2}-(dx_{2}+d\delta x_{2})^{2}-(dx_{3}+d\delta x_{3})^{2}-(dx_{4}+d\delta x_{4})^{2}}

by means of (9) and

dx_{1}=w_{1}d\tau,\ dx_{2}=w_{2}d\tau,\ dx_{3}=w_{3}d\tau,\ dx_{4}=w_{4}d\tau,\ d\vartheta=0

therefore: —

(11) \frac{d(\tau+\delta\tau)}{d\tau}=\sqrt{-\underset{h}{\sum}\left(w_{h}+\underset{k}{\sum}\frac{\partial\delta x_{h}}{\partial x_{k}}w_{k}\right)^{2}}\left(\begin{array}{c}

We shall now subject the value of the differential quotient

(12) \left(\frac{d(\mathsf{N}+\delta\mathsf{N})}{d\vartheta}\right)_{(\vartheta=0)}

to a transformation. Since each \delta x_{h}, as a function of x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4},\ \vartheta vanishes for the zero-value of the paramater \vartheta, so in general \frac{\partial\delta x_{h}}{\partial x_{k}}=0 for \vartheta=0.

Let us now put

(13) \left(\frac{\partial\delta x_{h}}{\partial\vartheta}\right)_{\vartheta=0}=\xi_{h}\qquad (h=1,2,3,4),

then on the basis of (10) and (11), we have the expression (12):

-\int\int\int\int\ \nu\underset{h}{\sum}w_{h}\left(\frac{\partial\xi_{h}}{\partial x_{1}}w_{1}+\frac{\partial\xi_{h}}{\partial x_{2}}w_{2}+\frac{\partial\xi_{h}}{\partial x_{3}}w_{3}+\frac{\partial\xi_{h}}{\partial x_{4}}w_{4}\right)dx\ dy\ dz\ dt.

for the system x_{1},\ x_{2},\ x_{3},\ x_{4} on the boundary of the sickle, \delta x_{1},\ \delta x_{2},\ \delta x_{3},\ \delta x_{4} shall vanish for every value of \vartheta and therefore \xi_{1},\ \xi_{2},\ \xi_{3},\ \xi_{4} are nil. Then by partial integration, the integral is transformed into the form

\int\int\int\int\underset{h}{\sum}\xi_{h}\left(\frac{\partial v\ w_{h}w_{1}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial \nu\ w_{h}w_{2}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial \nu\ w_{h}w_{3}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial \nu\ w_{h}w_{4}}{\partial x_{4}}\right)dx\ dy\ dz\ dt.

the expression within the bracket may be written as

=w_{h}\underset{k}{\sum}\frac{\partial \nu\ w_{k}}{\partial x_{k}}+\nu\underset{k}{\sum}w_{k}\frac{\partial w_{h}}{\partial x_{k}}.

The first sum vanishes in consequence of the continuity equation (6). The second may be written as

\frac{\partial w_{h}}{\partial x_{1}}\frac{dx_{1}}{d\tau}+\frac{\partial w_{h}}{\partial x_{2}}\frac{dx_{2}}{d\tau}+\frac{\partial w_{h}}{\partial x_{3}}\frac{dx_{3}}{d\tau}+\frac{\partial w_{h}}{\partial x_{4}}\frac{dx_{4}}{d\tau}=\frac{dw_{h}}{d\tau}=\frac{d}{d\tau}\left(\frac{dx_{h}}{d\tau}\right)

whereby \frac{d}{d\tau} is meant the differential quotient in the direction of the space-time line at any position. For the differential quotient (12), we obtain the final expression

(14) \int\int\int\int \nu\left(\frac{dw_{1}}{d\tau}\xi_{1}+\frac{dw_{2}}{d\tau}\xi_{2}+\frac{dw_{3}}{d\tau}\xi_{3}+\frac{dw_{4}}{d\tau}\xi_{4}\right)dx\ dy\ dz\ dt.

For a virtual displacement in the sickle we have postulated the condition that the points supposed to be substantial shall advance normally to the curves giving their actual motion, which is \vartheta=0, this condition denotes that the \xi_{h} is to satisfy the condition

(15) w_{1}\xi_{1} + w_{2}\xi_{2} + w_{3}\xi_{3} + w_{4}\xi_{4} = 0

Let us now turn our attention to the Maxwellian tensions in the electrodynamics of stationary bodies, and let us consider the results in §§ 12 and 13; then we find that Hamilton's Principle can be reconciled to the relativity postulate for continuously extended elastic media.

At every space-time point (as in § 18), let a space time matrix of the 2nd kind be known

(16) S=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
S_{11}, & S_{12}, & S_{13}, & S_{14}\\
S_{21}, & S_{22}, & S_{23}, & S_{24}\\
S_{31}, & S_{32}, & S_{33}, & S_{34}\\
S_{41}, & S_{42}, & S_{43}, & S_{44}\end{array}\right|=\left|\begin{array}{cccc}
X_{x}, & Y_{x}, & Z_{x}, & -iT_{x}\\
X_{y}, & Y_{y}, & Z_{y}, & -iT_{y}\\
X_{z}, & Y_{z}, & Z_{z}, & -iT_{z}\\
-iX_{t}, & -iY_{t}, & -iZ_{t}, & T_{t}\end{array}\right|

where X_{x}, Y_{x},\dots Z_{z},\dots T_{z},\dots X_{t},\dots T_{t} are real magnitudes.

For a virtual displacement in a space-time sickle (with the previously applied designation) the value of the integral

(17) W+\delta W=\int\int\int\int\left(\underset{h,k}{\sum}s_{hk}\frac{\partial(x_{k}+\delta x_{k})}{\partial x_{h}}\right)dx\ dy\ dz\ dt

extended over the whole range of the sickle, may be called the tensional work of the virtual displacement.

The sum which comes forth here, written in real magnitudes, is

+X_{x}\frac{\partial\delta x}{\partial x}+X_{y}\frac{\partial\delta x}{\partial y}+\dots+Z_{z}\frac{\partial\delta z}{\partial z}

-X_{t}\frac{\partial\delta x}{\partial t}-\dots+T_{x}\frac{\partial\delta t}{\partial x}+\dots+T_{t}\frac{\partial\delta t}{\partial t}.

we can now postulate the following minimum principle in mechanics.

If any space-time sickle be bounded, then for each virtual displacement in the sickle, the sum of the mass-works, and tension works shall always he an extremum for that process of the space-time line in the sickle which actually occurs.

The meaning is, that for each virtual displacement,

(18) \left(\frac{d(\delta\mathsf{N}+\delta W)}{d\vartheta}\right)_{\vartheta=0}=0

By applying the methods of the Calculus of Variations, the following four differential equations at once follow from this minimal principle by means of the transformation (14), and the condition (16).

(19) \nu\frac{dw_{h}}{d\tau}=K_{h}+\varkappa w_{h}\qquad (h=1,2,3,4),


(20) K_{h}=\frac{\partial S_{1h}}{\partial x_{1}}+\frac{\partial S_{2h}}{\partial x_{2}}+\frac{\partial S_{3h}}{\partial x_{3}}+\frac{\partial S_{4h}}{\partial x_{4}}

are components of the space-time vector 1st kind K = lor S, and \varkappa is a factor, which is to be determined from the relation w\overline{w}=-1. By multiplying (19) by w_{h}, and summing the four, we obtain \varkappa=K\overline{w}, and therefore clearly K+(K\overline{w})w will be a space-time vector of the 1st kind which is normal to w. Let us write out the components of this vector as

X,\ Y,\ Z,\ iT,

Then we arrive at the following equations for the motion of matter,

(21) \begin{array}{c}

and we have also




On the basis of this condition, the fourth of equations (21) is to be regarded as a direct consequence of the first three.

From (21), we can deduce the law for the motion of a material point, i.e, the law for the career of an infinitely thin space-time filament.

Let x, y, z, t denote a point on a principal line chosen in any manner within the filament. We shall form the equations (21) for the points of the normal cross section of the filament through x, y, z, t, and integrate them, multiplying by the elementary contents of the cross section over the whole space of the normal section. If the integrals of the right side be R_{x},\ R_{y},\ R_{z},\ R_{t}, and if m be the constant mass of the filament, we obtain

(22) \begin{array}{c}
R is now a space-time vector of the 1st kind with the components R_{x},\ R_{y},\ R_{z},\ iR_{t} which is normal to the space-time vector of the 1st kind w, — the velocity of the material point with the components
\frac{dx}{d\tau},\ \frac{dy}{d\tau},\ \frac{dz}{d\tau},\ i\frac{dt}{d\tau},

We may call this vector R the moving force of the material point.

If instead of integrating over the normal section, we integrate the equations over that cross section of the filament which is normal to the t axis, and passes through x, y, z, t, then [See (4)] the equations (22) are obtained, but are now multiplied by \frac{d\tau}{dt}; in particular, the last equation comes out in the form,


The right side is to be looked upon as the amount of work done per unit of time at the material point. In this equation, we obtain the energy-law for the motion of the material point and the expression


may be called the kinetic energy of the material point. Since dt is always greater than d\tau we may call the quotient \frac{dt-d\tau}{d\tau}as the "Gain" (vorgehen) of the time over the proper-time of the material point and the law can then be thus expressed; — The kinetic energy of a material point is the product of its mass into the gain of the time over its proper-time.

The set of four equations (22) again shows the symmetry in x, y, z, it, which is demanded by the relativity postulate; to the fourth equation however, a higher physical significance is to be attached, as we have already seen in the analogous case in electrodynamics. On the ground of this demand for symmetry, the triplet consisting of the first three equations are to be constructed after the model of the fourth; remembering this circumstance, we are justified in saying, — If the relativity-postulate be placed at the head of mechanics, then the whole set of laws of motion follows from the law of energy.

I cannot refrain from showing that no contradiction to the assumption on the relativity-postulate can be expected from the phenomena of gravitation.[12]

If B*(x*, y*, z*, t*) be a solid (fester) space-time point, then the region of all those space-time points B(x, y, z, t)', for which

(23) (x-x^{*})^{2}+(y-y^{*})^{2}+(z-z^{*})^{2}=(t-t^{*})^{2},\ t-t^{*}\geqq0

may be called a Ray-figure (Strahl-gebilde) of the space lime point B*.

A space-time line taken in any manner can be cut by this figure only at one particular point; this easily follows from the convexity of the figure on the one hand, and on the other hand from the fact that all directions of the space-time lines are only directions from B* towards to the concave side of the figure. Then B* may be called the light-point of B*.

If in (23), the point B(x, y, z, t) be supposed to be fixed, the point B*(x*, y*, z*, z*) be supposed to be variable, then the relation (23) would represent the locus of all the space-time points B*, which are light-points of B.

Let us conceive that a material point F of mass m may, owing to the presence of another material point F*, experience a moving force according to the following law. Let us picture to ourselves the space-time filaments of F and F* along with the principal lines of the filaments. Let BC be an infinitely small element of the principal line of F; further let B* be the light point of B, C* be the light point of C on the principal line of F*; so that OA' is the radius vector of the hyperboloidal fundamental figure (23) parallel to B* C*, finally D* is the point of intersection of line B*C* with the space normal to itself and passing through B. The moving force of the mass-point F in the space-time point B is now the space-time vector of the first kind which is normal to BC, and which is composed of the vectors

(24) mm^{*}\left(\frac{OA'}{B^{*}D^{*}}\right)^{3}BD^{*}

in the direction of BD* and another vector of suitable value in direction of B*C*.. Now by OA'/B*D* is to be understood the ratio of the two vectors in question.

It is clear that this proposition at once shows the covariant character with respect to a Lorentz-group.

Let us now ask how the space-time filament of F behaves when the material point F* has a uniform translatory motion, i.e., the principal line of the filament of F* is a line. Let us take the space time null-point in this, and by means of a Lorentz-transformation, we can take this axis as the t-axis. Let x, y, z, t, denote the point B, let \tau^{*} denote the proper time of B*, reckoned from O. Our proposition leads to the equations

(25) \frac{d^{2}x}{d\tau^{2}}=-\frac{m^{*}x}{(t-\tau{}^{*})^{3}},\ \frac{d^{2}y}{d\tau^{2}}=-\frac{m{}^{*}y}{(t-\tau{}^{*})^{3}},\ \frac{d^{2}z}{d\tau^{2}}=-\frac{m{}^{*}z}{(t-\tau{}^{*})^{3}}


(26) \frac{d^{2}t}{d\tau^{2}}=-\frac{m{}^{*}}{(t-\tau{}^{*})^{2}}\frac{d(t-\tau{}^{*})}{dt} ,


(27) x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2} = (t-\tau^{*})^{2}


(28) \left(\frac{dx}{d\tau}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{dy}{d\tau}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{dz}{d\tau}\right)^{2}=\left(\frac{dt}{d\tau}\right)^{2}-1

In consideration of (27), the three equations (25) are of the same form as the equations for the motion of a material point subjected to attraction from a fixed centre according to the Newtonian Law, only that instead of the time t the proper time \tau of the material point occurs. The fourth equation (26) gives then the connection between proper time and the time for the material point.

Now for different values of \tau the orbit of the space-point x, y, z is an ellipse with the semi-major axis a and the eccentricity e. Let E denote the excentric anomaly, T the increment of the proper time for a complete description of the orbit, finally n\mathsf{T}=2\pi, so that from a properly chosen initial point r, we have the Kepler-equation

(29) n\tau=E-e\ \sin E

If we now change the unit of time, and denote the velocity of light by c, then from (28), we obtain

(30) \left(\frac{dt}{d\tau}\right)^{2}-1=\frac{m^{*}}{ac^{2}}\frac{1+e\ \cos E}{1-e\ \cos E}.
Now neglecting c^{-4} with regard to 1, it follows that
ndt=nd\tau\left(1+\frac{1}{2}\frac{m^{*}}{ac^{2}}\frac{1+e\ \cos E}{1-e\ \cos E}\right),

from which, by applying (29),

(31) nt+konst.=\left(1+\frac{1}{2}\frac{m^{*}}{ac^{2}}\right)n\tau+\frac{m^{*}}{ac^{2}}\sin E,

the factor \frac{m^{*}}{ac^{2}} is here the square of the ratio of a certain average velocity of F in its orbit to the velocity of light. If now m* denote the mass of the sun, a the semi major axis of the earth's orbit, then this factor amounts to 10^{-8}.

The law of mass attraction which has been just described and which is formulated in accordance with the relativity postulate would signify that gravitation is propagated with the velocity of light. In view of the fact that the periodic terms in (31) are very small, it is not possible to decide out of astronomical observations between such a law (with the modified mechanics proposed above) and the Newtonian law of attraction with Newtonian mechanics.

  1. Ueber die Grundgleichungen der Elektrodynamik für bewegte Körper. Wiedemanns Ann. 41. p. 869. 1890 (also in: Ges. Werke Bd. I. p. 266. Leipzig 1B92).
  2. Versuch einer Theorie der elektrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern, Leiden 1895.
  3. See. Encyklopädie der math. Wissenschaften, Vol. 2, Art. 14. Weiterbildung der Maxwellschen Theorie. Elektronentheorie.
  4. Rend. Circ. Matem. Palermo, t. XXI (1906), p. 129.
  5. Ann. d. Phys. 17, p. 891, 1905.
  6. The equations (5) are written in a different order, however, equations (6) and (7) in the same order as the equations mentioned before, which amounts to them
  7. The brackets shall only summarize the expressions, which are related to the index, and [\mathfrak{w},\mathfrak{e}+i\mathfrak{m}] shall denote the vector product of \mathfrak{w} and +i\mathfrak{m}.
  8. Just as beings which are confined within a narrow region surrounding a point on a spherical surface, may fall into the error that a sphere is a geometric figure in which one diameter is particularly distinguished from the rest.
  9. Gött. Nachr. 1901, w. 74 (also in Ann. d. Phys. 7 (4), 1902, p. 29).
  10. One could think about using Hamilton's quaternion calculus instead of Cayley's matrix calculus, however, Hamilton's calculus seems to me as too narrow and cumbersome for our purposes.
  11. The notation with indices and the symbols \mathfrak{w},w we again use in the form as it was defined before. (s. § 8 and § 4).
  12. In a completely different manner than I do, H. Poincaré (Rend. Circ. Matem. Palermo, t. XXI (1906), p. 129) tried to harmonize Newton's law of attraction with the relativity postulate.
  1. Saha used the German word "Sichel" in this edition.

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