Translation:The Lesser Chronicle

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"The Lesser Chronicle"
(chapters 16–22 of On Times)
 (703) 
by Bede, translated from Latin by Wikisource
Also known by its Latin name, the Chronica Minora from De Temporibus.
XVI. On the ages of the world.

2. By six ages of the world are the times distinguished:
3. The first age from Adam to Noah, containing 10 generations. Truly, 1656 years. Then all was lost to flood, just as oblivion is wont to drown infancy.
4. The second from Noah to Abraham, similarly embraced 10 generations, but 292 years. Then language—that is, Hebrew—was invented. For just so a man begins to know to speak from boyhood after infancy, which likewise takes its name from fari,[1] i.e. because he cannot speak.[2]
5. The third from Abraham to David, 14 generations, containing truly 942 years, and—since from adolescence man begins to be able to create—Matthew took the beginning of his generations from Abraham, who was also appointed father of the peoples.
6. The fourth from David to the Babylonian migration, with 14 generations again according to Matthew, extended however for 473[3] years, from which the times of kings began: youthful dignity is indeed fitted to kingship.
7. The fifth from then until the coming of the savior in the flesh, also itself with 14 generations, extended further to 589[4] years, in which—like one in heavy old age—the Hebrew people, weary from thickening evil, is shaken.
8. The sixth, which runs now, is not certain of its generations or times but—like creaking age—must finish with the death of all time.

XVII. The course and order of the times.

10. The first period therefore containing according to the Hebrews 1651 years, according to the Septuagint 2242.
11. Adam, when he would have been 130 years old, begat Seth, who was born before Abel.
12. Seth (yr. 105) begat Enos, who began to invoke the name of god.
13. Enos at 90 years old begat Cainan [whose name means 'nature of god'].[5]
14. Cainan at 70 years old begat Malaleel [which means 'planting of the lord'].[5][6][7]
15. Malaleel at 65 years old begat Jareth [which means 'descending' or 'carrying'].[5]
16. Jareth at 162 begat Enoch, who was carried away by god.
17. Enoch at 65 begat Mathusalah [which means 'dedication'].[5]
17a. [The sons of god desired the daughters of men].[6][7]
18. Mathusalah (yr. 187) begat Lamech.
19. The giants were born.
20. Lamech (yr. 182) begat Noah, who built the ark.
21. Noah, 600 yrs. The flood came.

XVIII. On the second age.

23. The second age containing according to the Hebrews 292 yrs., according to the Septuagint 942 or from Cainan's expulsion 1062.
24. Sem [at 100 years old][8][9] yr. 2 after the flood begat Arfaxath, from whom the Chaldeans.
25. Arfaxath yr. 35 begat Sale, from whom the Samaritans and Indians.
26. Sale at 30 years old begat Heber, from whom the Hebrews.
27. Heber at 34 years begat Falech.
28. The tower is built.
29. Falech at 30 years begat Reu.
30. The gods[10] are first prayed to.
31. Reu at 32 years begat Seruch.
32. The kingdom of the Scythians begins.
33. Seruc at 30 years begat Nachor.
34. The kingdom of the Egyptians is born.
35. Nachor at 29 years begat Thara.
36. The kingdom of the Assyrians and Sicyonians[11] arises.
37. Thara at 70 years begat Abraham.
38. Semiramis put together Babylon.[12]

XVIIII. On the third age.

40. The third age containing 942 yrs.
40a. [Abraham 75 yrs. comes into Canaan].[6][7]
41. Abraham (100 yrs.) begat Isaac,
42. For first he begat Ishmael, from whom the Ishmaelites.
43. Isaac at 60 years old begat Jacob.
44. The kingdom of the Argives begins.
45. Jacob at 90 years old XC begat Joseph.
46. Memphis is put together in Egypt.
47. Joseph lived 110 yrs.
48. Greece under Argus begins to have farms.
49. Hebrews' slavery, 147 yrs.
50. Cecrops put together Athens.
51. Moses ruled Israel for 40 years.
52. Lacedemon[13] is.put together.
53. Joshua, for 26 years.
54. From Moses up to Samuel, judges preside [350 yrs].
55. Othoniel, for 40 years.
56. Cadmus king of Thebes invents the Greek letters.
57. Aoth, for 80 years.
58. Amphion the musician became famous.
59. Deborah, for 40 years.
60. First among the Latins, Picus rules.
61. Gideon, for 40 years.
62. Orpheus and Linus the musicians became famous.
63. Abimelech, for 3 years.
64. He did in his 70 brothers.
65. Thola, for 23 years.
66. Priam rules in Troy.
67. Jair, for 22 years.
68. Carmenta discovers Latin letters.
69. Jepthe, for 6 years.
70. Hercules throws himself into the flames.
71. Abessa, 7 yrs.
72. The War of Troy went on for ten years
73. Achialon, 10 yrs. He is not included in the Septuagint.
74. Labdon, 8 yrs.
75. Aeneas comes to Italy.
76. Samson, 20 yrs.
77. Ascanius puts together Alba.
78a.[Thus far, the book of judges marks the times.][5]
78. Hely, 40 yrs.
79. The kingdom of the Sicyonians is finished.
80. Samuel and Saul, 32 yrs.
81. The kingdom of the Lacedemonians arises.

XX. On the fourth age.

83. The fourth age contains 473 years acording to the Hebrews. The Septuagint adds 12.
84. David, 40 yrs.
85. Carthage is put together by Dido.
86. Solomon, 40 yrs.
87. who builds the temple in the year 480 from the exodus from Egypt.[14]
88. Roboam, 17 yrs.
89. The kingdom of Israel and Judah is divided.
90. Abia, 3 yrs.
91. The pontiff Abimelech is held significant.
92. Asa, 41 yrs.
93. Jehu the prophet is killed by Asa king of Israel.
94. Josaphat, 25 yrs.
95. Helias, Abdias, and Michas prophesy.
96. Joram, 8 yrs.
97. Edom done away by the kingdom of Judah.
98. Ochozias, 1 yr.
98a. [Jonadab is held famous].[5]
99. Elijah is taken.
100. Athalia, 6 yrs.
101. Jonadab the priest, son of Rechab, becomes famous.
102. Joas, 40 yrs.
103. Zachariah son of Jehoiada is stoned.
104. Amasias, 29 yrs.
105. Amos prophesied in Israel.
106. Ozias, 52 yrs.
107. The kingdom of the Assyrians, which had stood 1305 yrs. from its first king Belus, is carried into Media.[6][7]
108. Joatham, 16 yrs.
109. Osee, Johel, and Isaiah prophesy.
110. Achaz, 16 yrs.
111. Roma is put together
112. and Israel is carried into Media.
113. Ezechias, 29 yrs.
114. Romulus brought together a hundred senators.
115. Manasses, 55 yrs.
116. Numa throws in two [more] months.
117. Amon, 2 yrs.
118. Tullius in the republic drove out census.[15]
119. Josias, 31 yrs.
120. Thales the natural philosopher becomes famous.
121. Joachim, 11 yrs.
122. In the third year of which, Nabucodonosor captures Judea.
123. Sedecias, 9 yrs.
124. The temple of Jerusalem was burnt.

XXI. On the fifth age.

126. The fifth age contains 588 years.
127. The captivity of the Hebrews, 70 yrs.
128. The history of Judith is written up.
129. Darius, 36 yrs.
130. In the second year of which, the captivity of the Jews was loosed.[5][8][9] In the second year of which, the temple of Jerusalem was built up: the first of his rule, however, concluded the 70 years of the Jewish captivity.[6][7]
131. Xerses, 21 yrs.
132. Herodotus the Historian becomes well-known.
133. Artarxerses, 40 yrs.
134. Ezra restores the law; Neemias, Jerusalem.
135. Darius (or "Nothus"), 18 yrs.
136. Plato is born.
137. Artarxerses, 40 yrs.
138. The history of Hester is completed.
139. Artarxerses (or "Ochus"), 26 yrs.
140. Demostenes and Aristoteles are renowned.
141. Xerses son of Ochus, 4 yrs.
142. Xenocrates becomes famous.
143. Darius, 6 yrs.
144. Thus far, the kingdom of Persians: from here, the Greeks.
145. Alexander, 5 yrs: for the seven prior to him are ordered with the the kings of the Persians
146. Ptolemy son of Lagus[16] 40 yrs.
147. The first book of the Maccabees begins.
148. Philadelphus, 38 yrs.
149. The seventy interpreters become famous.
150. Evergetes, 26 yrs.
151. Jesus composed the book of wisdom.
152. Philopater, 17 yrs.
153. The second book of the Machabees begins.
154. Epiphanes, 24 yrs.
155. The Romans seized the Greeks.
156. Philometor, 35 yrs.
157. Here, the rising Antiochus oppresses the Jews.
158. Evergetes, 29 yrs.
159. Brutus overwhelms Spain.
160. Soter, 17 yrs.
161. Varro and Cicero are born.
162. Alexander, 10 yrs.
163. Syria—through the general Gabinius[17]—is made subject to the Romans.
164. Ptolemy son of Cleopatra, 8 yrs.
165. Salust the historian is born.
166. Dionysius, 30 yrs.
167. Pompey captures Judea.
168. Cleopatra, 2 yrs.
169. Thus far, the kingdom of the Greeks: now, the Romans.
170. Julius Caesar, 5 yrs.
171. From him, the Caesars are named.

XXII. On the sixth age.

173. The sixth age thus far contains 709 years.
174. Octavian, 56 yrs.
175. In the year 42 of which, the lord is born.
176. 3952 years from Adam or, according to others, 5198.
176a. [From the birth of our lord Jesus Christ until Tiberius are 14 years].[5][8][9]
177. Tiberius, 23 yrs.
178. In the year 18 of which, the lord is crucified.
179. Gaius[18] 4 yrs.
180. Matthew writes his gospel.
181. Claudius, 14 yrs.
182. Peter seeks converts in Rome; Mark, in Alexandria.
183. Nero, 14 yrs.
184. Peter and Paul are given over to the cross and sword.
185. Vespasian, 10 yrs.
186. In the second year of which, Titus overturned Jerusalem.
187. Titus, 2 yrs.
188. He was well-spoken and pious.
189. Domitian, 16 yrs.
190. John is bound up on Patmos.
191. Nerva, 1 yr.
192. John the Apostle, going back to Ephesum, wrote his gospel.
193. Trajan, 19 yrs.
194. Symon, bishop of Jerusalem, is crucified
195. and John the Apostle rests again.
196. Hadrian, 21 yrs.
197. Aquila is held in respect as an interpreter.[19]
198. Antonius Pius, 22 yrs. [3 months].[6][7]
199. Valentine and Marcion are acknowledged.
200. Antonius the younger, 19 yrs.
201. The Cataphrygians' heresy arises.
202. Commodus, 13 yrs.
203. Teodotion is held in respect as an interpreter.[19]
204. Helius Pertinax, 1 yr.
204a. [He is killed by the villainy of Julian, the skillful at law].[5]
205. Severus Pertinax, 18 yrs.
206. Symmachus is held in respect as an interpreter.[19]
207. Antonius Caracalla, 7 yrs.
208. The fifth edition[20] is discovered in Jerusalem. A seventh edition was also found, but consisted only of the Psalms.[21]
209. Macrinus, 1 yr.
209a. [Abgarus the holy man ruled,[22] as Affricanus wants it].[5]
210. Aurelius Antoninus, 4 yrs.
211. The sixth edition[20] is found in Nicapolis.
212. Alexander, 13 yrs.
213. Origen of Alexandria is made famous.
214. Maximus, 3 yrs.
215. He persecutes the Christians.
216. Gordian, 7 yrs.
217. Fabian, bishop of Rome, is celebrated.
218. Philip, 7 yrs.
219. He was the first Christian emperor.
220. Decius, 1 yr.
221. Antonius the Monk [in Egypt][5] is made famous.
222. Gallus and Volusian, 2 yrs.
223. The Novatian heresy arises.
224. Valerianus with Gallien, 15 yrs.
225. Cyprian is crowned with martyrdom.
226. Claudius, 2 yrs.
227. Paul of Samosata put together his heresy.
228. Aurelian, 5 yrs.
229. He persecutes the Christians.
230. Tacitus, 1 yr.
230a. [Anatholius, bishop of Syrian Laodicia, is made famous].[5]
231. Probus, 6 yrs.
232. The Manicheans' heresy rose up.
233. Carus, 2 yrs.
234. He triumphed over Persia.
235. Dioclitian and Maximian, 20 yrs.
236. He persecutes the Christians.[6][7] In these persecutions, 17 thousand past away within 30 days.[5][8][9]
237. Valerian 2 yrs.[5][8][9] Maximus and Severus 1 yr.[6][7]
237a. [The brevity of which reign brought together nothing fit for history].[5][23]
238. Constantine, 30 yrs.
239. The Nicene synod is gathered together.
240. Constantius and Constans, 24 yrs.
241. The bones of Andrew and Luke are transferred to Constantinople.
242. Julian, 2 yrs.
243. An ex-Christian pagan, he persecutes the Christians.
244. Jovian, 1 yr.
245. He—with all his army—is made Christian.[24]
246. Valentinian, 14 yrs.
247. who by Julian—on account of the faith of Christ—had been deprived of his office.
248. Gratian, 6 yrs.
249. Bishops Ambrosius and Martin are made famous.
249a. [Valens 3 yrs].[6]
250. Valentinian with Teodosius, 9 yrs.
251. Hieronimus in Bethlehem is renowned.
251a. [Synod in Constantinople of 350 bishops, in which all heresies are condemned].[5][8][9]
252. Theodosius, 3 yrs. with Arcadius and Honorius.
253. John the Anchorite becomes famous.
254. Archadius, 13 yrs. with his brother Honorius.
255. Bishops John Chrysostome and Augustine are renowned.
256. Honorius, 15 yrs. with Theodosius the younger.
257. Cyril of Alexandria becomes famous.
257a. [The Carthaginian council of 214 bishops comdemns Pelagius].[5][8][9]
258. Theodosius the younger, 26 yrs.
259. The Ephesian synod condemns Nestorius.
260. Marcian, 7 yrs.
261. The Chalcedonian council is held.
261a. [The English came to Britain].[5][8][9]
262. Leo the elder, 17 yrs.
263. Egypt barks with Dioscorus's error.
263a. [Leo the younger 1 yr].[5][8][9]
263b. [King Theodericus siezed Rome].[5][8][9]
264. Zeno, 17 yrs.
265. The body of the apostle Barnabas is found.
266. Anastasius, 27 yrs.
267. Bishop Fulgentius is renowed.
268. Justin, 8 yrs.
269. The heresy of the Acephalites is forsaken.[25]
269a. [The abbot Benedict becomes famous.][5][8][9]
270. Justinian, 39 yrs.
271. In the sixth year of which, the first cycle of Dionysius begins.
272. Justin the younger, 11 yrs.
273. The Armenians take up the faith of Christ.
274. Tiberius, 7 yrs.
275. Herminigildus king of the Goths is crowned with martyrdom.
276. Maurice, 21 yrs.
277. Gregorius, bishop of Rome, flourished.
278. Focas, 8 yrs.
279. The Saxons in Britain take up the faith of Christ.
280. Heraclius, 36 yrs.
281. The Jews in Spain are made Christians.
282. Heraclonas with his mother Martina 2 yrs.
282a. [In these times, the heresy of the Acepalites is restored].[5]
283. Constantine son of Heraclius[26] 6 mo.
283a. [At this same time, the Acephalites' heresy is condemned with anathema].[5]
284. Constantine son of Constantine, 28 yrs.
285. An eclipse of the sun is made in year 7 of the indiction 5 days before the nones of May.
286. Constantine son of Constantine the elder, 17 yrs.
287. He put together the sixth synod.
288. Justinian son of Constantine, 10 yrs.
288a. [He—on account of his guilt of treason—was deprived of his kingdom's glory and exiled.][5]
289. Africa was restored to the empire of the Romans.
290. Leo, 3 yrs.
291. Tiberius passes his fifth year in the first year of the indiction.
292. The remainder of the sixth age is clear to God alone.

Notes[edit]

  1. L. "to talk"
  2. L. A pueritia namque homo incipit nosse loqui post infantiam, quae et nomen inde accepit, quod fari, id est, loqui non potest.
  3. or 483
  4. Or 588
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 Text in brackets provided by MS. M: Parisinum 4860, 10th c.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Text in brackets provided by MS. P: Vaticanum Palatinum 1448, 10th c.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Text in brackets provided by MS. F: Berolinensis 1831, 9th c.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 Text in brackets provided by MS. E: Einsiedeln 167, 9th c.
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 Text in brackets provided by MS. H: St. Gall 251, 9th c.
  10. That is, idols.
  11. L. Regnum Assyriorum et Syciniorum exoritur.
  12. Taking Babylonem for Babyloniam.
  13. That is, Sparta
  14. Unknown source includes L. ...ex quo apparet Samuhel et Saul XL annis praefuisse although this appears to be in error and is not included by Mommsen.
  15. L. Tullius in re publica censum exegit.
  16. Taking Lagi for Largi.
  17. Taking Gabinium for Gabinum
  18. That is, Caligula
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 In reference to his translation of the Old Testament into Greek. Origen's volume compiling the Hebrew text, its transcription into Greek letters, and the translations of Aquila, Symmachus, the Septuagint, and Theodotion was known as the Hexapla.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Of the Old Testament in Greek, after the first four compiled in Origen's Hexapla. The version with all six was then known as the Octapla.
  21. Actually in a hogshead in Jericho by a student from Jerusalem.
  22. In Edessa.
  23. L. Huius brevitas imperii nihil dignum hystoriae contulit.
  24. Taking efficitur for efficiter.
  25. Taking abdicitur for abdicatur.
  26. Taking Heraclii for Eracli.