Treaty of Trianon/Part V
In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations, Hungary undertakes strictly to observe the military, naval and air clauses which follow.
Section I. Military Clauses
Chapter I. General
Within three months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the military forces of Hungary shall be demobilised to the extent prescribed hereinafter.
Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished in Hungary. The Hungarian Army shall in future only be constituted and recruited by means of voluntary enlistment.
Chapter II. Effectives and Cadres of the Hungarian Army
The total number of military forces in the Hungarian Army shall not exceed 35,000 men, including officers and depot troops.
Subject to the following limitations, the formations composing the Hungarian Army shall be fixed in accordance with the wishes of Hungary:
(1) The effectives of units must be fixed between the maximum and minimum figures shown in Table No. IV annexed to this Section.
(2) The proportion of officers, including the personnel of staffs and special services, shall not exceed one-twentieth of the total effectives with the colours, and that of non-commissioned officers shall not exceed one-fifteenth of the total effectives with the colours.
(3) The number of machine guns, guns and howitzers shall not exceed per thousand men of the total effectives with the colours those fixed in Table V annexed to this Section.
The Hungarian Army shall be devoted exclusively to the maintenance of order within the territory of Hungary, and to the control of her frontiers.
The maximum strength of the staffs and of all formations which Hungary may be permitted to raise are given in the tables annexed to this Section; these figures need not be exactly followed, but must not be exceeded.
All other organisations for the command of troops or for preparation for war are forbidden.
All measures of mobilisation, or appertaining to mobilisation are forbidden.
In no case must formations, administrative services or staffs include supplementary cadres.
The carrying out of any preparatory measures with a view to requisitioning animals or other means of military transport is forbidden.
The number of gendarmes, customs officers, foresters, members of the local or municipal police or other like officials may not exceed the number of men employed in a similar capacity in 1913 within the boundaries of Hungary as fixed by the present Treaty. The Principal Allied and Associated Powers may, however, increase this number should the Commission of Control referred to in Article 137, after examination on the spot, consider it to be insuffficient.
The number of these officials shall not be increased in the future except as may be necessary to maintain the same proportion between the number of officials and the total population in the localities or municipalities which employ them.
These officials, as well as officials employed in the railway service, must not be assembled for the purpose of taking part in any military exercises.
Every formation of troops not included in the tables annexed to this Section is forbidden Such other formations as may exist in excess of the 35,000 effectives authorised shall be suppressed within the period laid down by Article 102.
Chapter III. Recruting and Military Training
All officers must be regulars (officers de carrière). Officers now serving who are retained in the army must undertake the obligation to serve in it up to the age of 40 years at least. Officers now serving who do not join the new army will be released from all military obligations; they must not take part in any military exercises, whether theoretical or practical.
Officers newly appointed must undertake to serve on the active list for 20 consecutive years at least.
The number of officers discharged for any reason before the expiration of their term of service must not exceed in any year one-twentieth of the total of officers provided for in Article 104. If this proportion is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting shortage must not be made good by fresh appointments.
The period of enlistment for non-commissioned officers and privates must be for a total period of not less than 12 consecutive years, including at least 6 years with the colours.
The proportion of men discharged before the expiration of the period of their enlistment for reasons of health or as a result of disciplinary measures or for any other reasons must not in any year exceed one-twentieth of the total strength fixed by Article 104. If this proportion is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting shortage must not be made good by fresh enlistments
Chapter IV. Schools, Educational Establishments, Military Clubs and Societies
The number of students admitted to attend the courses in military schools shall be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the cadres of officers. The students and the cadres shall be included in the effectives fixed by Article 104.
Consequently all military schools not required for this purpose shall be abolished.
Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 111, as well as all sporting and other clubs, must not occupy themselves with any military matters.
Chapter V. Armament, Munitions and Material
On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the armament of the Hungarian Army shall not exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table No. V annexed to this Section.
Any excess in relation to effectives shall only be used for such replacements as may eventually be necessary.
The stock of munitions at the disposal of the Hungarian Army shall not exceed the amounts fixed in Table No. V annexed to this Section.
Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Hungarian Government shall deposit any existing surplus of armament and munitions in such places as shall be notified to it by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
No other stock, depot or reserve of munitions shall be formed.
The manufacture of arms, munitions and war material shall only be carried on in one single factory, which shall be controlled by and belong to the State, and whose output shall be strictly limited to the manufacture of such arms, munitions and war material as is necessary for the military forces and armaments referred to in Articles 104, 107, 113 and 114. The Principal Allied and Associated Powers may, however, authorise such manufacture, for such a period as they may think fit, in one or more other factories to be approved by the Commission of Control referred to in Article 137.
The manufacture of sporting weapons is not forbidden, provided that sporting weapons manufactured in Hungary taking ball cartridge are not of the same calibre as that of military weapons used in any European army.
Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, storage or design of arms, munitions or any other war material shall be closed down or converted to purely commercial uses.
Within the same length of time, all arsenals shall also be closed down, except those to be used as depots for the authorised stocks of munitions, and their staffs discharged.
The plant of any establishments or arsenals in excess of the amount required for the manufacture authorised shall be rendered useless or converted to purely commercial purposes in accordance with the decisions of the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 137.
Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty all arms, munitions and war material, including any kind of anti-aircraft material, of whatever origin, existing in Hungary in excess of the quantity authorised shall be handed over to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
Delivery shall take place at such points in Hungarian territory as may be appointed by the said Powers, who shall also decide on the disposal of such material.
The importation into Hungary of arms, munitions and war material of all kinds is strictly forbidden.
The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of arms, munitions and war material shall also be forbidden.
The use of flame throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and all similar liquids, materials or devices being prohibited, their manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Hungary.
Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage or use of the said products or devices is equally forbidden.
The manufacture and importation into Hungary of armoured cars, tanks or any similar machines suitable for use in war are equally forbidden.
Table No. I. Composition and Maximum Effectives for an Infantry Division
|Units||Maximum Effectives of each unit|
|Headquarters of an Infantry Division||25||70|
|Headquarters of Divisional Infantry||5||50|
|Headquarters of Divisional Artillery||4||30|
|3 Regiments of Infantry* (on the basis of 65 officers and 2,000 men per regiment)||195||6,000|
|1 Battalion of Trench Artillery (3 companies)||14||500|
|1 Battalion of Pioneers† (3 companies)||14||500|
|Regiment Field Artillery‡||80||1,200|
|1 Battalion Cyclists (comprising 3 companies)||18||450|
|1 Signal Detachment§||11||330|
|Divisional Medical Corps||28||550|
|Divisional parks and trains||14||940|
|Total for an Infantry Division||414||10,780|
* Each regiment comprises 3 battalions of infantry. Each battalion comprises 3 companies of infantry and 1 machine gun company.
† Each battalion comprises 1 headquarters, 2 pioneer companies, 1 bridging section, 1 searchlight section.
‡ Each regiment comprises 1 headquarters, 3 groups of field or mountain artillery, comprising 8 batteries; each battery comprising 4 guns or howitzers (field or mountain).
§ This detachment comprises: telephone detachment, 1 listening section, 1 carrier pigeon section.
Table No. II. Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Cavalry Division
|Units||Maximum number authorised||Maximum Effectives of each unit|
|Headquarters of a Cavalry Division||1||15||50|
|Regiment of Cavalry*||6||30||720|
|Group of Field Artillery (3 batteries)||1||30||430|
|Group of motor machine guns and armoured cars†||1||4||80|
|Total for a Cavalry Division||—||259||5,380|
* Each regiment comprises 4 squadrons.
† Each group comprises 9 fighting cars, each carrying 1 gun, 1 machine gun, and 1 spare machine gun, 4 communication cars, 2 small lorries for stores, 7 lorries, including 1 repair lorry, 4 motor cycles.
Note: The large cavalry units may include a variable number of regiments and be divided into independent brigades within the limit of the effectives laid down above.
Table No. III. Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Mixed Brigade
|Units||Maximum Effectives of each unit|
|Headquarters of a Brigade||10||50|
|2 Regiments of Infantry*||130||4,000|
|1 Cyclist Battalion||18||450|
|1 Cavalry Squadron||5||100|
|1 Group Field Artillery||20||400|
|1 Trench Mortar Company||5||150|
|Total for Mixed Brigade||198||5,350|
* Each regiment comprises 3 battalions of infantry. Each battalion comprises 3 companies of infantry and 1 machine gun company.
Table No. IV. Minimum Effectives of Units Whatever Organisation is adpted in the Army
|Units||Maximum Effectives (for reference)||Minimum Effectives|
|Regiment of Infantry||65||2,000||52||1,600|
|Battalion of Infantry||16||650||12||500|
|Company of Infantry or machine guns||3||160||2||120|
|Regiment of Cavalry||30||720||20||450|
|Squadron of Cavalry||6||160||3||100|
|Regiment of Field Artillery||80||1,200||60||1,000|
|Battery of Field Artillery||4||150||2||120|
|Company of Trench Mortars||3||150||2||100|
|Battalion of Pioneers||14||500||8||300|
|Battery of Mountain Artillery||5||320||3||200|
Table No. V. Maximum Authorised Armaments and Munition Supplies
|Material||Quantity for 1,000 men||Amount of munitions per arm (rifles, guns, etc)|
|Rifles or carbines*||1,150||500 rounds|
|Machine guns, heavy or light||15||10,000 rounds|
|Trench mortars, light||2||1,000 rounds|
|Trench mortars, medium||500 rounds|
|Guns or howitzers (field or mountain)||3||1,000 rounds|
* Automatic rifles or carbines are counted as light machine guns.
No heavy guns, i.e., of a calibre greater than 105 mm is authorised, with the exception of the normal armament of fortified places.
From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all Austro-Hungarian warships, submarines included, are declared to be finally surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
All the monitors, torpedo boats and armed vessels of the Danube Flotilla will be surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
Hungary will, however, have the right to maintain on the Danube for the use of the river police three patrol boats to be selected by the Commission referred to in Articie 138 of the present Treaty. The Principal Allied and Associated Powers may increase this number should the said Commission, after examination on the spot, consider it to be insufficient.
The Austro-Hungarian auxiliary cruisers and fleet auxiliaries enumerated below will be disarmed and treated as merchant ships:
- Prince Hohenlohe
- Graf Wurmbrand
- President Wilson (ex-Kaiser Franz Joseph)
- Baron Bruck
- Baron Call
All warships, including submarines, now under construction in Hungarian ports, or in ports which previously belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, shall be broken up.
The work of breaking up these vessels will be commenced as soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
The mine-layer tenders under construction at Porto-re may, however, be preserved if the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control and the Reparation Commission consider that for economic reasons their employment for commercial purposes is desirable. In that event the vessels will be handed over to the Reparation Commission, which will assess their value, and will credit such value, in whole or in part, to Hungary, or as the case may require to Austria, on the reparation account.
Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking up of Austro-Hungarian warships of all kinds, whether surface vessels or submarines, may not be used except for purely industrial or commercial purposes.
They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries.
The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for commercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Hungary.
All arms, ammunition and other naval war material, including mines and topedoes, which belonged to Austria-Hungary at the date of the signature of the Armistice of 3 November 1918, are declared to be finally surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
Hungary is held responsible for the delivery (Articles 120 and 125), the disarmament (Article 121), the demolition (Article 122), as well as the disposal (Article 121) and the use (Article 123) of the objects mentioned in the preceding Articles only so far as these remain in her own territory.
During the three months following the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Hungarian high-power wireless telegraphy station at Budapest shall not be used for the transmission of messages concerning naval, military or political questions of interest to Hungary, or any State which has been allied to Austria-Hungary in the war, without the assent of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. This station may be used for commercial purposes, but only under the supervision of the said Powers, who will decide the wave-length to be used.
During the same period Hungary shall not build any more high-power wireless telegraphy stations in her own territory or that of Austria, Germany, Bulgaria or Turkey.
Section III. Air Clauses
The armed forces of Hungary must not include any military or naval air forces. No dirigible shall be kept.
Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the personnel of the air forces on the rolls of the Hungarian land and sea forces shall be demobilised.
Until the complete evacuation of Hungarian territory by the Allied and Associated troops the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Hungary freedom of passage through the air, freedom of transit and of landing.
During the six months lollowing the coming into force of the present Treaty, the manufacture, importation and exportation of aircraft, parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft, and parts of engines for aircraft shall be forbidden in all Hungarian territory.
On the coming into force of the present Treaty, all military and naval aeronautical material must be delivered by Hungary and at her expense to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
Delivery must be effected at such places as the Governments of the said Powers may select, and must be completed within three months.
In particular, this material will include all items under the following heads which are or have been in use or were designed for warlike purposes:
- Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manufactured, repaired or assembled.
- Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or assembled.
- Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen.
- Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft.
Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Hungary, be maintained inflated with hydrogen; the plant for the manufacture of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles, may at the discretion of the said Powers, be left to Hungary until the time when the dirigibles are handed over.
- Engines for aircraft.
- Nacelles and fuselages.
- Armament (guns, machine guns, light machine guns, bombdropping apparatus, torpedo apparatus, synchronisation apparatus, aiming apparatus).
- Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks of explosives or of material for their manufacture).
- Instruments for use on aircraft.
- Wireless apparatus and photographic or cinematograph apparatus for use on aircraft.
- Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads.
The material referred to above shall not be removed without special permission from the said Governments.
Section IV. Inter-Allied Commissions of Control
All the Military, Naval and Air Clauses contained in the present Treaty for the execution of which a time limit is prescribed shall be executed by Hungary under the control of Inter-Allied Commissions specially appointed for this purpose by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Hungarian Government in all matters concerning the execution of the hIilitary, Naval and Air Clauses. They will communicate to the Hungarian authorities the decisions which the Principal Allied and Associated Powers have reserved the right to take or which the execution of the said Clauses may necessitate.
The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control may establish their organisations at Budapest and shall be entitled, as often as they think desirable, to proceed to any point whatever in Hungarian territory, or to send a sub-commission, or to authorise one or more of their members to go, to any such point
The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control all such information and documents as the latter may deem necessary to ensure the execution of their mission, and all means (both in personnel and in material) which the above-mentioned Commissions may need to ensure the complete execution of the Military, Naval or Air Clauses.
The Hungarian Government must attach a qualified representative to each Inter-Allied Commission of Control with the duty of receiving from the latter any communications which it mav have to address to the Hungarian Government, and furnishing it with, or procuring, all information or documents demanded.
The upkeep and cost of the Commissions of Control and the expense involved by their work shall be borne by Hungary.
It will be the special duty of the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control to receive from the Hungarian Government the notifications relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, and the location of the works or factories for the production of arms, munitions and war material and their operations.
It will take delivery of the arms, munitions, war material and plant intended for war construction, will select the points where such deEvery is to be effected, and will supervise the works of destruction, and rendering things useless, or of transformation of material, which are to be carried out in accordance with the present Treaty.
It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control to proceed to the building yards and to supervise the breaking-up of the ships which are under construction there, to take delivery of arms, munitions and naval war material, and to supervise the destruction and breaking-up provided for.
The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Naval InterAllied Commission of Control all such information and documents as the Commission may deem necessary to ensure the complete execution of the Naval Clauses, in particular the designs of the warships, the composition of their armaments the details and models of the guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines explosives, wireless telegraphic apparatus, and in general everything relating to naval war material, as well as all legislative or administrative documents or regulations.
It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control to make an inventory of the aeronautical material which is actually in the possession of the Hungarian Government, to inspect aeroplane, balloon and motor manufactories, and factories producing arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by aircraft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds landing grounds, parks and depots which are now in Hungarian territory, and to authorise where necessary a removal of material and to take delivery of such material.
The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and legislative, administrative or other documents which the Commission may consider necessary to ensure the complete execution of the Air Clauses, and, in particular, a list of the personnel belonging to all the air services of Hungary and of the existing material, as well as of that in process of manufacture or on order, and a list of all establishments working for aviation, of their positions, and of all sheds and landing grounds.
Section V. General Articles
After the expiration of a period of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Hungarian laws must have been modified and shall be maintained by the Hungarian Government in conformity with this Part of the present Treaty.
Within the same period all the administrative or other measures relating to the execution of this Part must have been taken by the Hungarian Government.
The following portions of the Armistice of 3 November 1918: paragraphs 2 and 3 of Chapter I (Military Clauses), paragraphs 2, 3, 6 of Chapter I of the annexed Protocol (Military Clauses), remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent with the above stipulations.
Hungary undertakes, from the coming into force of the present Treaty, not to accredit nor to send to any foreign country any military, naval or air mission, nor to allow any such mission to leave her territory; Hungary further agrees to take the necessary measures to prevent Hungarian nationals from leaving her territory to enlist in the army, navy or air service of any foreign Power, or to be attached to such army, navy or air service for the purposes of assisting in the military, naval or air training thereof, or generally for the purpose of giving military, naval or air instruction in any foreign country.
The Allied and Associated Powers undertake, so far as they are concerned, that from the coming into force of the present Treaty they will not enroll in nor attach to their armies or naval or air forces any Hungarian national for the purpose of assisting in the military training of such armies or naval or air forces, or otherwise employ any such Hungarian national as military, naval or aeronautic instructor.
The present provision does not, however, affect the right of France to recruit for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French military laws and regulations.
So long as the present Treaty remains in force, Hungary undertakes to submit to any investigation which the Council of the League of Nations, acting if need be by a majority vote, may consider necessary.