Two Treatises of Government

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Two Treatises of Government  (1689) 
by John Locke
A work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha and the Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society based on natural rights and contract theory.— Excerpted from Two Treatises of Government on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The PREFACE[edit]

Reader, THOU hast here the Beginning and End of a Discourse concerning Government; what Fate has otherwise disposed of the Papers that should have filled up the middle, and were more than all the rest, 'tis not worth while to tell thee. These, which remain, I hope are sufficient to establish the Throne of our Great Restorer, Our present King William; to make good his Title, in the Consent of the People, which being the only one of all lawful Governments, he has more fully and clearly, than any Prince in Christendom: And to justify to the World the People of England, whose love of their Just and Natural Rights, with their Resolution to preserve them, saved the Nation when it was on the very brink of Slavery and Ruin. If these Papers have that evidence, I flatter my self is to be found in them, there will be no great miss of those which are lost, and my Reader may be satisfied without them. For I imagine, I shall have neither the time, nor inclination to repeat my Pains, and fill up the wanting part of my Answer, by tracing Sir Robert again, through all the Windings and Obscurities which are to be met with in the several Branches of his wonderful System. The King, and Body of the Nation, have since so thoroughly confuted his Hypothesis, that, I suppose, no Body hereafter will have either the Confidence to appear against our Common Safety, and be again an Advocate for Slavery; or the Weakness to be deceived with Contradictions dressed up in a Popular Stile, and well turned Periods. For if any one will be at the Pains himself, in those Parts which are here untouched, to strip Sir Robert’s Discourses of the Flourish of doubtful Expressions, and endeavour to reduce his Words to direct, positive, intelligible Propositions, and then compare them one with another, he will quickly be satisfied there was never so much glib Nonsense put together in well sounding English. If he think it not worth while to examine his Works all through, let him make an Experiment in that part where he Treats of Usurpation; and let him try, whether he can, with all his Skill, make Sir Robert intelligible, and consistent with himself, or common sense. I should not speak so plainly of a Gentleman, long since past answering, had not the Pulpit, of late Years, publickly owned his Doctrine, and made it the Currant Divinity of the Times. 'Tis necessary those Men, who taking on them to be Teachers, have so dangerously misled others, should be openly shewed of what Authority this their Patriarch is, whom they have so blindly followed, that so they may either retract what upon so ill Grounds they have vented, and cannot be maintained; or else justifie those Principles which they Preachd up for Gospel; though they had no better an Author than an English Courtier. For I should not have Writ against Sir Robert, or taken the pains to shew his mistakes, Inconsistencies, and want of (what he so much boasts of, and pretends wholly to build on) Scripture-proofs, were there not Men amongst us, who, by crying up his Books, and espousing his Doctrine, save me from the Reproach of Writing against a dead Adversary. They have been so zealous in this Point, that, if I have done him any wrong; I cannot hope they should spare me. I wish, where they have done the Truth and the Publick wrong, they would be as ready to Redress it and allow its just Weight to this Reflection, viz. That there cannot be done a greater Mischief to Prince and People, than the Propagating wrong Notions concerning Government; that so at last all times might not have reason to complain of the Drum Ecclesiastick. If any one, concerned really for Truth, undertake the Confutation of my Hypothesis, I promise him either to recant my mistake, upon fair Conviction; or to answer his Difficulties. But he must remember two Things;

First, That Cavilling here and there, at some Expression, or little incident of my Discourse, is not an answer to my Book.

Secondly, That I shall not take railing for Arguments, nor think either of these worth my notice: Though I shall always look on my self as bound to give satisfaction to any one who shall appear to be conscientiously scrupulous in the point, and shall shew any just Grounds for his scruples.

I have nothing more, but to advertise the Reader, that A stands for our Author. O for his Observations on Hobbs, Milton, &c. And that a bare Quotation of Pages always means Pages of his Patriarcha, Edit. 1680.

The Contents of Book I[edit]

Locke treatises of government page.jpg

Chap. I. The Introduction
Chap. II. Of Paternal and Regal Power
Chap. III. Of Adam’s Title to Sovereignty, by Creation
Chap. IV. Of Adam’s Title to Sovereignty, by Donation
Chap. V. Of Adam’s Title to Sovereignty, by the Subjection of Eve
Chap. VI. Of Adam’s Title to Sovereignty, by Fatherhood
Chap. VII. Of Fatherhood and Propriety, consider'd together as Fountains of Sovereignty
Chap. VIII. Of the Conveyance of Adam’s Sovereign Monarchical Power
Chap. IX. Of Monarchy, by Inheritance from Adam
Chap. X. Of the Heir to the Monarchical Power of Adam
Chap. XI. Who Heir?

The Contents of Book II[edit]

Chap. I. The Introduction
Chap. II. Of the State of Nature
Chap. III. Of the State of War
Chap. IV. Of Slavery
Chap. V. Of Property
Chap. VI. Of Paternal Power
Chap. VII. Of Political, or Civil Power
Chap. VIII. Of the Beginning of Political Societies
Chap. IX. Of the Ends of Political Society and Government
Chap. X. Of the Forms of a Commonwealth
Chap. XI. Of the Extent of the Legislative Power
Chap. XII. Of the Legislative, Executive, and Federative Power of the Commonwealth
Chap. XIII. Of the Subordination of the Powers of the Commonwealth
Chap. XIV. Of Prerogative
Chap. XV. Of Paternal, Political, and Despotical Power, considered together
Chap. XVI. Of conquest
Chap. XVII. Of Usurpation
Chap. XVIII. Of Tyranny
Chap. XIX. Of the Dissolusion of Government

The End of the Contents.

BOOK I.[edit]

The First Treatise of Government: The False Principles and Foundations of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, are Detected and Overthrown

BOOK II.[edit]

The Second Treatise of Government: An Essay Concerning the True Origin, Extent, and End of Civil Government