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The Palace of Pleasure.


The Romaines and the Albanes being at warres, for iniuries mutually inferred, Metius Sussetius the Albane captaine deuised a waye by a combate, to ioygne lothe the cities in one. Victorie falling to the Romaines, the Romaine victor killed his sister and was condemned to die. Afterwardes vpon his fathers fute he was deliuered.

AS the name of Palace doth carie a port of Maiestie as propre for princes and greatest estates, and as a Palace and Court by glorious viewe of loftie Towers, doe set forth an outwarde showe of greate magnificence; and as that glittering fight without importeth a brauer pompe and state within, whose worthiest furni ture (besides the golden and curious ornamentes) resteth in the Princely train of courtly personages, most communely indowed with natures comliest benefites and rarest giftes incident to earthly Goddes, as well for the mindes qualities, as for the bodies acts. So, here at our first entrie, I thought to staye as it were at the gate of this palace, to discouer the incountrie of fixe renowmed Gentlemen, brethren of equal numbre, that, by consent of either state, sought and vsed dedes of armes, not for sportes of Ladies, or for precious prises, but for Countrie quarell and libertie of Natiue soyle. For the vpper hand and vniting two most mighty Italian cities, that besore bare eche other moste mortall spite and deadlye soode, whiche in ende after the bloudie skirmishe of those chosen brethren (for sauing of a bloudier battell) were conioyned in vnited Monarchic. An historie though dreadfull to hearing as fitter for the Campe then Courte, yet, for the worthinesse of the quarell, not to bee shunned from tendrest eares, for that it spreadeth foorth a victorious paterne of valiant Chiualrie. And so do the rest succeding, which speake of glorious chastitie, of inuincible mindes, of bold Aduentures for Countries saufetie, of naturall pietie in parentes and children, and the othe of other honorable causes, fitte to be displaied to eche degree, and practised by such, whose functions, principally do, or ought to aspire semblable valiaunce, for defence of that whiche their Elders by bloudie fwette haue honorably gotten, and most carefully kept. But not by tedious proeme to holde the desirous minde from what is promised, thus it beginneth.

Numa Pompilius the second king of the Romaines being dead, Tullus Hoftilius succeded, which was a lustie and couragious younge Gentleman: And as Numa was giuen to peace, so was he to warres and valiance. It chaunced in his time that certaine peasauntes of the Romaine dition, and the like of the Albanes, were foraging and driuing of booties the one from the other. At that time raigned in Alba one C. Cluilius, from whence and from Rome, Ambassadours were sent to redemaunde the thinges stollen. Tullus commaunded his people that they mould deliuer nothing till commaundement were giuen in that behalfe: for than he knewe right well that the Alban king would not restore at all, and theresore might vpon iuft cause, proclaime warres. Hee receiued the Alban Ambassadours in verie courteous manner, and they as courteously celebrated his honourable and sumptuous intertaignement. Amitie proceded on either parties, till the Romanes began to demaunde the first restitution which the Albanes denied, and summoned warres to bee in ferred vppon them within thirtie daies after. Whereupon the Ambassadours craued licence of Tullus to fpeake, which being graunted, they first purged themselues by ignoraunce, that they knewe no harme or iniurie done to the Romaines, adding further, that if any thing were done that mould not please Tullus, it was against their willes, hoping he would remember that they were but Ambassadours, subiect. to the commaundement of their Prince. Their comming was to demaunde a restitution, without whiche, they were straightlye charged to proclayme defiaunce. Whereunto Tullus aunswered : "Tell your maister, that the king of the Romaines doth call the Gods to witnes, whether of them first maketh the quarel, to thintent all men may expect the reuenge of those warres." Which answere the Albane Ambassadours retourned to their maifter. Great prouision for the warres was made on both partes, much like to a ciuile contention, almost betwene the father and the sonne, for the citie of Lauinium was builded by the Troians, and Alba by the Lauinians, of whose stocke the Romaines toke their beginning. The Albanes seing that they were defied of the Romaines, began first to enter in armes, and with a maine power perced the land of the Romaines, and encamped within fiue miles of the citie, enuironing their campe with a trenche, which afterwardes was called sofla Cluilia, of their capitaine, wherin Cluilius the king died. Then the Albanes appointed one Metius Suffetius, to be their Dictator. Tullus vnderstanding the death of their Prince, with great expedi tion marched into the countrie about Alba, pssiang by the Albanes campe in the night which by the watche and scoutes was skried. Then he retired to lodge as nere the enemie as hee could, sending an Ambassadour besore, to require Tullus that he would come to parle besore they sought, and than he had a thing to saye, no lesse profitable to the Romaines, then to the Albanes. Tullus not contempning that condition, agreed. Whereupon both did put them selues in readines, and before they ioyned, both the captaines with certain of their chiefe officers, came forth to talke, where Metius fayde these wordes : "The mutuall iniuries that hath been done, and the withholding and keping of thinges caried away, contrary to the truce, and that our king Cluilius, is the authour and beginner of these warres, I do heare and afluredly vnderftande for a trothe. And I do not doubte, Tullus, but thou also doest conceiue the fame, to be the only occafion of this hoftilitie. Not- withstandinge, if I may speake rather the truthe, then vtter any glosing woordes by waye of flatterie, the ambicious desire of both the Empires, doth moste of all flimulate and prouoke both the 8 A COMBATE BETWENE

cities, being of one affinitie, and neighbours, to vse this force of Armes. But whether this my conie&ure bee righte or wrong, they oughte to confider, whiche firste began the warres. The Albanes haue created me their Captaine of this enterpryfe. I come to geue aduertifement to thee, O Tullus, of this one thing. Which is, that the Thufcans being a great nation, and of power right famous, doth inuirone vs both rounde about, and the nerer they be vnto you, the more knowledge you haue of them. They be mightie vpon lande, and of great power vpon Sea. Call to thy remembraunce and confider, that when thou geueft the figne and watch worde of the battell, our twoo armies mall bee but a ridiculous fpetacle to them. So sone as they doe perceiue vs twoo to bee fpent, and weried with fighting, they will bothe aflayle the vanquished, and him also that doeth ouercome. Where sore if the Goddes do fauour eyther of vs, let vs not fhewe our selues to bee wearie of our libertie and franchife that is certaine, and hazard the dice to incurre perpetuall seruitude and bondage. Thersore let vs deuife some other waye, wherby the one of vs may gouerne the other without effufion of cithers bloud."

This condition nothing difpleafed Tullus, although in courage, and hope of vi&orie, he was more fierce and bolder then the other. And being in confutation about the purpose, fortune miniftred an apt occafion to them both : for in either campes there were thre brethren, of age and valiance femblable. The brethren that were in the Romaine campe were called Horatij, the other Curiatij^ Whereupon a combate was thought meete betwene these fixe persones. After the Romaines had vsed their solempne maners of confecrating the truces, and other rites concerning the fame, either partes repaired to the combate. Both the armies ftode in readines besore their campes, rather voyde of prefent perill then of care: for the state of either of their Empires, confifted in the valiance and fortune of a fewe. Whersore theire mindes were wonderfullye bent and incenfed vpon that vnpleafant fight. The figne of the combat was giuen. The thre yonge men of either fide do ioigne with furious and cruel onfet, reprefenting the courages of two battelles of puiflaunt armies. for the lofle con fifted in neither those three, but the publique gouernement or


common thraldome of both the cities, and that was the future fortune, whiche they did trie and proue. So sone as the clafhing armoure did sound at their first incountrie, and their glittering fwordes did fhine, an incredible horror and feare perced the be holders, and hope inclining to either partes, their voyce and myndes were whift and lilent. But after they were clofed together, not onely the mouing of their bodies, and doubtfull welding and hand ling of their weapons, but bloudye woundes appeared, two of the Romaines falling downe ftarke dead one vppon an other: But besore the three Albanes were sore hurt. Whereat the Albane hofte fhouted for ioye. The Romaine Legions were voyde of hope, amazed to fee but one remayne against three : It chaunced that hee that liued whyche as hee was but one alone (an vnmeete matche for the rest) so he was fierce, and thought himselfe good enough for them all. Theresore to feparate their fight, he flede backe, meaning thereby to geue euery of them their welcome as they sollowed. When he was retired a good space from the place wher they sought, loking back, he fawe them sollowe some diftance one from an other, and as one of them approched, he let driue at him with great violence. And whiles the Albane hofte cried out vpon the Curiatij, to helpe their brother, Horatius had killed his enemie, and demaunded for the seconde battaile. Then the Romaines incouraged their champion with acclamations and fhoutes, as fearefull men be wont to do vpon the sodaine, and Horatius fpedeth himselfe to the fight. And besore the other could ouertake him, which was not farre off, hee had killed an other of the Curiatij. Nowe were they equally matched one to one, but in hope and ftrengthe vnlike. for the one was free of wounde or hurte : cruell and fierce by reason of double vi&orie, the other faint for lofTe of bloud, and wearie of running, and who with panting breath, difcomfited for his brethrens (laughter, flaine besore him, is now obie&ed to fight with his victorious enemy. A match altogether vnequall. Horatius reioyfing fayd, two of thy brethren I haue difpatched, the thirde, the cause of this battaill, I will take in hand : that the Romaines maye bee lordes of the Albanes. Curiatius not able to sustaine his blowe, fell downe, and lying vpon his backe, he thruft him into the throte with his sworde,


whiche done he difpoyled him of his armure. Then the Romaines in great triumphe and reioyfe intertaigned Horatius, and their ioye was the greater, for that the feare of their ouerthrowe was the nearer. This combate being ended, the Albanes became fubie&e to the Romaines, and besore Metius departed, he afked Tullus if hee would commaunde him any further feruice. Who willed him to kepe the younge souldiours ftill in intertaignement, for that hee woulde require their aide against the Veientes. The armie dif- solued, Horatius like a Conquerour marched home to Rome, the three fpoyles of his ennemies being borne besore hym.

The said Horatius had a fifter, which was espoused to one of the Curiatij that were flaine, who meeting her brother in the triumphe, at one of the gates called Capena, and knowing the coate armure of her paramour, borne vpon her brothers moulders, which fhe had wrought and made with her owne handes : She tore and rent the heare of her heade, and most piteouflye bewayled the death of her beloued. Her brother being in the pride of his vic- torie taking the lamentation of his fifter, in difdainful part, drew oute his fword, and thrufte her through speaking these reprochfull woordes: "Auaunt with thy vnreasonable loue, gette thee to thy spouse. hast thou sorgotten the deathe of thy two brethren that be flaine, the profperous fuccefle of thy victorious brother, and chiefelyethehappyedeliueraunceof thycountrie: Let that Romaine woman whatsoeuer me be, take like rewarde, that mail bewaile the death of the ennemie." Which horrible facte feemed most cruell to the fathers and people. for which offence he was brought besore the kinge, whom he deliuered to be iudged accord ing to the lawe. The law condempned him, then he appealed to the people. In which appeale P. Horatius his father fpake these wordes: "My doughter is flaine, not without iuft defert, which if it were not so, I would haue fued for condigne punifli- mente, to be executed vpon my sonne, according to the naturall pietie of a father : Whersore I befeech you do not suffer me, whom you haue feene in time past, beautified with a noble race and progenie of children, nowe to be vtterlye destitute and voyde of all together."

Then hee embrafed his sonne amonges them all, and {hewed the


fpoiles of the Curatiens, sayinge : " Can you abide to fee this noble

Champion (O ye Romaines) whom lately ye behelde to go in

order of triumphe in victorious maner, to lye nowe bounde vnder

the gibet, expecting for tormentes of death : Which cruell and

desormed fight, the Albanes eyes can not well be able to beholde,

goe to then thou hangman, and binde the handes of him, who hath

atchieued to the Romaine people a glorious Empyre : Goe, I

faye, and couer the face of him that hath deliuered this citie out

of thraldome and bondage. Hang him vpon some vnhappie tree,

and fcourge him in some place within the Citie, either amongs

these our triumphes, where the fpoiles of our enemies do remaine,

or els without the walles, amonges the graues of the vanquimed.

Whether can yee deuife to carrie him, but that his honourable

and worthye actes, fhal reueng the villanie of his cruel death."

The people hearing the lamentable talke of his father, and feinge

in him an vnmoueable minde, able to sustaine al aduerfity,

acquited him rather through the admiration of his vertue and

valiance, then by iuftice and equity of his cause. Such was the

ftraite order of iuftice amonges the Romaines, who although this

yonge gentleman had vindicated his countrie from seruitude

and bondage (a noble memorye of perfecte manhode)

yet by reason of the murder done vppon his owne

fifter, were very ftraite and flacke to pardon :

because they would not incourage the pof-

teritie to like inconuenience, nor pro-

uoke wel doers in their glorye and

triumphe, to perpetrate

thinges vn-




Sextus Tarquinius rauifhed Lucrece. Andjhe lewayling the loffe of her chqftitie, killed her f elf e.

GREAT preparation was made by the Romaines, against a people called Rutuli, who had a citie named Ardea, excelling in wealth and riches which was the cause that the Romaine king, being exhaufted and quite voyde of money, by reason of his fump- tuous buildinges, made warres vppon that countrie. In the time of the fiege of that citie the yonge Romaine gentlemen banqueted one another, amonges whom there was one called Col- latinus Tarquinius, the sonne of Egerius. And by chaunce they entred in communication of their wiues, euery one prayfing his feueral spouse. At length the talke began to grow hot, whereupon Collatinus said, that words were vaine. for within few houres it might be tried, how much his wife Lucretia did excel the rest, wheresore (quoth he) if there be any liuelihod in you, let us take our horfe, to proue which of oure wiues doth furmount. Wheruppon they roode to Rome in poft. At their comming they sound the kinges doughters, fportinge themfelues with sondrye pastimes: From thence they went to the houfe of Collatinus, where they sounde Lucrece, not as the other besore named, fpending time in idlenes, but late in the night occupied and bufie amonges her maydes in the middes of her houfe fpinning of woll. The victory and prayfe wherof was giuen to Lucretia, who when me faw her hufband, gentlie and louinglie intertained him, and curteouflye badde the Tarquinians welcome. Immediately Sextus Tarquinius the sonne of Tarquinius Superbus, (that time the Romaine king) was incenfed wyth a libidious deiire, to conftrupate and defloure Lucrece. When the yonge gentlemen had bestowed that night pleafantly with their wiues, they retourned to the Campe. Not long after Sextus Tarquinius with one man retourned to Collatia vnknowen to Collatinus, and ignorant to Lucrece and the rest of her houf- hold, for what purpose he came. Who being well intertayned, after fupper was conueighed to his chamber. Tarquinius burn-


inge with the loue of Lucrece, after he perceiued the houmolde to be at reste, and all thinges in quiet, with his naked sworde in his hande, wente to Lucrece being a fleepe, and keeping her downe with his lefte hande, saide : " Holde thy peace Lucrece, I am Sextus Tarquinius, my sworde is in my hand, if thou crie, I will kill thee." The gentlewoman sore afrayed, being newely awaked oute of her fleepe, and feeing iminent death, could not tell what to do. Then Tarquinius confefled his loue, and began to intreate her, and therewithall vsed fundry minacing wordes, by all meanes attempting to make her quiet : when he faw her obftinate, and that me woulde not yelde to his requeft, notwithstanding his cruell threates, he added fhameful and villanous fpeach, saying: That he would kill her, and when me was flaine, he woulde also kill his flaue, and place him by her, that it might be reported howe me was ilaine, being taken in adulterie. She vanquifhed with his ter rible and infamous threate, his flemlye and licentious enterprice, ouercame the puritie of her chaste and honest hart, which done he departed. Then Lucrece sent a poft to Rome to her father, and an other to Ardea to her husbande, requiringe them that they would make fpeede to come vnto her, with certaine of their truftie frendes, for that a cruell fa6te was chaunced. Then Sp. Lucretius with P. Valerius the sonne of Volefius, and Collatinus with L. Iimius Brutus, made hast to Lucrece: where they sounde her fitting, very penfife and fadde, in her chamber. So sone as me fawe them (he began pitioufly to weepe. Then her hufband afked her, whether all thinges were well, vnto whom me fayde these wordes.

" No dere husbande, for what can be well or fafe vnto a woman, when (he hath loft her chastitie? Alas Collatine, the fteppes of an other man, be now fixed in thy bed. But it is my bodye onely that is violated, my minde God knoweth is giltles, whereof my death shalbe witnefie. But if you be men giue me your handes and trouth, that the adulterer may not efcape vnreuenged. It is Sextus Tarquinius whoe being an enemie, in fteede of a frende, the other night came vnto mee, armed with his fword in his hand, and by violence caried away from me (the Goddes know) a woful ioy." Then euery one of them gaue her their


faith, and comsorted the penfife and languifhing lady, imputing the offence to the authour and doer of the fame, affirming that her bodye was polluted, and not her minde, and where confent was not, there the crime was absente. Whereunto mee added : " I praye you conlider with your selues, what punimmente is due for the malefa&our. As for my part, though I cleare my selfe of the offence, my body mall feele the punimment : for no vnchast or ijl woman, fhall hereafter impute no difhoneft a& to Lucrece?' Then me drewe out a knife, which me had hidden secretely, vruler her kirtle, and ftabbed her selfe to the harte. Which done, me fell downe grouelinge vppon her wound and died. Whereupon her father and hufband made great lamentation, and as they were bewayling the death of Lucrece, Brutus plucked the knife oute of the wound, which gufhed out with aboundance of bloude, and holding it vp said : " I fweare by the chast bloud of this body here dead, and I take you the immortall Gods to witnes, that I will driue and extirpate oute of this Citie, both L. Tarquinius Superbus, and his wicked wife, with all the race of his children and progenie, so that none of them, ne yet any others mall raigne anye longer in Rome." Then hee deliuered the knife to Collatinus. Lucretius and Valerius, who marueyled at the ftrangenefle of his words : and from whence he mould conceiue that determination. They all fwore that othe. And sollowed Brutus, as their captaine, in his conceiued purpose. The body of Lucrece was brought into the market place, where the people wondred at the vilenefle of that fa&e, euery man complayning vppon the mifchiefe of that facinorous rape, committed by Tarquinius. Whervpon Brutus perfwaded the Romaynes, that they mould ceafe from teares and other childifhe lamentacions, and to take weapons in their handes, to (hew themfelues like men.

Then the luftieft and most defperate persons within the citie, made themfelues prest and readie, to attempte any enterprife: and after a garrison was placed and bestowed at Collatia, diligent watche and ward was kept at the gates of the Citie, to the intent the kinge fhould haue no aduertifement of that fturre. The rest of the souldiours sollowed Brutus to Rome.

When he was come thither, the armed multitude did beate a


marueilous feare throughout the whole Citie : but yet because

they fawe the chiefefte personages goe besore, they thought that the

fame* enterprife was taken in vaine. Wheresore the people out of

all places of the citie, ranne into the market place. Where Brutus

complained of the abhominable Rape of Lucrece, committed by

Sextus Tarquinius. And thereunto he added the pride and insolent

behauiour of the king, the miferie and drudgerie of the people, and

howe they, which in time paste were vi&ours and Conquerours, were

made of men of warre, Artificers, and Labourers. He remembred

also the infamous murder of Seruius Tullius their late kinge. these

and such like he called to the peoples remembraunce, whereby they

abrogated and deposed Tarquinius, banifhing him, his wife, and

children. Then he leuied an armie of chosen and piked men, and

marched to the Campe at Ardea, committing the gouernemente of

the Citie to Lucretius, who besore was by the king appointed

Lieutenant. Tullia in the time of this hurlie burlie, fledde from

her houfe, all the people curfing and crying vengeaunce vpon her.

Newes brought into the campe of these euentes, the king with

great feare retourned to Rome, to reprefle those tumultes, and

Brutus hearinge of his approche, marched another waye, because

hee woulde not meete him. When Tarquinius was come to Rome,

the gates were fhutte against him, and he himselfe commaunded

to auoide into exile. The campe receiued Brutus with great ioye

and triumphe, for that he had deliuered the citie of such a tyraunte.

Then Tarquinius with his children fledde to Caere, a Citie of the

Hetrurians. And as Sextus Tarquinius was going, he was ilaine

by those that premeditated reuengemente, of olde murder

and injuries by him done to their predeceflburs. This

L. Tarquinius Superbus raigned xxv yeares. The

raigneof the kinges from the first soundation of

the citie continued CCxliiii. yeares. After

which gouernmente two Confuls were

appointed, for the order and admi-

niftration of the Citie. And

for that yeare L. luni-

us Brutus, and L.

Tarquinius, Col-




The Jiege of Rome ly Porfenna, and the valiaunt deliuerie thereof ly Mutius Scceiwla, with hisjloute aunfwere vnto the kinge.

WHEN P. Valerius and T. Lucretius were created Confuls, Por fenna kinge of Hetruria, vppon the inftigation of the banifhed Tarquinians, came besore the citie with a huge armie. The brute wherof did wonderfully appall the Senate: for the like occafion of terrour, neuer besore that time chaunced to the Romaines, who did not onely feare their enemies, but also their owne fubie&s, fufpecting left they fhould be sorced to retaine the kinges againe. All which afterwards, were through the wifedome and difcretion of the fathers quietlye appeafed, and the citie reduced to such vnitie and courage, as all sorts of people defpifed the name of king. When the enemies were approched, the rurall people aban doning their colonies, fled for refcue into the citie. The citie was diuided into garrisons : some kept the walles, and some the waye ouer Tiber, which was thought very fafe and able to be defended. Althoughe the wodden bridge made ouer the Riuer,had almost been an open way for the enemies entrie, whereof Horacius Codes, as fortune ferued that day, had the charge. Who so manfully be- haued himselfe, as after he had broken vp and burned the bridge, and done other notable exploites, he defended that paflage with such valiance, that the defence therof feemed miraculous, to the great aftonimment of the enemies. In fine Porfenna feing that he coulde litle preuaile in the aflault, retourned to the Campe, deter mining Neuerthelesse to continue his fiege. At which time one Caius Mutius, a yonge gentleman of Rome, purpofed to aduenture some notable enterprife : saying to the Senators these wordes : " I determine to paflethe Riuer, and enter if I can, into the campe of the enemies, not to fetch fpoile, or to reuenge mutuall injuries, but to hazard greater matters, if the Gods be affiftant vnto me." The fenate vnderstanding the effect of his indeuour, allowed his deuife. And then hauinge a fword vnder his garment, went sorth. When


he was come into the throng, he conueighed himselfe as nere the kinges pauilion as he could. It chaunced that he was paying wages that day to his souldiours, by whom his Secretarie did fit in such apparell, almost as the king himselfe did weare. Mutius being afraide to demaunde which of them was the king, left he fhould bewray himselfe, sodainly killed the Secretarie in fteede of the king, and as he was making waye with his bloudie sworde to efcape, he was apprehended and brought besore the king, and with maruailous ftoutnefle and audacitie, fpake these wordes : " I am a citizen of Rome, and my name is Mutius, and beinge an enemy, I woulde faine haue killed mine enemie. for which attempt I efteeme no more to die, then I cared to commit the murder. It is naturally giuen to the Romaines, both valiantly to do and ftoutly to suffer. And not I alone haue confpired thy death, but a greate nomber of vs, haue promifed the like, and hope to profe- cute femblable prayfe and glorie : whersore if this beginninge do not pleafe thee, make thy selfe ready euerye houre to expect like perill, and to fight for thy selfe. And make accompt, that euery day euen at the dore of thine owne lodging, thy enemye armed doth waite for thee : we alone yong gentlemen of the Citie do ftand at defiance, and pronounce vppon thee this kinde of battaile. Feare no armies or other hoftilitie, for with thee alone, and with euerye one of vs these warres lhalbe tryed." The king aftonied with that bold and defperate enterprife, fell into a great rage and furie, commaundinge Mutius prefentlye to be confumed with fyre, vnlefle he would out of hand tell him the order of the purpofed and deuifed treason. "Behold O king (quoth hee) how litle they care for theyr bodies, that do afpire and seeke for fame and glorie." And then he thruft his right hand into the fire, and rofted the fame in the flame, like one that had been out of his wits. The king amazed wyth the ftraungnes of the fact, ftepped downe from the feate, and caused him to be taken from the fire, saying: "Away, frend (quoth the king) thou hast killed thy selfe, and aduentured hoftilitie vppon thy selfe rather then against mee. Surely I would thincke mine estate happie, if like vali- aunce were to be sound wythin the boundes of my countrye. Whersore by law of Armes I fet the at libertie to go whither thou


lift." Whereunto Mutius for acquiting that defert, aunswered : "for as much as thou hast thus honourably delt with me, I wil for recompence of this benefite, faye thus muche vnto thee, whych by threates thou mouldest neuer haue gotten at my handes. Three hundred of vs that be yonge noble men of Rome, haue confpired thy death, euen by the like attempt. It was my lot to come first, the reste when fortune fhall giue opportunitie, euerye one in his tourne will giue the aduenture/' Whereupon he was difmiffed, and afterwards was called Scaeuola, for the lofle of his right hande. Then peace was offered to the Romaynes, who vpon conditions that the enemies garrisons mould be with- drawen from laniculum, and that the country wonne of the Veien- tines, mould be restored againe, gaue hoftages. Amonges whom there was a gentlewoman called Cloelia deliuered into the handes of the Hetrurians, who deceyuinge her keepers, conueighed her- selfe and the other pledges from their enemies, and fwimming ouer the riuer of Tiber, arriued at Rome in fafetye, which being re- demaunded by Porfenna, were sent backe againe. The king driuen into a wonderfull admiration for the defperate and manly enterprifes, done by the Romaine Nation, re- tourned the maiden home againe to Rome. In whose honour the Romaines creeled an Image on horfe backe, placed at the vpper ende of the ftreate called Sacra via. And so peace was concluded be- tweene Porfenna and the Ro maynes.



Martins Coriolanus goinge aloute to reprejfe the common people oj Rome with dearth of Come was lani/Jied. for reuengement whereof he perfwaded Accius Tullius ki?ig of the Volfcians, to make warres upon the Romaynes, and he himselfe in their ayde, came in his owne person. The Citie brought to greate miferye, the fathers deuifed meanes to deliuer the fame, andfent vnto the Volfcian campe, the mother, the wife and children of Corio lanus. Vpon whose coinplaintes Coriolanus withdrewe the Volfcians, and the citie was reduced to quietnes.

IN the yeare that Titus Geganius and Publius Minutius were Con- fuls, when all thinges were quiet abrode^ and diflention at home appeafed, an other great mifchiefe inuaded the citie. first a dearth of victuals, for that the land was vntilled, by the peoples departure, then a famine, such as chaunceth to the befieged : which had brought a great destru&ion of people, had not the Con- fuls sorfeene the fame, by prouifion in sorren places. They sent purueiors into Scicilia : but the malice of the cities adioyning, flayed the prouifion that was made a farre of. The Corne prouided at Cumas was ftayed for the goodes of Tarquinius by Ariftode- mus the tyrant, that was his heire. The next yere sollowinge, a greate mafle of Corne was tranfported oute of Scicile, in the time of the Confuls, M. Minutius and A. Sempronius. Then the Se nate confulted, vppon the diftribution of the fame vnto the people. Diuers thought that the time was then come, to bridle and fup- prefle the people, that thereby they mighte the rather recouer those priuileges, which were extorted from the fathers. Amonges whom Martius Coriolanus a yonge gentleman was the chiefeft, who being an enemie to the Tribune authoritie, said these woords. " If the people will haue victuals and come at that price, whereat it was affifed and rated in time past, then it is meete and ne- ceflTarie, that they render to the fathers, their auncient au&horitie and priuilege: for to what purpose be the plebeian Magiftrates


ordained ? for what confideration (hall I suffer my selfe to be fubiugate vnder the authoritie of Sicinius, as though I were con- uerfaunte amonges theeues ? Shal I abide these injuries any longer to continue, then is neceffarie ? I that could not suffer Tarqui- nius the king, fhal I be pacient with Sicinius ? Let Sicinius depart if he will, let him draw the people after him : the way yet is open to the facred hill, and to the other mountaines. Let them rob vs of our come which they toke away from our owne land, as they did three yeares paste, let them enioy the victuals which in their furie they did gather. I dare be bold to faye thus much, that being warned and tamed, by this pre- sent penurie, they had rather plow and til the land, then they would suffer the fame to be vncultured, by withdrawing them- selues to armure. It is not so eafy to be spoken, as I thincke it may with facilitie be brought to paffe, that vpon conditions the prices of victuals mould be abated, the fathers might remoue the aucthoritie of the Tribunes and difanul all those lawes, which against their wills were ratefied and confirmed." This fentence feemed cruel to the fathers, and almost had fet the people toge ther by the eares, whoe woulde haue tome him in peeces, had not the Tribunes appointed a day for his appearance. Whervpon their furie for that time was appeafed, Coriolanus feinge the peoples rage to encreafe, and conlideringe that they mould be his Judge, when the day of his apparance was come, he absented him- selfe, and thersore was condempned. Then he fled to the Volfcians, of whom he was gently interteigned : and lodged in the houfe of Accius Tullius, the chiefe of that citie, and a deadly enemie to the Romaynes. Vpon daily conference and confultation had betwene them, they confulted by what Height or pollicie, they might com- ence a quarrell against the Romanies. And because they doubted, that the Volfcians would not eafely be perfwaded thereunto, be- inge so oft vanquifhed and ill intreated, they excogitated some other newe occalion. In the meane time T. Latinius one of the plebeian sorte, perceyuing that the Romaynes went about to infti- tute great pastimes, conceiued a dreame, wherein hee fawe lup- piter to fpeake vnto him, and said that he liked not the towardnes of those games, and in cafe the fame were not celebrated, with


great royaltie and magnificens, they would ingender perill to the citie, which dreame he declared to the Confuls. Then the Senate gaue order, that the fame (houlde be addrefled with great pompe and triumphe: whereunto through th'inftigacion of Accius, a greate nomber of the Volfcians resorted. But besore the plaies begunne, Tullius according to the compact agreed vpon, betwene him and Coriolanus, secretely repaired to the Confuls, and taking them a fyde, declared that he had to fay vnto them a matter touching the publique wealth of their citie, in these words. " I am sorced against my will to fignifie vnto you a matter, that toucheth the condition of mine owne fubiefts and countrie men. I come not to accufe them, as thoughe they had already admitted any thinge, but I come to giue you a premonition, left they mould perpetrate some occafion, contrary to the order of your Citie. The difpofi- tion of my countrie men, is more inconftant then I would wifh : which we haue felt, to our great lofle and decaie. The cause of oure fecurity at this prefent, is rather fuffered by your pacience, then by our defert. Here be at this inftant a great multitude of Vol fcians : Here be games prepared, and the citie throughlye bent to behold them. I do remember what was done vpon like occafion in this citie by the Remain youth : I tremble to thincke, what may be ramly attempted, whersore I thought good both for your owne fakes and for auoyding of mutual difpleafure, to soretel you of these things. And for mine owne part I purpose immediatlye to returne home, because I wil auoide the daunger and peril, that maye chaunce by my prefence." When he had spoken those words, he departed. The Confuls immediatly recompted the re- queft of Accius to the Senate : who more efteming the personage, from whence the fame did precede, then the matter that was spoken, determined to prouide a remedie for the fame, and immediatlye caused the Volfcians to auoide the citie, fending officers about, to commaund them to depart that night : vpon which sodain edict, at the first they began to marueile. And afterwards they conceiued great griefe and offence, for that their vnneighbourlye entertaign- ment. and as they were paffing out of the citie in a long traine, Tullius being vpon the top of the hill called Ferrentine, to waite for the people, as they pafled by, called vnto him the chiefe and


principal parsonages, to prouoke them to take that aduauntage, and then aflembled the multitude in the valleie, hard by the high way, to whom he pronounced these words. " sorgetting all iniuries and difpleafures past, done by the Romaine people against the Volfcians, how can you abide the shame you suffer this daye, wherein to oure great reproch, they begin to oftentate and (hew sorth their plaies. Do not you beleeue, that euen to day, they triumph ouer you ? Is not your departure (thincke ye) ridiculous to all the Romaines, to ftrangers, and other cities adioyning ? Be not your wiues and children (trow ye) now paffing homewards, laughed to fcorne? What thincke ye your selues to be, which were warned to depart, at the sound of the trumpet ? What (fup- pofe ye) wil all they thinke, which do meete this multitude retiring homewards, to their great reproch and shame? Truly excepte there be some secrete occalion, whereby we mould be fufpeted to violate the plaies or commit some other crime, and so sorced to relinquifh the company and fellowfhip of the honest, I know not what mould be the cause of this repulfe ? Were we lyuing, when we made such feftination to depart ? If it may be called a depar ture, and not a running away, or fhamefull retire. I perceiue ye did not accompt this to be a citie of our enemies, wher I thinck if ye had taried but one day longer, ye had all beene flaine. They haue denounced warres vppon you, which if you be men of courage, mall redounde to the vtter destru&ion of them, which first gaue the defiaunce." The Volfcians perceyuing themfelues greatly derided, for confiderations besore remembred, determined by common accord, to inferre warres vppon the Romaines, vnder the conduction of Actius Tullius, and Coriolanus. After they had recouered diuers of the Romaine cities, they proceded further, and in sondrie places fpoiled and destroyed the fame, encamping them selues fiue miles from Rome, betides the trenches called soflas Cluilias. In the meane time contention rofe betwene the people and the fathers, howbeit the feare of sorren partes, linked their mindes together, in the bands of concord. The Confuls and fa thers repofed their whole confidence in battel, which the common people in no wife could abide. Whersore they were conftrained to aiTemble the Senate, in which confult was determined, that Am-


bafladours fhould be sent to Coriolanus to demaund peace: who retourned them againe with a froward anfwere, to this effect : that first they fhould restore to the Volfcians their countrie, which they had conquered, and that done, he willed them to seke for peace. Yet they sent againe AmbafTadours, but in no wife they were fuffered to come into their campe. Then the prieftes cladde in their ornamentes, and other diuine furniture, were sent humblye to make peticion for peace : And yet they coulde not perfwade theim. Then the Romaine Dames repayred to Veturia the mo ther of Coriolanus, and to his wyfe Volumnia. But whether the fame was done by common confent, or by the aduife of the femi nine kind, it is vncertaine. It was appointed that Veturia, being an auncient gentlewoman, and mother of Coriolanus and Volum nia his wife, with her two yonge children, fhould repaire to the campe, to the intent that they by their pitiful lamentacion, might defende the citie, which otherwise by force, was not able to be kept. At their arriuall, Veturia was knowen by one of her sonnes familier frends, standing betwene her doughter in law, and her two neuies, who caried word immediatlye to Coriolanus, how his mother, his wife and children, were come into the Campe to fpeake with him. Coriolanus hearing him fay so, descended from his feate, like one not wel in his wits, and went sorth to embrace his mother. The old gentlewoman from fupplications, fell into a great rage, fpeak- inge these woordes. "Abide a while besore I do receiue thy em- bracementes, let me knowe whether I am comen to mine enemie, or to my sonne, or whether I am a prisoner in thy Campe, or thy mother. Alacke how long haue I prolonged these auncient yeares, and hoare heares most vnhappie, that nowe first I do behold thee an exile, and then view thee mine enemie. Canft thou finde in thy harte, to depopulate and destroy this thy country, wherin thou waft begotten and brought vp ? Could not thy rage and furie be appeafed, when thou diddest first put soote into the limites of this thy country? Did not natural zeale pearce thy cruel hart, when thou diddest first caft thine eyes upon this citie? Is not the houfe of thy mother, and her domefticall Goddes, conteyned within the walles of yonder Citie ? Do not thy sorrowful mother, thy deare wife and children, inhabite within the compaste of yonder citie ?



(O I, curfed creature !) if I had neuer had childe, Rome had not been now aflailed. If I had neuer brought sorth a sonne, I fhould haue laied mine old bones and ended my life in a free countrie. But I coulde neuer haue fufteined, or fuffred more miferie, then is nowe fallen vnto mee, nor neuer more dimonour, then to beholde thee in pitifull plight, a traytour to thy natife soile. And as I am the moste wretched wight of all mothers, so I truft I fhal not long continue in that state. If thou precede in this enterprife, either sodaine death, or perpetuall shame bee thy rewarded When his mother had ended these woordes, the whole traine of gentlewo men, brake into pitifull teares : bitterly bewayling the state of their Countrie, whiche at lengthe did mitigate the ftomacke of Co- riolanus. And when he had imbraced his wife and children, hee difmifTed them. Then hee withdrewe the Volfcian campe from the citie, and out of the Romaine Prouince. Vpon the difpleafure of whiche fa&e, he died. It is fayd that when he was an old man, hee vsed many times to fpeake and vtter this fen- tence. " That verie miferable it is, for an olde man to Hue in banimement." The Remains dif- daigned not to attribute to women, their due prayfe : for in memorie of this de- liuerie of their Countrie, they ere&ed a Temple, sortunae Muliebri, to Womens fortune.



Appius Claudius, one of the Decemuiri of Rome, goetfi about to raui/he Virginia a yonge may den, which indeuour of Appius, when her father Virginius vnderjlode being then in the warres, hee repaired home to refcue his daughter. One that was letrouthed vnto her, clamed her, whereupon rofe great contention. In the ende her owne father, tofaue the Jhame of hisjiocke, killed her with a Booker's knife, and went into the sorum, crying vengeance vpon Appius. Then after much contention and rebellion, the De cemuiri were deposed.

SPURIUS Pofthumius Albus, Aulus Manlius, and P. Sulpitius Ca- merinus, were sent AmbafTadours to Athenes, and commaunded to wryte out the noble Lawes of Solon, and to learne the Inflitutions, orders, and Lawes of other Greeke cities. Vpon whose retourne, the Tribunes were verie inftant that at length lawes might be enacted and confirmed. And for that purpose certaine officers were appointed, called Decemuiri : with soueraigne authentic and power to reduce the fame into wryting, whiche were thought meete and profitable for the common wealth. The principall and chiefe of which nomber was Appius Claudius, who committed no lefle filthy faclie, then was done by Tarquinius, for the rape of Lu- crece. The fayde Appius conceiued a libidinous desire, to rauime a yong virgine, the doughter of one Lucius Virginius, then a cap tain in the warres at Algidum, a man of honest and sober life, whose wife was also of right good behauiour, and their children accordingly brought vp, and inftructed. They had betrouthed their doughter, to one L. Icilius of the order of the Tribunes, a man of great ftoutnefle and tried valiance in the cause of the people. This yong maide being of excellent beautie, Appius at the first began to woe by giftes and faire promifes : but when he fawe that (he was impregnable, he deuifed by wicked and cruell pollicie, to obteine her, committing the charge of that enterprife to one of his frendes, called Marcus Claudius, who went about to


proue and maintaine, that the maide was his bondwoman, and in no wife would giue libertie to her friendes to haue time to anfwere the procefle made in that behalfe, thinking by that meanes, in the abfence of her father, hee might at his pleasure enioye her. As the virgine was going to fchole in the sorum, the said Claudius, the minifter of mifchief, layd handes vpon her, claimed her to be his bondwoman, for that me was borne of a feruile woman, and com- maunded her to solow him. The mayde being afraide was amazed, and the Nurffe that wayted vpon her, cried out. Whereupon the people ran out of their doores, to knowethe cause of the fturre. Claudius feing the maide like to be refcued by the multitude that was aflembled, said, that there was no neede of that hurlie burlie, for that he attempted nothing by force, but that he was able to proue by lawe. Whereupon he cited the mayde to appere, her frendes promifed that me mould according to the Lawe, make her apperance. Being come besore the confiftorie, where Appius fet in iudgement, Claudius began to tell a tale and procefTe of the cause, whereof Appius being the deuifer, vnderftode the effect. The tenor of the tale was, that the maide was borne in his houfe, and was the doughter of his owne bondwoman, who afterwardes being ftolen awaye, was caried to the houfe of Virginius, and supposed to be his childe, which thing he said, he was well able to proue and would referre the iudgement of his cause to Virginius him selfe : vnto whom the greater part of his iniurie did apertaine. In the meane time, he fayde, that it was meete the maide mould solowe her maifter : wherunto the Aduocates of the mayde replied, and said, that Virginius was absent about the affaires of the common wealth, but if he were aduertifed of the matter, they knewe wel he would bee at home within twoo dayes after : wheresore, they sayd, that it were against equitie and iuftice, that proceffe and fuite mould bee made for clayme of chyldren in the abfence of the parentes, requiring them to deferre the matter tyll the retourne of the father. Appius not regarding the iuftice of the cafe, to the intent hee myght satisfie his owne luste and pleasure, ordeyned in the meane tyme, that Claudius the Affertor and playntife, fhoulde haue the keping and placing of the mayde, till the father were returned. against whiche wrong, many did grudge, although


none durst withftand it. But as fortune chaunced immediatly after that decree and order was so pronounced : Publius Numito- rius, the maydes vncle by her mother's fide, and Icilius her be- loued, were comen home : vpon whose retourne, incontinentlye Icilius approched nere to Appius, and being put backe by the Sergeant, hee cried out a loude in these wordes : "Thou oughteft to put me back from hence (O Appius) with a sworde that thou mighteft without let, enioye the thing thou wouldest haue kepte clofe and secrete. It is I that purpose to inary this maide, who I doubte not, is very honest and chaste : wheresore cal together thy Sergeantes, and cause the roddes and axes, to be made prest and ready. for I allure thee, the spouse of Icilius mail not remayne out of her father's houfe. No! although thou hast taken away from the Romaine people their Tribunes aide and appeales, whiche be twoo ftrong sortes and holdes of their common libertie. Is autho- ritie geuen thee, libidinoufly to abufe our wyues and children? Exercife thy crueltie behinde our backes, and vppon our lives if thou lifte, so that thou doe not contaminate and defile the vertue of chastitie. Whereunto if thou inferre any damage or iniurie, I will for mine owne parte, and for the loue of my beloued, crie out for the ayde of the Romaines that be prefent, and Virginius mall do the like of the souldiours, in the qtiarell of his owne doughter. And all wee together, will implore for the fuccour of Goddes and men. And trufte to it, that thou malt not enioye thy purpose be sore some of vs haue loft our Hues. Wheresore Appius I aduife thee, take hede in time, for when Virginius doth come, hee will seke remedie to defende his doughter, and will knowe in what con dition and sorte (hee is ordred^ if fliee be referred to the seruitude of this man. And for my part, my life mail soner fayle in defend ing her libertie, then my faithe to her betrouthed." Appius per- ceiuing the conftancie of Icilius, and that the people was in a great mutine and fturre, differred the cause of Virginia til the next daye : whose frends hoped by that time, that her father would be at home: wheresore with all expedition they addrefled meflen- gers vnto him in the campe, bicause the faufgarde of his doughter confifted in his prefence. In the meane time the Aflertor re quired the mayde, offering to put in baile ; the like offer made Ici-


lius, of purpose to contriue and spende the time, till the ariuall of Virginius. The multitude of their owne accordes, helde vp their hands promifing to become furetie for Icilius, vnto whome hee gaue thankes, weping for ioye, to fe their kinde behauiour, and said : " I thanke you moste hartely my beloued frendes, to morowe I wil vse your frendly offer, but at this prefent I haue fureties fufficient." Whereupon Virginia was bailed. Then Appius re paired home, and wrote to his frendes in the campe, that in no wyfe they fhould giue Virginius leaue to come to Rome, whiche vngracious deuife came to late, and tooke none effe&e. Whereupon Virginius retourned home, and in poore and vile apparel], repaired to the sorum, after whom sollowed a great nomber of matrones and aduocates. Then he began to require them all of succour and ayde, alledging that he was a Souldiour, and one that aduen- tured him selfe, for the faufegarde and defence of them al : with such like perfwafions to the multitude. Semblable wordes were vttered by Icilius. All which doinges being viewed and marked by Appius, in a greate furie he afcended the confiftorie. Then M. Claudius the plaintife began to renewe his fute : and besore the father of the mayden could make anfwere to that plea, Appius gaue fentence that the mayde was bonde : which fentence femed so cruell, as it appalled the whole multitude. And as Claudius was laying handes vppon the virgine, Virginius ftepped to Appius, and said : " I haue betrouthed my doughter to Icilius, and not to thee Appius. My care in the bringing of her vp, was to marrie her, and not to suffer her to be violated and defloured. It is your maner, like fauage and cruell beastes, indifferentlye thus to vfe your flefhly affections : I can not tell whether the multitude here prefent will fupporte this enormitie, but I am fure the armed Souldiours, and men of warre, will not suffer it." Marcus Claudius being repulfed by the women, and Aduocates that were prefent, silence was proclaymed by the Trumpet. Then Appius began to declare how he vnderftoode, that all the night besore, certaine companies were affembled within the citie, to excite and moue fedicion, for whiche cause hee came with armed men, not to hurte any that was quiet, but according to the authoritie of his office to bridle and repreffe those, that were troublers of the publique state.


" Wheresore goe Seargeant (quod he) make roume emonges the multitude, that the maifter may enioye his feruante." Which wordes he thundered out with great furie, and therewithal! the multitude gaue place, leaning the poore Pufelle to be a praye to the ennemy. Her father feeing that hee was voyde of fuccoure and helpe, to defende the innocencie of his doughter, fpake to Appius in this sorte : " I firste doe befeche thee Appius, if I haue vsed any vn- reasonable woordes against thee, to pardone mee, and to impute the fame to the Father's griefe and sorowe. Suffer mee I praye thee, to examine the NourfTe, in the prefence of the wenche, of the whole circumftance of this matter, to the intent that if I be but a supposed father, I maye departe hence with quiet confcience fatiffied and contented." Virginius hauing licence to talke with his doughter and Noiirfle, departed a fide into a place called Cloacina, where the moppes be, nowe called Tabernae Nouae, and plucking a fharpe knife from a Bocherthat ftode by, he thruft the fame to the harte of his doughter, sayinge : "By this onely meanes (doughter) I can make thee free:" And looking againe to the Judgement feate, he said : "This bloud Appius I coniecrate and bestowe vpon thee/ 5 Whiche done, with his sworde he made wave, to paste through the thronge to conueighe him selfe out of the citie. Then Icilius and Numitorius tooke vp the dead bodie, and (hewed it to the people, who cryed out vpon the wickednefle of Appius, bewayling the vnhappie beautie of that fayre maiden, and deplored the neceffitie of the father. The women exclaimed in lamenta ble wyfe, saying : "Is this the condicion and state of them that bring soorth children ? Be these the rewardes of chastitie ?" With suche like pitifull cries, as women are wonte to make vpon suche heauie and dolorous euentes. Virginius being arriued in the campe, whiche then was at the mount Vicelius, with a traine of sower hundred persones, that fled out of the Citie, mewed to the Soul- diours the bloudie knife, that killed his doughter, whiche fighte aftonied the whole Campe: in so muche as euery man demaund- ed, what was the cause of that sodain chaunce. Virginius could not fpeake for teares, but at length he difclofed vnto them, the eflfe&e of the whole matter, and holding vp his handes towardes the heauens, fayd : "I befeche you (deare companions) do not



impute the wickednefle of Appius Claudius vpon rnee, ne yet that I am a paricide and murderer of mine own children : the life of my dear doughter had bene more acceptable to me then mine owne life, if so be mee might haue continued a free woman, and an honest virgine. But when I fawe me was ledde to the rape like a bondwoman, I confidered, that better it wer her life to be lofte, then fuffered to Hue in shame : wheresore my naturall pitie was conuerted to a kynde of crueltie. And for myne owne parte, I doe not paste to lyue long after her, if I thought I mould not haue your helpe and fuccour to reuenge her death. Confider that your (clues haue doughters, fillers, and wyues, thinke not theresore, that the flefhlye desire of Appius is fatiffied with the death of my doughter. And the longer that he doth continue in this fecuritie, the more vnbrideled is his appetite. Let the calamitie of an other be a fufficient document for you, to beware like iniuries. My wife is dead, by naturall fate and conftellation, and bicause my doughter could continewe no longer in honefte and chaste life, death is befallen vnto her : whiche although it be miferable, yet the fame is honourable. There is nowe no place in my houfe for Appius to satisfie his filthie luste : and I will fayle of my purpose, if I do not reuenge the death of my doughter with so good will vpon his fleshe, as I did difcharge the difhonour and seruitude of her from his violent and cruell handes." This fucclamation and pitifull complainte, so ftirred the multitude, that they pro- mifed all to helpe and relieue his sorowe. Whereupon, the whole Campewere in a mutine and marched in order of battayle to the mounte Auentine, where Virginius perfwaded the Souldiours, to chofe ten principall Captaines, to bee head and chiefe of that en- terprife: whiche with honourable titles of the field, mould be called Tribuni. And Virginius him selfe being elected the chiefe Tribune, fayde these wordes to the Souldiours : "I praye you re- ferue this eftimation, whiche you conceiue of me, vntill some better tyme and apter occafion, as well for your commoditie, as for my selfe. The death of my doughter, will naffer no honour to bee pleafaunt or welcome to me, duringe my life. Moreouer in this troubled state of the common wealth, it is not meete for them to be your gouernours, that be fubiecl: and occurrant to enuie and re-


proch, if my feruice mall bee profitable vnto you when you haue thus created me a Tribune, it mall be no lefs commodious if I doe ftill remaine a priuate man." When he had spoken those wordes, they chofe tenne Tribunes. And like as the campe at the mounte Auentine, was prouoked and ftirred to this fedition, euen so by meanes of Icilius and Numitorius besore remembred, the Annie then beinge against the Sabines began to reuolte and made the like nomber of Tribunes, which in array of battaile, marched through the citie, at the gate Colina, with banner difplaied, to ioyne with the campe vpon the mount Auentine. And when both the campes were affembled, they chofe out two amonges the twenty Tribunes, to be their generalles, called M. Opius and Sextus Manilius. The Senate, careful and penfife for these euentes, eft- sons aflembled, but no certaine determinations was agreed vpon. At length they concluded, that Valerius and Horatius, fhould bee sent to the mount Auentine to perfwade the people, but they vtterlye refufed the meflage, vnlefTe the Decemuiri were first de- pofed. The Decemuiri made aunfwere, that they would not geue ouer their authoritie, til such time as those lawes were ratified, which were treated vpon, besore they wer elected to that office. Of all these contentions the people was aduertifed by M. Duillius their Tribune. And when both their armies were ioyned at the mount Auentine, asorefayd, al the multitude of the citie, men, women, and children, repaired thither in sorte, that Rome was like a sorlorne and abandoned place. The fathers feing the citie thus relinquished, Horatius and Valerius, with diuers of the fathers, exclamed in this wife. "What do ye expect and looke for, ye fathers conscript? Will ye naffer al thinges to runne to extreame ruine and decay? Shall the Decemuiri ftill perfifte in their ftub- burne and froward determinacions ? What maner of gouernement is this (O ye Decemuiri) that ye thus lay holde vpon and enioye ? Will ye pronounce and make lawes within your owne houfes, and the limites of the fame ? Is it not a shame to fe in the sorum a greater nomber of your catchpolles and Sergeantes, then of other sober and wife Citizens ? But what will ye doe, if the enemie vpon the sodaine, dothe approche the walles? What will ye do if the people vnderstanding that we care not for their departure, do in


armes aflaile vs? Will ye finifhe your gouernement, with the ouerthrowe of the citie : But either wee muft expell and abandon the people, or els wee muft admitte the Tribunes. We fhall soner wante our Fathers and Senatours, then they their plebeian officers. They bereued and toke awaye from vs the fathers a newe kinde of authoritie, which was neuer fene besore, who now feeling the fweetneffe thereof, will neuer geue it ouer. for we can not so well temper our authoritie and gouernement, as they be able to seke helpe and fuccour." The Decemuiri perceiuing that they were hated, so well of the Senate, as of the people, fubmitted them- selues. And therupon Valerius and Horatius were sent to the campe, to reuoke the people vpon suche conditions as they thought moste meete. Then the Decemuiri were commaunded, to take heede of the peoples furie. So sone as the Commiffioners were come to the campe, they were received with great ioye and glad- nefle of the people, because they were the beginners of that fturre, and supposed that they would make an ende of the commocion, for whiche cause they rendred to them their humble thankes. Then Icilius was appointed to fpeake for the people, who required to haue the authoritie of the Tribunes restored, and their appeale renewed, with restitution of those lawes, which besore the erection of the Decemuiri, were ratified and confirmed. They demaunded also an impunitie and free pardon to those that firste encouraged and incited the Souldiers to that enterprife, and the restoring of their liberties. They required to haue their enemies the Decemuiri, to be deliuered into their handes. Whom they threatened to put to death by fire. Whereunto the Commiffioners aunswered in this wife : "Your requestes bee so reasonable, that they ought willingly to be graunted. All which ye desire to obtaine, as a defence and comsort for your libertie, and not to perfecute and infefte others. Your furie and anger ought rather to be pardoned, then permitted or graunted. Yee beare a face and feeme to deteft and hate feue- ritie, and ye your selues incurre, and runne headlong into all kinde of crueltie : and besore ye be made free your selues, ye desire to bee Lordes ouer your aduersaries. Shall our citie neuer bee voide of tortures and oppreffions: sometime of the fathers towardes the people, sometime of the people towardes the fathers : you had more


neecle of a fhilde to defende you, then of a sworde to fight. That man is of a bafe state and courage we fuppofe, that liueth in a citie and beareth him felf so vpright, as neither he inferred! in- iurie to others, ne yet fufFereth wrong him selfe. If ye mew your selues so terrible, then it is to be supposed, that after ye haue re- couered your lawes and magiftrates, and be placed again in your sormer authoritie and preeminence : ye will also ordeine and ap- pointe lawes ouer vs, that mall concerne our Hues and goodes, and euery other light matter. But for this prefent I would wime you, to be contented with your sormer freedome." After the commif- (ioners had willed theim to confulte vppon some determinate aunfwere, they retourned to Rome, to make reporte to the Senate, of the peoples requestes. The Decemuiri perceiuing, that con- trarie to their expectation, no likelihode was of any perfecution, to be done vpon them, condefcended to those demaundes. Ap- pius being a man of nature cruell and malicious, meafuring the malice of others, by his owne maligne difpofition, fpake these woordes : "I am not ignoraunte what fortune is nowe imminente : for I do plainely fee that whiles weapons be deliuered to our ad- uerfaries, the combate is deferred against vs : with bloude, enuie muste be rewarded. I will not any longer delaie the time, but de- priue my selfe of the decemuirate." When the Senate was aduer- tifed by the Commiffioners, Valerius and Horatius, of the peoples aunfwere, they decreed that the Decemuiri mould be deposed, and that Q. Furius the chief bishop, mould create that plebeian Tribunes. Wherin also was enacted, that the departure of the people, and mutine of the souldiours mould be pardoned.

When these lawes were renewed, the Decemuiri went soorth, and openly in the aflemblie deposed them selues, to the great ioye and comsorte of them all. All whiche being reported to the people: both the souldiours, and the rest of the multitude, were somoned to appeare besore the commifioners, unto whom they fpake these wordes. " We now befech you al, to retourne into your countrie, to your domefticall goddes, your wiues, and children, which we trufte shal be right good, happie and profitable vnto you, and to the common wealth. But your modestie and sober be- hauiour, for that no mans grounde is violated and destroyed, con-

44 sidering many thinges, could not suffice the hugenesse of this multitude, that part of modestie, I saye, cary with you into the citie, to your immortall fame and glorie. Get ye therfore to the mounte Auentine, from whence ye departed, where, as in a place moste happie ye renewed the foundacions of your auncient libertie, and there yee shall create your Tribunes: the chiefe bishop shal be present, to kepe the comitialles." Then the Romaine people made Aulus Virginius, Lucius Icilius, and P. Numitorius the Tribunes, who with their assistantes, first aduanced and confirmed the libertie of the people. Afterward Virginius was appointed to be the accuser, and Appius chosen to be the defendant. At the day appointed, Appius resorted to the Forum, with a great companie of yong gentlemen, of the patricial order, where Virginius began to renewe the cruel and abhominable facte, which Appius committed in the time of his authoritie, and said: "Oration was first deuised and found out, for ambiguous and doubtfull causes: therefore I will neither consume time, in accusing him before you, from whose crueltie, ye haue by force defended your selues, nor yet I wyll suffer hym to coyne to his former wickednesse, any impudente aunswere for his defence. Wherefore Appius, all those thynges whiche wyckedlye and cruellye one vpon an other, thou haste done these twoo yeares past, I doe freely forgeue thee: but if thou canst not purge thyselfe of this one thing, that against the order and forme of lawe (thou thy selfe being judge) wouldest not suffer the freman, to enioye the benefite of his freedome, during the processe made of seruitude, I will presently commaunde the to pryson." Appius Claudius being nowe a prysoner, and perceiuing that the iust complaintes of Virginius did vehemently incite the people to rage and furie, and that the peticions and prayers of his frendes in no wise could mollifie their hartes, he began to conceiue a desperation, and within a whyle after slewe him selfe. Spurius Oppius, also an other of the Decemuiri, was immediatly sent to prison, who before the daye of his iudgement died. The reste also of that order fled into exile, whose goods were confiscate. M. Claudius also the assertor was condempned: howbeit Virginius was contented he should be banished the citie, and then he fled to Tybur. Thus vpon the filthie affection of one noble man, issued paricide, murder, rebellion, hatred, depriu- ing of magistrates, and great mischiefes succedinge one in an others necke; whereupon the noble and victorious citie, was lyke to be a praye to forren nations. A goodlie document to men of like calling, to moderate them selues, and their magisterie with good and honest life, thereby to giue in- couragement of vertue, to their vas- salles and inferiours: who for the most parte doe imitate and fol- lowe the Hues and conuerfa- tion of their su- periours. CANDAULUS AND GYGES.


Candaules king of Lidia,Jhewing thesecretes of his wyues leautie to Gyges, one of his guarde ; was ly counfaile of his wife,Jlaine ly the f aid Gyges, and depriued of his kingdome.

OF all sollies wherewith vayne men be affected, the sollie of immo derate loue is moste to bee detested. for that hufband, which is beautified with a comely and honest wife, whose rare excellencie doth furpafle other, afwel in lineaments, proporcion, and feature of bodie, as with inwarde qualities of minde : if he can not retaine in the fecrecie and silence of his breaft, that excelling gifte and benefite, is worthy to be inaugured with a Laurel crown of sollie. Beautie eche man knoweth, is one of natures ornamentes, by her wifedome ordeined, not to enter in triumphe, as victours vse vpon gaine of victorie, with brauerie to oftentate their glorie, by sound of Shalme and Dromme, but thankefully for the fame, to proclaime the due praise to the authour of nature. for there is nothing more fraile and fading, then the luring lookes of dame beauties eies, altogether like the flaring Marigold floure, which in the moste feruent heate of the Sommers day, doth appeare most glorious, and upon retire of the nights fhadowe, appeareth as though it had neuer bene the fame. And thersore he that conceiueth, reioyce in her vncertayne state, is like to him that in his flom- bring dreame, doth imagine he hath sounde a perelefle iewell, of price inestimable, beset with the gliftring Diamonde : and perfectly awaked, knoweth he hath none such. If God hath indued a man with a wife that is beautifull and honest, hee is furnifhed with double pleasure; such, as rather thankes to him, then vain often- tation is to be remembred : otherwise, he doateth, either in Jelofie or openeth proude vauntes therof, to suche as he thinketh to be his most afTured frendes. What ioye the fequele therof doth bring, let the historie infuing reporte.

Candaules king of Lydia, had a marueilous beautifull gentle woman to his Queene and wife, whome hee loued very dearlye,


and for that great loue whiche he bare her, thought her the fay- rest creature of the worlde. Being in this louing concept, hee extolled the prayfe of his wife, to one of his guarde called Gyges, the sonne of Dafcylus (whom he loued aboue all the reste of his houfholde, and vsed his counfayle, in all his weightie causes) within a whyle after he fayde vnto Gyges these woordes. " It femeth vnto mee Gyges, that thou doest not greatlye beleue the woordes whiche I fpeake vnto thee, of the beautie of my wyfe, but because eyes bee better witnesses of thinges then eares, thou fhalt fee her naked." With these woordes Gyges being amazed cryed out, saying : " What woordes be these (fir king) me thynke you are not well aduifed, to require mee to viewe and beholde the Lady my maiftres in that sorte? for a woman feene naked, doth with her clothes, put of also her chastitie. In olde tyme honest thinges were deuifed for mannes inftru&ion, emonges which was vsed this one thyng. That euery man ought to beholde, the thinges that were his owne. But fir, I do beleue afluredly that me is the fairest woman in the world, whersore desire me not to thynges that bee vnlawefull." In this sorte Gyges replied, and yet feared left some daunger might happen vnto hym. Whome Candaules encouraged, saying : " Bee of good chere, and be not afrayde, that either I or my wyfe, goe about to deceiue thee, or that thou malt incurre anye daunger. for I wyll take vpon me so to vse the matter, as me by no meanes mail knowe that thou haste feene her. I wyll place thee behynde the portall of our chamber. When I goe to bedde, my wyfe commonly doth sollowe. And me being in the Chamber, a chayre is fette readye, vppon whiche fhee layeth her clothes, as me putteth them of. Whiche done mee fheweth her selfe a good tyme naked : and when me ryfeth from her chayre to goe to bedde, her backe beyng towarde thee, thou mayeft eafilye conueyghe thy selfe out again, but in any wyfe take heede, me doe not fee thee, as thou goeft out. Where- unto I praye thee, to haue a fpeciall regarded Gyges feyng that by no meanes, hee could auoyde the vayne requefte of the king, was readie at the tyme appoynted. Candaules about the howre of bedde tyme, went into the Chamber, and conueighed Gyges into the fame, and after the kyng the queene solloweth, whome


Gyges behelde at her going in, and at the putting of her clothes When her back was towardes him, (as he was going out) fhe per- ceiued him. The queene vnderstanding by her husbande, the circumftance of the facie, neyther for shame did crie out, ne yet made countenaunce as though fhee had feen Gyges ; but in her minde purpofed, to reuenge her husbandes sollie. for emonges the Lydians (as for the most part, with all other nations) it is coumpted a great shame, to fee a naked man. The gentlewoman counterfaited her grief, and kepte iilence. In the morning when fhe was redie, by such of her feruaunts, whome me befte trufted, fhee sent for Gyges, who thought that fhee had knowen nothing of that whiche chaunced. Being come besore her prefence; fhe fayde vnto hym, "Gyges I offer vnto thee nowe twoo conditions, take whether thou wylte. for eyther thou muft kill Candaules, and take mee to thy wyfe, and the kyngdome also, or els thou muft dye thy selfe, that thou maieft vnderftande, how in all thynges not meete to be knowen, it is not neceflarye to obeye Candaules. for eyther hee muste needes dye, whiche gaue thee that coun- fayle, or thy selfe, which diddest fee me naked, and thereby com mitted a thing vnlawfull." Whiche words for a while, did won derfully amafe Gyges, then he besought the Queene that flie woulde pardon him from that vnlawfull choife. When he faw that he coulde not perfwade her ; he required her to fhewe him by what meanes he might attempt that enterprife. " Marie (quoth fhe) euen in that place where thou faweft me naked, when he is a fleepe thou fhalt commit that fa&e." After they had deuifed the treason, night approched. And Gyges with ftoute courage, bent himselfe thereunto, for he faw no remedye, but that he muft kill, or els be killed. Wheresore with a Dagger which the Queene deliuered him, he killed Candaules, when he was a fleepe ; and so gotte from him both his wife and kingdome. A goodly example to declare, that the secrets of Marriage, ought not to be difclofed : but with reuerence to be couered, left God do plague such offences with death or other shame, to manifeft to the world, howe dearely hee efteemeth that honourable state.



King Crœsus of Lydia reasoneth with the wyseman Solon, of the happie life of man. Who little ejieeming his good aduise, vnder- Jloode besore his death, that no man (but ly vertue) can in this life attaine felicitie.

A NOBLE Gentleman of Athens called Solon, by th' appointement of the Athenians, made lawes for that citie, and because none of the fame lawes fhoulde be abrogated, for the space of tenne yeares, hee bounde the Citizens by othe. And that the fame mighte the better be obferued ; he himselfe traueyled into farre countries, as into Egipt to vifite king Hamafis, and so to Sardis to kinge Crsefus, where he was liberallie intertayned. This Craefus was king of Lydia, sonne of Haliattes, that brought to fubie&ion great countries in Afia and Graecia, and gathered together an innume rable masse of moneye and riches. Who three or soure dayes after the arriuall of Solon (which was led aboute by his feruauntes, to viewe his notable wealth and fubftaunce) said vnto Solon these wordes. "My frende of Athens, because thy famous wyfedome is well knowen to the worlde, and I haue heard tell of the excel- lencie therof, and of the greatnes of thy trauaile, where thou hast attaigned to the finguler knowledge of Philosophie; I desire to learne of thee (now hauing feene my great treafures) who is the happieft man and most blefled, that thou knowest in this world." Thinking he would haue Judged him to be the fame. But Solon made aunfwere, that, "Tellus was the happieft; who was an Athenien, and had vertuous and honest sonnes, and they likewife had honest children, all which were that time liuing. And when by the space of many yeares he had ledde a vertuous and godly life, he died an honourable death in the warres which the Athe nians had with theyr neighbours, at the battaile of Eleufina. Wher he was indued with fumptuous funerals, to his great honour and prayfe." Then Craefus afked him : " Who was happie next Tellus ; " thinking hee would haue attributed to him the second



place. " sorsoth (quoth he) that is Cleobis and Bito, which were Argiues, and liued a contented life. And in all pastimes to proue force and maifterie, they bare away the prife and viftorie. And of them these thinges be remembred ; when the feaftfull day of luppiter was celebrated amonges the Argiues; their mother fhould be caried to the Temple in a Chariot, drawen with a yoke of Oxen, which were not come out of the countrie at the appointed time. The yonge men feinge that the hower was come, entred into the yoke themfelues, and drewe the chariotte the space of XLV. ftades to the Temple. After this acte feene of all the people there, th'ende of their life was such, as certainly God gaue to vnderftaiid by them, that better it is to die, then Hue. for the Argiues that were af- fembled about Bito and Cleobis, with moutes and acclamations, praised the good willes of those children, and the women them- selues said, 'That happie was the mother, which brought sorth such lineage/ Their mother then ioyfull for that fact, and of the reputation of her sonnes, kneeled downe besore the Image of luno, humbly befeechinge her to giue her sonnes the thinge that were beft for a man to attaine vnto. Her prayer ended, fhe made her facrifice, which done, the two yonge men prefently died in the temple. In token of whose noble Hues, the Argiues erected two Images at Delphos." And to them Solon appointed the second place of bliffulnes. Craefus moued with these words, said vnto Solon. "Thou straunger of Athens, is our felicitie in such litle reputation with thee that thou doest preferre besore vs these priuate men ? " Solon aunswered : "Sir fhal I assure you of humaine things, knowing that God enuieth the state of men, and troubleth them so often : in length of time many thinges be feen, which men would not fee, and many thinges be fuflfred, that men would not suffer. Let vs affigne to mans life the terme of LXX. yeres : in which yeares are the nomber of XXV.M.CC. dayes, in which com putation the leape moneth, which is February, is not comprehend ed. But if you wil that other yeres be longer, by reason of that moneth, to th' end the howers may be adioyned to them, that want then the leape monethes, maketh the time to amount (aboue LXX. yeares) to xxv. monethes, and the dayes of those monethes amount to M.V.C. But admit that LXX. yeares with their leape monethes, be


the total summe of man's life, then is produced the summe of xxv. M. cc. dayes. Truly one day is not like an other in effect, euen so Craefus I conclude, that man is ful of miferie. But althoughe your grace, feeming both in wealth, and also in multitude of men, to be a riche and mightie king, yet I cannot aunfwere fullye your demaunde, besore I fee howe well you doe ende your life : for the rich man is not more happie, because he hath long life, except to his riches fortune graunt that he lead a good and honest life. Many men be very rich, and yet for all that be not bleffed and happie : and manye that haue but meane wealth, be fortunate. He that is rich and wealthie, and therewithal not happie, excelleth him that is fortunate and happy onely in two thinges, but th'other fur- mounteth the riche man in many thinges. The two thinges where in the rich excelleth th'other be these. Th'one in satisfying his luft and affection, th'other in power and abilitie, to fufteine harde fortune and aduerfitie; and as the meane man is inferiour to the rich in these two points, which by fortune be denied him, yet he doth excell him, because he neuer hath experience of them ; he liueth in good and profperous health, he neuer feeleth aduerfitie, he doth nothing that is wicked, he is a father of good children, he is indued with sormofity and beautie, who if (befides all those thinges) he die well, it is he to aunfwere your demaunde that worthely may be called happie ; for besore he die he cannot be so called : and yet fortunate he may be termed. for to obtaine all (whiles you be a liuing man) it is impossible : for as one countrie is not able to feme it selfe with all commodities, but hauing one it lacketh an other : yet the fame countrie that hath most com modities is the befte : and as a man's bodie hauing one perfection is not perfect, because in hauing one he lacketh another : euen so he that hath most vertue, and is indued with greateft nomber of the asoresaid commodities, and so quietly departeth his life, he in mine opinion is worthy to be intitled with the name of a king. A man muft expect th'ende of euery thinge whereunto it tendeth : for God plucketh vppe by the rootes many men, to whom hee hath giuen abundaunce of wealth and treafure." Crsefus mifliking the woordes of Solon fuffred him to depart saying: " He was a soole that meafured prefent pleafures with no better regard." After


whose departure, the gods began to bende their indignation and difpleafure vpon him, because he thoughte himselfe the happieft man aliue. Long time after, Craefus receyuing courage and com sort from Apollo at Delphos, attempted warres against Cyrus kinge of Persia, who in those warres was ouerthrowen, and taken prisoner after he had raigned xiiii. yeares, and was broughte by the Perfians to Cyrus. Then Cyrus caused a ftacke of woode to be piled vp, and Craefus fettred with giues, was fet vpon the fame : who then remembring the saying of Solon, that no liuing man was blefTed, or in all pointes happie, cried out in lamentable wyfe, " Solon ! Solon ! Solon !" which Cyrus hearing, caused his interpre ters to demaund of him, what the fame Solon was. Craefus with much difficultie toulde what he was, and declared all the talke be- twene him and Solon. Wherof when Cyrus heard the report, he acknowledged himselfe to be also a man, and sore repented that he went about to burne him, which was equal vnto him in honour and riches, confeffing nothing to be ftable and certaine in the life of man. Wherupon he commaunded the fire to be taken awaye, which then began to flame. And so with much a doe, he was deliuered. Then Cyrus afked him, who gaue him counfaile to inuade his countrie, to make his frende his soe. " Euen my selfe (saide Crae fus) through vnhappie fate, by the perfwafion of the Greekifh God which gaue me counfaile, to make warres vpon thee : for there is no man so madde, that had rather desire warre then peace. for in peace sonnes burie their fathers, but in warres, fa thers burie their children. But that these thinges be come to pafle, I maye thancke the deuil's good grace." Afterward Cyrus intertain- ed him very honourablie, and vsed his counfell, which he sound very holsome and good.



Of a father that madefuite, to haue his owne sonne put to death.

THERE was a man borne in Mardus (which is a Countrie adioyning vnto Persia) called Rhacon, that had feuen children. The yong- eft of them (named Cartomes,) afflicted diners honest men with greate harmes and mifchiefes. for which cause the father began to resorme him with words, to prone if he would amend. But he litle waying the good difcipline of his father, it chaunced vpon a time that the Juftices of the countrie, repaired to the Seffions in that towne, where the father of the childe did dwell, Who taking his sonne, and binding his handes behinde him, brought him besore the Judges. To whom hee remembred by waye of accufa- tion, all the mifchiefes, which his sonne from time to time had committed, and desired the Judges, that he might be condempned to die. The Judges amazed with that requeft, would not them- selues giue fentence against him, but brought both the father and the sonne, besore Artaxerxes the king of Persia : in whose pre- fence the father ftill perfifted in the accufation of his sonne. " Why (quoth the king) canft thou finde in thy harte, that thine owne sonne mould be put to death besore thy face ? " ft Yea truly (quoth the father,) for at home in my garden, when the yong J^ac- tufe begin to growe, I cutte of the bitter and sower ftalkes from them : for pitie it were the mother Laftufe mould sustaine sorow, for those baftard and degenerate fhrubbes : which beinge taken awaye, me profpereth and encreafeth to great fweetenefle and bignes. Euen so (O kinge) if he be hanged that hurteth my whole familie, and ofTendeth the honest conuerfation of his brethren, both my selfe shalbe increafed, and the reste of my ftocke and linage {hall in like sort profper and continue." The king hearing those words, did greatly praise the wifedom of Rhacon, and chofe him to be one of his Judges, pronouncing these wordes besore the mul titude. " Hee that dare thus feuerely and iuftly pronounce fen tence vpon his owne child, doubtles he wil mew himselfe to be an incorrupt and iincere Judge vpon the offences of other." Then the kinge deliuered the yongman, from that prefente faulte, threat- ninge him with most cruell death, if after that time, he were ap prehended with like offence.

54 {{smaller| ARTAXERXES.}}


Water offered of good will to Artaxerxes King of Persia, and the lilerall rewarde of the Kinge to the giuer.

THERE was a certaine Perfian called Sinetas, that farre from his owne houfe mette king Artaxerxes, and had not wherwith to pre- sent him. for it was an order amonges the Perfians, inftituted by law, that euery man which met the king, fhould giue him a pre- sent. Whersore the poore man because he would not negle&e his dutie, ranne to a Riuer called Cyrus, and taking both his hands full of water, fpake to the king in this wife. " I befeech God that your Maiestie may euermore raigne amonges vs. As occafion of the place, and mine ability at this inftant ferueth, I am come to honour your maiefty, to the intent you may not pafle without some prefent, for which cause I giue vnto you this water. But if your grace had ones encamped your selfe, I would go home to my houfe, for the beft and dearest thinges I haue to honour your Maiestie withall. And peraduenture the fame mail not be much inferiour to the giftes, which other now do giue you." Artaxerxes delighted with this fact, fayde vnto him. "Goode fellowe I thancke thee for this prefente, I aflure thee, the fame is so acceptable vnto me, as the most precious gift of the worlde. first, because water is the beft of all thinges, then because the Riuer, out of the which thou diddest take it, doth beare the name Cyrus. Wheresore I commaunde thee to come besore me when I am at my campe." In speakinge those wordes, he required his Eunuches to take the prefent, and to put it into a cuppe of gold. The king when he was lodged in his pauilion, sent to the man a Perfian robe, a Cuppe of Golde, and a thoufande Darices, (which was a coigne amonges the Perfians, wherupon was the Image of Darius) willinge the mef- fenger to faye vnto him, these wordes. " It hath pleafed the king, that thou fhouldest delighte thy selfe, and make mery with this gold, because thou diddest exhilarate his minde, in not fuffering him to pafle, without the honour of a prefent: but as neceflitie


did ferue thee, diddest humblie falute him with water. His plea- fure is also, that thou malt drincke of that water in this Cuppe of gold, of which thou madest him partaker."

Artaxerxes hereby exprefled the true Image of a princely minde,

that would not difdaine cherefully to behold the homelie gifte (in

our eftimation rude, and nothing worth) at the handes of his poore

fubiect : and liberally to reward that duetifull zeale, with thinges

of greate price and valour. To the fame Artaxerxes, riding in pro-

grefle through Persia, was prefented by one called Mifes, a very

great Pomegranate in a Sine. The king marueiling at the bignes

therof, demaunded of him out of what garden he had gathered the

fame : he aunswered, out of his owne. Wherat the king greatlye

reioyfinge, recompenced him with princelye rewards, saying:

"By the Sunne (for that was the common oth of the Persian

kinges) this man is able with such trauaile and diligence

in my Judgement to make of a litle citie^ one that

fhal be large and great." Which wordes feeme

to declare, that all thinges by care, suffici-

ente paine and continual labour, may

againfl nature, be made more

excellent and