United Nations Security Council Resolution 1723
Adopted by the Security Council at its 5574th meeting on 28 November 2006
The Security Council,
Welcoming the formation of a national unity government in Iraq with a detailed political, economic and security programme and a strong national reconciliation agenda and looking forward to the day Iraqi forces assume full responsibility for the maintenance of security and stability in their country, thus allowing the completion of the multinational force mandate and the end of its presence in Iraq,
Welcoming the progress made to date in the training and equipping of Iraqi security forces as well as in the transfer of security responsibilities to those forces in Muthanna and Dhi Qar provinces and looking forward to the continuation of that process during 2007,
Recalling all of its previous relevant resolutions on Iraq,
Reaffirming the independence, sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of Iraq,
Reaffirming also the right of the Iraqi people freely to determine their own political future and control their own national resources,
Welcoming the continuing work of the Government of Iraq towards a federal, democratic, pluralistic, and unified Iraq, in which there is full respect for human rights,
Welcoming the vital role played by the Government of Iraq in continuing to promote national dialogue and reconciliation in pursuit of an atmosphere in which sectarianism is totally rejected, including the National Reconciliation Plan announced by Iraqi Prime Minister al-Maliki, stressing the importance of the rapid implementation of the plan, and reaffirming the willingness of the international community to work closely with the Government of Iraq to assist these reconciliation efforts,
Recognizing the International Compact with Iraq, an initiative of the Government of Iraq to create a new partnership with the international community and to build a strong framework for Iraq’s continued political, security and economic transformation and integration into the regional and global economy, and welcoming the important role that the United Nations is playing by jointly chairing the Compact with the Government of Iraq,
Calling upon the international community, particularly countries in the region and Iraq’s neighbours, to support the Iraqi people in their pursuit of peace, stability, security, democracy, and prosperity, and noting that the successful implementation of this resolution will contribute to regional stability,
Demanding those who use violence in an attempt to subvert the political process should lay down their arms and participate in the political process, and encouraging the Government of Iraq to continue to engage with all those who renounce violence,
Reaffirming that acts of terrorism must not be allowed to disrupt Iraq’s political and economic transition, and further reaffirming the obligations of Member States under resolution 1618 (2005) of 4 August 2005 and other relevant resolutions and international conventions with respect, inter alia, to terrorist activities in and from Iraq or against its citizens,
Recognizing the request conveyed in the letter of 11 November 2006 from the Prime Minister of Iraq to the President of the Council, which is annexed to this resolution, to retain the presence of the multinational force in Iraq, and affirming the common goals therein: Iraqi assumption of recruiting, training, equipping, and arming of the Iraqi Security Forces; Iraqi assumption of command and control over Iraqi forces; and the transfer of responsibility for security to the Government of Iraq,
Recognizing the importance of consent of the sovereign government of Iraq for the presence of the multinational force and of close coordination and partnership between the multinational force and that government,
Welcoming the willingness of the multinational force to continue efforts to contribute to the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq, including participating in the provision of humanitarian and reconstruction assistance, as described in the letter of 17 November 2006 from the United States Secretary of State to the President of the Council, which is annexed to this resolution, Recognizing the tasks and arrangements set out in letters annexed to resolution 1546 (2004) of 8 June 2004 and the cooperative implementation by the Government of Iraq and the multinational force of those arrangements,
Affirming the importance for all forces promoting the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq to act in accordance with international law, including obligations under international humanitarian law, and to cooperate with the relevant international organizations, and welcoming their commitments in this regard,
Recalling the establishment of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) on 14 August 2003, and affirming that the United Nations should continue to play a leading role in assisting the Iraqi people and government with further political and economic development, including advising and supporting the Government of Iraq, providing strong support in developing the International Compact with Iraq, contributing to coordination and delivery of reconstruction, development and humanitarian assistance, and promoting the protection of human rights, national reconciliation, as well as judicial and legal reform in order to strengthen the rule of law in Iraq,
Recognizing that international support for security and stability is essential to the well-being of the people of Iraq as well as the ability of all concerned, including the United Nations, to carry out their work on behalf of the people of Iraq, and expressing appreciation for Member State contributions in this regard under resolution 1483 (2003), resolution 1511 (2003), resolution 1546 (2004) and resolution 1637 (2005),
Recognizing that the Government of Iraq will continue to have the primary role in coordinating international assistance to Iraq and reaffirming the importance of international assistance and development of the Iraqi economy and the importance of coordinated donor assistance,
Recognizing the significant role of the Development Fund for Iraq and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board in helping the Government of Iraq to ensure that Iraq’s resources are being used transparently and equitably for the benefit of the people of Iraq,
Stressing the responsibility of the Iraqi authorities to undertake all appropriate steps to prevent attacks on the diplomatic personnel accredited in Iraq in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961,
Determining that the situation in Iraq continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Notes that the presence of the multinational force in Iraq is at the request of the Government of Iraq and reaffirms the authorization for the multinational force as set forth in resolution 1546 (2004) and decides to extend the mandate of the multinational force as set forth in that resolution until 31 December 2007, taking into consideration the Iraqi Prime Minister’s letter dated 11 November 2006 and the United States Secretary of State’s letter dated 17 November 2006;
2. Decides further that the mandate for the multinational force shall be reviewed at the request of the Government of Iraq or no later than 15 June 2007, and declares that it will terminate this mandate earlier if requested by the Government of Iraq;
3. Decides to extend until 31 December 2007 the arrangements established in paragraph 20 of resolution 1483 (2003) for the depositing into the Development Fund for Iraq of proceeds from export sales of petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas and the arrangements referred to in paragraph 12 of resolution 1483 (2003) and paragraph 24 of resolution 1546 (2004) for the monitoring of the Development Fund for Iraq by the International Advisory and Monitoring Board;
4. Decides further that the provisions in the above paragraph for the deposit of proceeds into the Development Fund for Iraq and for the role of the International Advisory and Monitoring Board shall be reviewed at the request of the Government of Iraq or no later than 15 June 2007;
5. Requests that the Secretary-General continue to report to the Council on UNAMI operations in Iraq on a quarterly basis;
6. Requests that the United States, on behalf of the multinational force, continue to report to the Council on the efforts and progress of this force on a quarterly basis;
7. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
Letter dated 11 November 2006 from the Prime Minister of Iraq addressed to the President of the Security Council
[Original: Arabic and English]
Iraq has taken in the specified time the steps required for the completion of the political process, in particular the drafting of a permanent constitution and the laying of foundations for building its political and legal institutions. In May 2006, the constitutionally elected Council of Representatives formed a Government of national unity. The steps for building a democratic, federal and united Iraq were consolidated by the commitment of the Government to adopt a dialogue and national reconciliation scheme, secure broad political participation, monitor human rights, establish the rule of law and economic development and provide services to citizens.
Establishing security and securing permanent stability are among the highest priorities of the Iraqi Government’s programme to realize the desired peace and prosperity for the Iraqi people. However, terrorists and forces hostile to democracy continue to target innocent citizens and the various State institutions. Security and stability in Iraq are the responsibility of the Iraqi Government.
The Security Council affirmed in its resolution 1546 (2004) that Iraqi security forces would play a progressively greater role in enabling the Iraqi Government to assume that responsibility, diminishing and thereby ending the role of the multinational force, when the responsibility for security of the Iraqi security forces increases and expands. From the experience of the past two and a half years, it was established that the Iraqi security forces, which operated under the command of the Iraqi Government, had acquired new experiences and responsibilities and had grown in size, experience and capacity, demonstrated by their increased ability to assume full responsibility in the fields of security and defence.
We started to reap the fruits of success when our forces assumed responsibility for security in the governorates of Al Muthanna and Dhi Qar. In September 2006, the Ministry of Defence assumed the operational command and control of the ground, naval and air force commands. It also assumed operational command and control over two military divisions, indicating an increase in the ability of the Iraqi Army to assume the leadership in providing security to the Iraqi people. The Iraqi Government is also relentlessly working on building the necessary administrative and logistics system to make our Iraqi forces self-sufficient.
It is the intention of the Iraqi Government to continue increasing the number of governorates that fall fully under the control of the Iraqi authorities during 2006, until all 18 are under their control. When the responsibilities for security are transferred to the Iraqi authorities in a certain governorate, the multinational force will be present in its bases and can provide support to Iraqi security forces at the request of the Iraqi authorities, in accordance with an agreement that allocates the authorities and responsibilities between the two sides.
We have agreed on three common goals: first, assumption by Iraq of recruiting, training, equipping and arming of Iraqi security forces; second, assumption by Iraq of command and control over Iraqi forces; and third, transferring responsibility for security to the Government of Iraq. We have formed a high-level working group that will provide recommendations on how best to achieve these goals. It has also been agreed to work towards the Iraqi authorities’ assuming the apprehension, detention and imprisonment tasks on the basis of an agreement to be reached between the Government of Iraq and the multinational force.
Hence, the Iraqi Government requests the extension of the mandate of the multinational force in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1546 (2004) and 1637 (2005) and the letters attached thereto for another 12 months starting on 31 December 2006, provided that the extension is subject to a commitment by the Council to end the mandate at an earlier date if the Iraqi Government so requests and that the mandate is subject to periodic review before 15 June 2007. The Iraqi Government requests the termination of the UNMOVIC mission due to the completion of its tasks. The Iraqi Government believes that the time has come to terminate the war compensations that were imposed on Iraq.
The Iraqi Government realizes that the provisions of resolution 1546 (2004) relating to the depositing of revenues in the Development Fund for Iraq and the role of the International Advisory and Monitoring Board help to ensure the use of the natural resources of Iraq for the benefit of the people of Iraq. We recognize that the fund plays an important role in convincing donors and creditors that Iraq is managing its resources and debts in a responsible way for the Iraqi people. This role is vital, especially since Iraq is seeking to form a new partnership with the international community to build a vital network for economic transformation and integration in the economies of the region and the world through the International Compact with Iraq. We ask the Security Council to extend the mandate of the Development Fund for Iraq and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board for another 12 months and to review this mandate based on the request of the Iraqi Government before 15 June 2007.
The people of Iraq are determined to establish a stable and peaceful democracy for themselves and a proper basis for building a vital economy. This vision for the future of Iraq cannot become a reality without the help of the international community.
We realize that the Security Council intends to append the present letter to the special resolution concerning Iraq that is being prepared. Meanwhile, I ask that the present letter be distributed to the members of the Security Council as soon as possible.
(Signed) Nuri Kamel al-Maliki Prime Minister of the Republic of Iraq
Letter dated 17 November 2006 from the Secretary of State of the United States of America to the President of the Security Council
Having reviewed the request of the Government of Iraq to extend the mandate of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq and following consultations with the Government of Iraq, I am writing to confirm, consistent with this request, that MNF under unified command stands ready to continue to fulfil its mandate as set out in Security Council resolution 1546 (2004) and extended by Security Council resolution 1637 (2005).
The Government of Iraq and MNF in Iraq continue to improve their cooperation through a security partnership to combat the challenges that threaten Iraq’s security and stability. This partnership has evolved over time to incorporate the increasing leadership by Iraqi security forces in fighting and deterring terrorism and other violent acts throughout Iraq’s 18 provinces. In the context of this partnership, MNF is prepared to continue to undertake a broad range of tasks to contribute to the maintenance of security and stability and to ensure force protection, acting under the authorities set forth in resolution 1546 (2004), including the tasks and arrangements set out in the letters annexed thereto, and in close cooperation with the Government of Iraq. The forces that make up MNF will remain committed to acting consistently with their obligations and rights under international law, including the law of armed conflict.
Iraqi security forces have already made substantial progress this year in developing their capabilities and, as a result, they are shouldering a greater portion of the responsibility for Iraq’s security. This progress is most notable in their assumption of security responsibility in Dhi Qar and Muthana and the assumption of operational command and control over the Ground, Naval, and Air Force Commands and two Iraqi military divisions by the Ministry of Defense.
The Government of Iraq and MNF have agreed on three common goals: Iraqi assumption of recruiting, training, equipping and arming of the Iraqi security forces; Iraqi assumption of command and control over Iraqi forces; and transferring responsibility for security to the Government of Iraq. We look forward to recommendations from the newly formed high-level working group on how these goals can best be achieved. The strong partnership between the Government of Iraq and MNF is a vital factor in fulfilling these goals. Together we will build towards the day when the Iraqi forces assume full responsibility for the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq.
The co-sponsors intend to annex this letter to the resolution on Iraq that is under consideration. In the meantime, I request that you provide copies of the present letter to members of the Council as quickly as possible.
(Signed) Condoleezza Rice