Treaty of San Ildefonso
PRELIMINARY and Secret Treaty between the French Republick and his C. M. the King of Spain, relating to the aggrandizement of H. R. H. the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy, and to the recession of Louisiana.
His Catholick Majesty having always manifested the most anxious desire to procure for his R. H. the Duke of Parma an aggrandizement, which might place him on a footing corresponding with his dignity; and the French Republick having long since given to H. C. M. the King of Spain to understand the desire which they felt to recover possession of the colony of Louisiana; both governments having interchanged their views upon these two subjects of common interest, and circumstances permitting them to enter into engagements in this particular, which as far as it depends on them, may assure reciprocal satisfaction, have authorized for this purpose, that is to say: the French Republic, the citizen Alexander Berthier, general in chief; and his C. M. don Mariano Luis de Urquijo, Chevalier of the Order of Charles III, and of St. John of Jerusalem, Counsellor of State, his Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary near the Batavian Republick, and his provisional first Secretary of State; who, after having exchanged their powers, have agreed, saving the ratification, upon the following articles:
The French Republick engages to procure for H. R. H. the Infant Duke of Parma an augmentation of territory which shall raise the population of his estates to one million of inhabitants with the title of King, and all the rights annexed to the royal dignity; and to this effect the French Republick engages to obtain the consent of H. M. the Emperor and King, and of the other states interested, so that H. R. H. the Infant Duke of Parma may without opposition enter into possession of the said territories, at the time of the confirmation of peace between the French Republick and his Imperial Majesty.
The augmentation to be given to H R. H. the Duke of Parma may consist of Tuscany, in case the present negotiations of the French government with H. I. Majesty shall permit them to dispose of that country, or of the three Roman ecclesiastical provinces, or any other continental provinces of Italy, that may form a rounded estate.
H. C. M. promises and engages on his part to recede to the French Republick, six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions and stipulations herein expressed, relative to H R. H. the Duke of Parma, the colony or province of Louisiana, with the same extent that it now has in the hands of Spain, and had while in the possession of France, and such as it ought to he in conformity with the treaties subsequently concluded between Spain and other states.
H. C. M. will give the necessary orders for the occupation of Louisiana by France, the moment the estates designed for his aggrandizement shall be placed in the hands of H. R. H. the Duke of Parma. The French may, according to its convenience, defer the taking possession; and when this is to be done, the states directly or indirectly interested shall agree upon the ulterior conditions which their common interests and that of their inhabitants may demand.
H. C. M. engages to deliver to the French Republick in the ports of Spain in Europe, one month after the execution of the stipulation with regard to the Duke of Parma, six ships of war in good condition, of seventy four guns, armed and equipped, and in a state to receive the French crews and supplies.
The stipulations of the present treaty having no prejudicial object; but on the contrary preserving untouched the rights of every one, it is not to be presumed, they can excite the suspicions of any power. But if the contrary should happen, and the result of their execution should be that the two states are attacked or threatened, both powers engage to make a common cause, as well to repel aggression, as also to take those conciliatory measures proper to maintain peace with all their neighbours.
The obligations contained in the present treaty, in nothing annul those which are expressed in the treaty of alliance signed at St. Ildefonso, on the 2d Fructidor, year 4, (18th of August, l796;) on the contrary they unite with new ties the interests of the two powers, and confirm the stipulations of the treaty of alliance in all the cases to which they can be applied.
The ratifications of the present preliminary articles shall be completed and exchanged in the period of one month, or sooner if possible, counting from the date of the signing of the present treaty.
In faith of which, we, the undersigned, ministers plenipotentiary of the French Republick, and of H. C. M. by virtue of our respective powers, have signed the present preliminary articles, and have affixed our seals.
Done at St. Ildefonso, the 9th Vendimiaire, 9th year of the French Republick, (1st October, 1800.)
(Signed) ALEXANDER BERTHIER,
(Signed) MARIANO LUIS DE URQUIJO,