United States Code/Title 12/Chapter 30

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United States Code
by the United States Government
Title 12, Chapter 30. Community Reinvestment

Title 12 — Banks and Banking
Chapter 30 — Community Reinvestment


§ 2901. Congressional findings and statement of purpose[edit]

(a) The Congress finds that—
(1) regulated financial institutions are required by law to demonstrate that their deposit facilities serve the convenience and needs of the communities in which they are chartered to do business;
(2) the convenience and needs of communities include the need for credit services as well as deposit services; and
(3) regulated financial institutions have continuing and affirmative obligation to help meet the credit needs of the local communities in which they are chartered.
(b) It is the purpose of this chapter to require each appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency to use its authority when examining financial institutions, to encourage such institutions to help meet the credit needs of the local communities in which they are chartered consistent with the safe and sound operation of such institutions.

§ 2902. Definitions[edit]

For the purposes of this chapter—
(1) the term “appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency” means—
(A) the Comptroller of the Currency with respect to national banks;
(B) the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System with respect to State chartered banks which are members of the Federal Reserve System and bank holding companies;
(C) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation with respect to State chartered banks and savings banks which are not members of the Federal Reserve System and the deposits of which are insured by the Corporation; and
(D) the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, in the case of a savings association (the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) and a savings and loan holding company;
(2) the term “regulated financial institution” means an insured depository institution (as defined in section 1813 of this title); and
(3) the term “application for a deposit facility” means an application to the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency otherwise required under Federal law or regulations thereunder for—
(A) a charter for a national bank or Federal savings and loan association;
(B) deposit insurance in connection with a newly chartered State bank, savings bank, savings and loan association or similar institution;
(C) the establishment of a domestic branch or other facility with the ability to accept deposits of a regulated financial institution;
(D) the relocation of the home office or a branch office of a regulated financial institution;
(E) the merger or consolidation with, or the acquisition of the assets, or the assumption of the liabilities of a regulated financial institution requiring approval under section 1828 (c) of this title or under regulations issued under the authority of title IV of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1724 et seq.]; or
(F) the acquisition of shares in, or the assets of, a regulated financial institution requiring approval under section 1842 of this title or section 408(e) [2] of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1730a (e)].
(4) A financial institution whose business predominately consists of serving the needs of military personnel who are not located within a defined geographic area may define its “entire community” to include its entire deposit customer base without regard to geographic proximity.

§ 2903. Financial institutions; evaluation[edit]

(a) In general
In connection with its examination of a financial institution, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall—
(1) assess the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operation of such institution; and
(2) take such record into account in its evaluation of an application for a deposit facility by such institution.
(b) Majority-owned institutions
In assessing and taking into account, under subsection (a) of this section, the record of a nonminority-owned and nonwomen-owned financial institution, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency may consider as a factor capital investment, loan participation, and other ventures undertaken by the institution in cooperation with minority- and women-owned financial institutions and low-income credit unions provided that these activities help meet the credit needs of local communities in which such institutions and credit unions are chartered.
(c) Financial holding company requirement
(1) In general
An election by a bank holding company to become a financial holding company under section 1843 of this title shall not be effective if—
(A) the Board finds that, as of the date the declaration of such election and the certification is filed by such holding company under section 1843 (l)(1)(C) of this title, not all of the subsidiary insured depository institutions of the bank holding company had achieved a rating of “satisfactory record of meeting community credit needs”, or better, at the most recent examination of each such institution; and
(B) the Board notifies the company of such finding before the end of the 30-day period beginning on such date.
(2) Limited exclusions for newly acquired insured depository institutions
Any insured depository institution acquired by a bank holding company during the 12-month period preceding the date of the submission to the Board of the declaration and certification under section 1843 (l)(1)(C) of this title may be excluded for purposes of paragraph (1) during the 12-month period beginning on the date of such acquisition if—
(A) the bank holding company has submitted an affirmative plan to the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency to take such action as may be necessary in order for such institution to achieve a rating of “satisfactory record of meeting community credit needs”, or better, at the next examination of the institution; and
(B) the plan has been accepted by such agency.
(3) Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
(A) Bank holding company; financial holding company
The terms “bank holding company” and “financial holding company” have the meanings given those terms in section 1841 of this title.
(B) Board
The term “Board” means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
(C) Insured depository institution
The term “insured depository institution” has the meaning given the term in section 1813 (c) of this title.
(d) Low-Cost Education Loans
In assessing and taking into account, under subsection (a), the record of a financial institution, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall consider, as a factor, low-cost education loans provided by the financial institution to low-income borrowers.

§ 2904. Report to Congress[edit]

Each appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall include in its annual report to the Congress a section outlining the actions it has taken to carry out its responsibilities under this chapter.

§ 2905. Regulations[edit]

Regulations to carry out the purposes of this chapter shall be published by each appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency, and shall take effect no later than 390 days after October 12, 1977.

§ 2906. Written evaluations[edit]

(a) Required
(1) In general
Upon the conclusion of each examination of an insured depository institution under section 2903 of this title, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall prepare a written evaluation of the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods.
(2) Public and confidential sections
Each written evaluation required under paragraph (1) shall have a public section and a confidential section.
(b) Public section of report
(1) Findings and conclusions
(A) Contents of written evaluation
The public section of the written evaluation shall—
(i) state the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency’s conclusions for each assessment factor identified in the regulations prescribed by the Federal financial supervisory agencies to implement this chapter;
(ii) discuss the facts and data supporting such conclusions; and
(iii) contain the institution’s rating and a statement describing the basis for the rating.
(B) Metropolitan area distinctions
The information required by clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be presented separately for each metropolitan area in which a regulated depository institution maintains one or more domestic branch offices.
(2) Assigned rating
The institution’s rating referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(iii) shall be 1 of the following:
(A) “Outstanding record of meeting community credit needs”.
(B) “Satisfactory record of meeting community credit needs”.
(C) “Needs to improve record of meeting community credit needs”.
(D) “Substantial noncompliance in meeting community credit needs”.
Such ratings shall be disclosed to the public on and after July 1, 1990.
(c) Confidential section of report
(1) Privacy of named individuals
The confidential section of the written evaluation shall contain all references that identify any customer of the institution, any employee or officer of the institution, or any person or organization that has provided information in confidence to a Federal or State financial supervisory agency.
(2) Topics not suitable for disclosure
The confidential section shall also contain any statements obtained or made by the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency in the course of an examination which, in the judgment of the agency, are too sensitive or speculative in nature to disclose to the institution or the public.
(3) Disclosure to depository institution
The confidential section may be disclosed, in whole or part, to the institution, if the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency determines that such disclosure will promote the objectives of this chapter. However, disclosure under this paragraph shall not identify a person or organization that has provided information in confidence to a Federal or State financial supervisory agency.
(d) Institutions with interstate branches
(1) State-by-State evaluation
In the case of a regulated financial institution that maintains domestic branches in 2 or more States, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall prepare—
(A) a written evaluation of the entire institution’s record of performance under this chapter, as required by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section; and
(B) for each State in which the institution maintains 1 or more domestic branches, a separate written evaluation of the institution’s record of performance within such State under this chapter, as required by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section.
(2) Multistate metropolitan areas
In the case of a regulated financial institution that maintains domestic branches in 2 or more States within a multistate metropolitan area, the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency shall prepare a separate written evaluation of the institution’s record of performance within such metropolitan area under this chapter, as required by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. If the agency prepares a written evaluation pursuant to this paragraph, the scope of the written evaluation required under paragraph (1)(B) shall be adjusted accordingly.
(3) Content of State level evaluation
A written evaluation prepared pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) shall—
(A) present the information required by subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (b)(1) of this section separately for each metropolitan area in which the institution maintains 1 or more domestic branch offices and separately for the remainder of the nonmetropolitan area of the State if the institution maintains 1 or more domestic branch offices in such nonmetropolitan area; and
(B) describe how the Federal financial supervisory agency has performed the examination of the institution, including a list of the individual branches examined.
(e) Definitions
For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply:
(1) Domestic branch
The term “domestic branch” means any branch office or other facility of a regulated financial institution that accepts deposits, located in any State.
(2) Metropolitan area
The term “metropolitan area” means any primary metropolitan statistical area, metropolitan statistical area, or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, as defined by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, with a population of 250,000 or more, and any other area designated as such by the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency.
(3) State
The term “State” has the same meaning as in section 1813 of this title.

§ 2907. Operation of branch facilities by minorities and women[edit]

(a) In general
In the case of any depository institution which donates, sells on favorable terms (as determined by the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency), or makes available on a rent-free basis any branch of such institution which is located in any predominantly minority neighborhood to any minority depository institution or women’s depository institution, the amount of the contribution or the amount of the loss incurred in connection with such activity may be a factor in determining whether the depository institution is meeting the credit needs of the institution’s community for purposes of this chapter.
(b) Definitions
For purposes of this section—
(1) Minority depository institution
The term “minority depository institution” means a depository institution (as defined in section 1813 (c) of this title)—
(A) more than 50 percent of the ownership or control of which is held by 1 or more minority individuals; and
(B) more than 50 percent of the net profit or loss of which accrues to 1 or more minority individuals.
(2) Women’s depository institution
The term “women’s depository institution” means a depository institution (as defined in section 1813 (c) of this title)—
(A) more than 50 percent of the ownership or control of which is held by 1 or more women;
(B) more than 50 percent of the net profit or loss of which accrues to 1 or more women; and
(C) a significant percentage of senior management positions of which are held by women.
(3) Minority
The term “minority” has the meaning given to such term by section 1204(c)(3) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989.

§ 2908. Small bank regulatory relief[edit]

(a) In general
Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, any regulated financial institution with aggregate assets of not more than $250,000,000 shall be subject to routine examination under this chapter—
(1) not more than once every 60 months for an institution that has achieved a rating of “outstanding record of meeting community credit needs” at its most recent examination under section 2903 of this title;
(2) not more than once every 48 months for an institution that has received a rating of “satisfactory record of meeting community credit needs” at its most recent examination under section 2903 of this title; and
(3) as deemed necessary by the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency, for an institution that has received a rating of less than “satisfactory record of meeting community credit needs” at its most recent examination under section 2903 of this title.
(b) No exception from CRA examinations in connection with applications for deposit facilities
A regulated financial institution described in subsection (a) of this section shall remain subject to examination under this chapter in connection with an application for a deposit facility.
(c) Discretion
A regulated financial institution described in subsection (a) of this section may be subject to more frequent or less frequent examinations for reasonable cause under such circumstances as may be determined by the appropriate Federal financial supervisory agency.


Notes[edit]

Amendments over the years

The years in which legislative amendments or additions were made appear in bold text preceding the Public Laws that enacted the change. The links to the codification and section notes may provide additional information about this chapter.