Washington Historical Quarterly/Volume 13/Newspapers of Washington Territory
NEWSPAPERS OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY
As the Americans began that march across the continent, that westward movement, which developed into the greatest colonizing experience of modern history, the newspaper not only helped to point the way but also sent out numerous brave children to help in the struggle and to encourage the pioneer home builders, keeping pace with the frontier as soon as the new homes clustered into village or town.
In an expanding democracy, such as was the United States in the latter half of the nineteenth century, the frontier newspaper rendered various kinds of service, many of them essential to the peculiar genius of the American form of government. There were the purley social forms of service in recording the goings and comings of people, the calls for meetings, the uniting of efforts for good causes and betterments. The editor flaunted a pennant of pride or pointed a finger of scorn and the struggling community renewed the faith that its attack upon elemental forces was not in vain. Those papers rendered economic service by exploiting natural resources and by suggesting or encouraging new enterprises. They rendered political service by advocating candidates, parties, platforms, reforms and needed laws. All these services might easily be rendered by newspapers in new lands of any country. Another kind of essential service by the American frontier newspaper had to do with the American land system. In passing the huge public domain of lands into the possesion of the settlers, one essential was the publication of notices of the land claims. On the other hand, the fees for such publications often constituted the main support of the frontier papers. This kind of mutuality of service has led the advance of the American people and the American newspaper. It began on the frontier; it continues in the later metropolis.
As Washington Territory was one of the last of the American frontiers, it is natural that the frontier newspaper service should be found here in the fulness of flower in the two-score years from 1850 to 1890. Some men live longer and serve their fellows longer than do others. So has it been with the newspapers. Every publisher who launched a new paper had hope and ambition for his enterprise. Some of those papers were pitifully young at the time of their deaths or absorption by a stronger rival. Still it is comforting to believe that, in the surging of the great human tide, each of them rendered service during its day, be that day brief or long.
The first newspaper printed in that portion of Oregon lying north of the Columbia River, which later became Washington Territory, was the Columbian. It was published at Olympia and the first issue appeared on September 11, 1852. The old Ramage hand press on which it was printed had been used in California. From there it was shipped to Portland and printed the first issues of the Oregonian. After serving the Columbian, it was used to print the first newspaper in Seattle. It was then taken to Alaska and later returned to Seattle. It is now in the State Museum, University of Washington. If all the pages it has printed could be assembled, the fruitage of that old press would furnish a foundation for the early history of the Pacific Coast. One reason for establishing the Columbian was to promote the creation of the Territory of Columbia from Northern Oregon. The early issues of the paper show how valiantly and successfully that cause was advocated. It issued the call for the Monticello Convention which met on November 25, 1852. In the meantime ringing editorials called the people to action. After the Convention had memorialized Congress, the Columbian published the proceedings in full. The people applauded the energy and success of their only paper in Northern Oregon.
Candor requires, however, at this time of more accurate information, that we should recognize the fact that much of that pioneer applause was misplaced. Oregon's Delegate to Congress, General Joseph Lane, had taken the initiative for the creation of the new Territory on December 6, 1852, just eleven days after the Monticello Convention. Recent searches among his papers in the Library of Congress have shown that he was inspired by the memorial of the Cowlitz Convention of August 29, 1851. That was before the Columbian was founded. With the Cowlitz Convention manuscript in the Lane papers, were found two Oregon newspapers—the Oregonian of September 20, 1851, and the Oregon Spectator of September 23, 1851. Each of these papers carried on the front page the full proceedings of the Cowlitz Convention of the previous August. These were the effective publications in that momentous event. The bill was under debate and the name of the proposed Territory was being changed from Columbia to Washington, when the memorial of the Monticello Convention and the proceedings of that Convention in the Columbian arrived at the National Capitol. For a full discussion of these two Conventions, see the Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume XIII., No.1, (January, 1922,) pages 3 to 19. All this does not detract from the evident purpose and energy of the Columbian. It simply transfers some of the credit of achievement to the Cowlitz Convention and to two other pioneer newspapers.
The records of such important makers and chroniclers of history should be saved. Unfortunately that is not an easy thing to do. However much faith and hope may inspire the editor, he is not always careful of his files. The short-lived papers frequently vanish completely. Successors to the earlier publishers are often slow in recognizing that what had gone on before in the papers they had acquired was worth preserving for the sake of future needs of history. It is frequently difficult and often impossible to get information about the early files.
A number of efforts have been made in the past to assemble information about the pioneer papers of Washington Territory. Among these should be mentioned the following: The Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, contains a brief history of the press of Washington by Charles Prosch under the date of August 15, 1889. This covers pages 23 to 45. In the same pamphlet, for the year 1890, Edwin N. Fuller gives an article entitled "HistoriCol Newspaper Sketches." He specializes on first numbers and a compilation of newspapers established, year by year, from 1882 to 1890. In that same year 1890, Herbert Howe Bancroft's History of Washington, Idaho and Montana appeared, carrying a compact history of early newspapers on pages 377 to 380. Clarence B. Bagley, himself a pioneer newspaper man, wrote an article on "Pioneer Papers of Puget Sound," which appeared in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, Volume IV., No. 4, (December, 1903,) pages 365 to 385. Several of the county and sectional histories of the Territory and State contain references to the newspapers. These are all valuable and the essential facts are drawn together in this present effort to make a more complete record of those important sources of historical materials.
In addition to the information derived from the compilations above mentioned, facts have been gathered from files of the old newspapers, surviving pioneers have been interviewed and many letters have been written to editors and publishers of papers whose age reaches back 'into the Territorial days. No effort has been made as yet to carry this work of investigation into the years of Statehood. That task will be a great one when undertaken but it should be effectually aided by the large number of public libraries which are now saving newspaper files.
In the compilation which follows an effort is made to go be- yond a mere bibliographical list. Whenever important and inter- esting facts are obtained about the publications these are set down with the bibliographic data.
Acknowledgment should here be made to Victor J. Farrar for his assistance. He has industriously gleaned facts from many sources.
From the nature of the case, the pioneer papers dropping out of sight from one reason or another, a compilation of this kind is liable to errors, especially errors of omission. The writer would wel- come suggested additions or corrections if submitted before the work is revised for seperate publication, about January 1, 1923.
Edmond S. Meany
ABERDEEN, GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY
Bulletin, established on July 31, 1889, with E. C . Finch as proprietor and Frank Owen as editor. Independent. No files have been located.
Herald, founded in 1886 by A. M. Telford. Democratic. Ceased publication on July 1, 1917. Partial files are located in The Public Library of Hoquiam, University of Washington Li- brary and Washington State College Library.
ALLYN, MASON COUNTY
Times, founded on November 14, 1889, by Gale & Leith. Mr. Leith sold out in 1890 and H. R . Gale continued publication.
ALMIRA, LINCOLN COUNTY
Journal, listed as an independent weekly by the Lord and Thomas Newspaper Directory for 1890.
ANACORTES, SKAGIT COUNTY
American, founded in April, 1890, by Douglass Allmond and F. H . Boynton. The History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties says Allmond was sole proprietor after August 12, 1892, until he sold out to Frederick Ornes in the spring of 1902. Frank Barnett obtained the paper, on January 1, 1904. Republican.
Northwest Enterprise, begun by Alf. D. Bowen and F. M. Walsh on March 25, 1882, to boom a proposed town on Ship Harbor. In January, 1883, the paper passed to its cheif patron, Amos Bowman, who placed George Riggins in charge. The last issue appeared on February 20, 1887. (Edward N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings 1887–1890, page 85.)
Progress, begun on August 3, 1889, by C. F . Mitchell. Both daily and weekly issues were published. In April, 1890, the daily was sold to W. H . McEwen, Mr. Mitchell continuing the weekly. Both were suspended on January 22, 1892. For a short time J. B. Fithian published the Anacortes Courier as a successor of the Progress and for a short period also C. F. Mitchell re-entered the field with the Anacortes News. (History of Skagit and Snohimsh Counties, page 432.)
ARLINGTON, SNOHOMISH COUNTY
Times, established in 1888 at Stanwood with the name of Stillaguamish Times. The first publisher was George Morrill. In 1890, the paper was moved to Haller City (C. H . Packard, in the Arlington Times, September 6, 1913.) Haller City was named in 1888 by G. Morris Haller in honor of his father Colonel Granville O. Haller. "A few years later Earl and McLeod, railroad contractors, purchased forty acres and gave to it the name of Arlington." (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, pages 359–362.)
ASOTIN, ASOTIN COUNTY
Asotin County Sentinel, in 1883, D. B . Pettijohn and J. H. Ginder bought the Pataha Spirit, formerly owned by Dr. J. S. Denison and on October 12, moved the plant and issued the Asotin Spirit to boom the new town and to advocate the division of Garfield County. T. M. E. Shank secured the paper in 1884 and changed its name to Sentinel. Editors and proprietors changed frequently until September 25, 1891, when I. S. Waldrip & Son sold to Al Stiffel, one of the former proprietors. (History of Southeastern Washington, pages 820–821.)
AUBURN, KING COUNTY
See entry under Slaughter, King County.
BELLINGHAM, WHATCOM COUNTY
See entries under, Fairhaven, Sehome and Whatcom.
BLAINE, WHATCOM COUNTY
JOURNAL, established on April 23, 1885, by Louis R. Flowers, and continued to date except for a suspension of six months in 1893. About 1905 it absorbed the Blaine Reporter. The files for 1885 and 1886 are in possession of George Cain, of Blaine, those from January 1, 1887 to date are in the Journal office.
BUCKLEY, PIERCE COUNTY
BANNER, established on December 17, 1889, by Thomas E. Ashe. Independent..
BUCODA, THURSTON COUNTY
ENTERPRISE, established in November, 1889, by R. F. Pattison and J. W . Julian and its publication continued until 1894 when it suspended and the plant was moved to Cosmopolis. (}. C . Rath- bun, History of Thurston Co~mty, page 118.) No files have been located.
CAMAS, CLARKE COUNTY
See entry under La Camas.
CASTLEROCK, COWLITZ COUNTY
COWLITZ ADVOCATE, established on July 10, 1886, by E. H . Flagg. Republican.
CATHLAMET, WAHKIAKUM COUNTY
GAZETTE, established on February 1, 1889. Independent.
CENTRALIA, LEWIS COUNTY
CHRONICLE, established in July, 1889, by Thomas Scammons and J. E. Whinnery. Independent.
NEWS. Rowell & Rathbun began the Naparvine w.estern Washington Farmer in August, 1886. On April 1, 1887, the plant was sold to A. E. Partridge and VV. F. Pattison who moved it to Centralia and began the News. On August 14, 1889, Charles Prosch wrote: "One month ago Mr. Partridge commenced the pub- lication of the Daily News which makes a better appearance than many a first daily in the older and larger towns." (Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 43.)
SUNDAY INDEPENDENT, established on November 9, 1889, by Hull, Kerr and Julian. It lived but a few weeks.
CHEHALIS, LEWIS COUNTY
BEE-NUGGET, the combination of two pioneer journals. The Lewis County Nugget was first issued on July 14, 1883, by Tozier & Meybrick. It was not attractive. The Asotin Transcript said: "We have seen many poor papers, but never worse." J. E. Willis secured the paper, changed its politics to the Democratic column, secured the local postmastership and sold the paper to A. H. Wehner, who continued it as a Democratic organ until November, 1889, when he sold it to Owen & Morrison. In February, 1890, the paper was acquired by A. E. Partridge. The Lewis County Bee was established on June 6, 1884, by Bull & Francis, who changed it to a semi-weekly on August 1, 1884. It skipped one week and appeared again on September 12, 1884, as a weekly by W. W . Fran- cis, with Charles Weston as editor. On August 4, 1886, W. W . Francis sold out to J. T . Forrest. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washing- ton Press Association Proceedings, I887-I890, page 82.) Besides the files in the office of publication, there are series of them, es- pecially since the successful combination of the two papers, in the Vniversity of Washington Library, in the State Library at Olym- pi::t, and the Public Ligbrary at Chehalis.
CHENEY, SPOKANE COUNTY
ENTERPRISE, listed by the Lord & Thomas Mewspaper Direc- tory, in 1890, as an independent weekly.
NORTHWEST TRIBUNE, established at Colfax in 1879, moved to Cheney in 1883 and to Spokane Falls in 1886. (History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II., page 548.)
SENTINEL, spoken of by Charles Prosch on August 14, 1889, as "a large weekly published by Fred Publer, the official paper of the city of Cheney. It has just completed its eighth volume and looks healthy enough to "live through eight more." ( Washington Press Association Proceedinges, I887-I890, page 41.) It was listed in the L'Ord & ThomalS Newspaper Directory, I890, as an inde- pendent weekly.
CHEWELAH, STEVENS COUNTY
STEVENS COUNTY SUN, the first paper published in this coun- ty, made its initial appearance in July, 1885. J. W. Young, the publisher was a miner and devoted most of his time to prospecting. A few issues of his paper appeared at irregular intervals. (History of North Washington, page 840.)
CHICO, KITSAP COUNTY
PORT WASHINGTON SENTINEL, established on December 20, 1889, by H. H. Green. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press AssociQltion Proceedings, I887-I890, page 88.)
COLFAX, WHITMAN COUNTY
COMMONER, established on October 2, 1885, by R. C. Blair and E. C. Warner. It has been published continuously as a weekly. For several years a daily was also issued. Complete files have been saved in the office and there are several series of the issues on file in the State Library at Olympia. It was listed by the Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory, I890, as a Democratic weekly.
NORTHWEST TRIBUNE, established in Colfax in 1879, moved to Cheney in 1883 and to Spokane Falls in 1886. Files of Volumes I and II., 1880-1881, are in the Spokane Public Library.
PALOUSE GAZETTE, established on September 29, 1877, by L. E. Kellogg and Charles B. Hopkins. On August 3, 1888, the paper published a sketch of its own history from which the following is taken: "The paper was issued in its original size until May, 1878, when it was enlarged to seven columns, and in June, 1879, the patent inside was discarded, since which time it has been an all home production. L. E. Kellogg, the senior partner, retired from the firm at this time. In the winter of 1880-1881 the growing bus- iness demanded increased facilities, and a steam press was' accord- ingly added to the plant, the paper also being enlarged to eight columns. In May, 1882, the business was further enlarged by the addition of a book bindery. This adjunct had a brilliant though brief career, the plant being destroyed in the great fire three months later. In February, 1887, the firm of Hopkins & Chase [Ivan Chase] took charge and four months later the paper passed into the hands of the present management. The third enlargement became necessary in 1887, when another column was added, making nine to the page, and the largest four-page paper in the territory." Complete files have been saved in the Gazette office.
COLVILLE, STEVENS COUNTY
REPUBLICAN, established in 1890 by E. L. Jameson and Emmet Clark. Later J. H . Young acquired the paper and merged it with the Stevens CMmty Miner under the name of Index.
STEVENS COUNTy MINER, established by John B. Slater on October 5, 1885, as a six-column, Democratic weekly. He had purchased part of his equipment at Walla Walla. While trans- porting to Colville, the wagon overturned at the crossing of Blue Creek and the printing outfit was ruined. When the paper ap- peared, the first fifty copies sold for fifty cents each. In 1889, Mr. Slater sold out to W. H. Kearney and G. R. Epherson who changed it to a Republican organ. Later George M. Welty acquired it and put it back in the Democratic column. Mr. Slater resumed control in 1890 and a year later sold the paper to Cole & Bronson. They did not succeed and in 1893 the paper passed by sheriff's sale to J. H. Young who combined it with the Republican under the name of Index. In 1895, Mr. Young sold to John James Graves, who, a year later sold to John L. Metcalfe. James E. Picknell was then eoitor. In September, 1896, W. D . Allen bought the paper and merged it with the Springdale Statesman under the name of StCfltes- man-Index. (History of North Washington, pages 840-841.)
STEVENS COUNTY RECORDER, established in 1886 by a man n:::med De Land, as a Republican paper, "but it became embroiled in a political misunderstanding and after a short but feverish life of two months it fell under the wheels and its life was crushed out." (History of North Washington, page 841.)
STEVENS COUNTY REPORTER, established on July 3,1885, by Van Loon & Co. (Edwin N. Fuller in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887-I890, page 84.)
STEVENS COUNTY STANDARD, established in 1890, by Eber C. Smith, as an Independent Republican paper. It continued for sev- eral years. (History of North Washington, page 841.)
CONCONULLY, OKANOGAN COUNTY
OKANOGAN OUTLOOK, during a lively interest in the Salmon River Mining District, W. B. McDougal began the publication of a Republican six-page folio paper, two pages of home print and two pages "patent". In one year he sold out to E. W . Lee, a merchant, and J. W . Romaine, a lawyer. At the end of six months they sold to H. W . Thompson. On August 30, 1892, the plant was burned. A new plant was secured but there followed the depression of silver and a season of hard times. The plant was destroyed by flood on May 27, 1894. Another equipment was secured and the paper re- sumed publication on July 14. It was difficult to get print paper with regularity and wrapping paper was often used instead. The paper suspended in 1898. (History of North Washington, page 841.)
COUPEVILLE, ISLAND COUNTY
ISLAND NEWS, Volume II, Number 2, June 12, 1884, showed E. W . Brayman as editor. H . is. Condon had retired from its publication. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887-I890, page 82.)
DAVENPORT, LINCOLN COUNTY.
LINCOLN COUNTY TIMES, published by Frank M. Dallam, or- iginator of the Spokane Review. On August 14, 1889, Charles Prosch wrote: "The Times is now in its seventh year, with a good prospect of a long and useful career. As long as Mr. Dallam re- tains his control it will unquestionably survive and prosper, for he h~s given abundant proof of his ability to conduct a journal suc- cessfully where success is possible." (Washington Press Asso- ciation Proceedings, I887-I890, page 43.)
LINCOLN LEADER, established on June 12, 1884, by Elmer 'iVarner. On November 21, the last number appeared. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887- 1390, page 81.)
DAYTON, COLUMBIA COUNTY
BAPTIST SENTINEL, moved to Dayton from Tacoma in the spring of 1890. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 814.) See Tacoma Baptist Sentinel.
COLUMBIA CHRONICLE, established on April 20, 1878, as a Republican paper to oppose the Dayton News. It was a six-column folio, all four pages being printed at home on a Washington hand press. The publishers were T. M . May & Co. The editor was H. H. Gale and the business manager, E. R . Burk. On N ovem- 1 cr 1, 1878, Mr. Gale, through ill health, was forced to retire and the paper was sold to J. E. Eastham and F. M. McCully, school teachers. Mr. McCully became editor. O. C . White, who had only written two articles began a newspaper career. He bought McCully's interest on May 17, 1879, and by July 12 he was sole owner of the paper. He continued as editor and publisher until February 10, 1883, when he sold to E. T. Wilson and F. M. McCully, who had been proprietor of the Pomeroy Republican. The price of the paper at this transfer was $5000. Mr. Wilson became sole owner and, while continuing the weekly, he began to issue the Daily Chronicle on April 7, 1883. It was a five-column, folio, evening paper selling for nine dollars a year. On September 30, 1884, the evening paper turned its column rules and appeared in full mourning and across the top appeared the words: "Dead—Not gone before, but gone behind." The weekly was continued and on May 2, 1885, Mr. Wilson sold a half interest to F. W. Agatz who had been serving as business manager for sixteen months. On September 4, 1886, the paper was sold to O. C. White and J. K. Rainwater for $6000. In June, 1887, the plant was destroyed by fire. A new equipment was secured and Mr. White became sole proprietor on October 1, 1888. He sold a half interest to R. E. Peabody in March, 1890, and in October sold the remaining interest, the new firm being R. E. Peabody & Co. Mr. White had been serving as Secretary of the Territory and became the first Public Printer, under Statehood. (History of Southeastern Washington pages 809-812.)
Inlander, had a changeful career for about ten years. On August 4, 1882, Twyman O. Abbott established the Democratic State Journal to take the place of the burned out News. In August, 1884, J. E. Edmiston, former editor of the News became editor of the new paper. On November 8, 1884, the paper passed into the hands of W. O. and G. N. Matzger who changed the name to Inlander and changed its politics to Republican. A . B. Thompson bought the paper on August 1, 1886, for $1500 and put it back into the Democratic column. In September, 1892, G. S. Livengood became proprietor and supported the Peoples Party. Times became hard and the paper suspended. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 813.)
News, the first paper in that section east of Walla Walla, was begun in September, 1874, to boom Dayton as the county seat for a proposed new county. Elisha Ping furnished the capital and A. J. Cain the experience. It is said that the paper was first printed on a toy press with a hatful of type. It was Democratic. Columbia County was created on November 11, 1875, and Dayton became the county seat. The News suspended for a time in January, 1876, and was sold to James Kerby. In May, 1877, it was bought by T. H. Crawford and J. E. Edmiston. M. H. Abbott & Sons became proprietors in January, 1878. On July 28, 1879, it was sold to J. E. Palmer and James Seaman. W. D. Crow bought Seaman's interest on September 1, 1879, and on April 1, 1881, Walter Crosby and J. Y. Ostrander acquired the property. The plant was destroyed by fire on August 12, 1882, and publication was not resumed. (History of Southeastern Washington, pages 808-809.)
Reporter, "Probably but few people will remember the Dayton Reporter, which lived a very brief life in the spring of 1881. It made its bow early in May and its exit late in the same month. It was a little four-column paper and was edited by E. S. Gay. The press work was done in the office of the Dayton News. Mr. Gay decided to have a plant of his own, and suspended until it arrived. The plant came, but before the Reporter could be revised the fire of August 6th destroyed his press and the attempt to add another paper to Dayton was abandoned. The rest of the plant was taken to Pomeroy and used in the publication of the Republican." (History of Southeastern Washington, page 813.)
School Journal, established in April, 1884, devoted to the school interests of Washington Territory. It was an eight-page monthly edited by F. M. McCully, teacher and newspaper man. The printing was done in the office of the Chronicle. It expired after several months.
DESMOINES, KING COUNTY.
News, established on November 22, 1889, by W. F. Thompson. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 86.)
ELLENSBURG, KITTITAS COUNTY.
Capital, founded by Col. A. N. Hamilton on October 15, 1887. A file from the beginning of publication to date is in the Carnegie Library of Ellensburg.
Localizer, established on July 12, 1883, by Stone & Adams. In 1889, D. B. Schnebly was the publisher. Charles Prosch wrote on August 14 of that year: "On July 4 last, the office and con- tents were destroyed by fire. Two days later the editor issued a small sheet. A new plant was ordered. Three years ago the jour- nal experienced a temporary check by the freezing over of the Co- lumbia River. Save on these two occasions there has been no in- terntption to the growth of the Localizer. Mr. Schnebly publicly acknowledged his obligations to Colonel A. N . Hamilton, of the Capital, who promptly and generously placed type and presses at his disposal and thus enabled him to issue the small sheet above referred to." (Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 42.)
KITTITAS STANDARD, established on June 6, 1883, by Richard V. Chadd. Volume III., Number 17, October 3, 1885, bears the imprint of H. C. Walters and C. A . Leup as lessees. (Edwin N. Fuller in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887-I890, page 81.)
NEW ERA, listed as a weekly by Polk's Puget Sound Directory for 1888.
STATE REGISTER, the Washington State Register appeared on ?v'l:ay 24, 1889, succeeding the New Era, with S. T. Sterling as ed- itor. On June 16, 1889, it commenced publishing a daily after- wards discontinued. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Wl(1Shington Press As- sociation Proceedings, I887- I890, page 86.)
ELMA, GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY.
CHRONICLE, established on May 25, 1889, by R. M . Watson. Complete files in the publication office and about ten years of the issues in the Hoquiam Public Library.
FAIRHAVEN, WHATCOM COUNTY.
HERALD, founded in January, 1890, and in March of that year placed in the editorial charge of Colonel Will L. Visscher, a nation- ally famous newspaper man, poet and novelist. A daily issue, be- gun in 1890, was suspended in the fall of 1893. The weekly was continued until March 13, 1900, since which time publication has been continuous as a daily. N early complete files are saved in the office of the publication and fragmentary files are in the Belling- ham Public Library and the State Library at Olympia.
PLAINDEALER, established in July, 1889, by M. Edwards & Co. In February, 1890, Crandall & Price purchased the paper. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887- I890, page 88.)
FARRINGTON, GARFIELD COUNTY.
REGISTER, established on October 5, 1888, by E. S. Crane. It 'was an independent weekly using "patent" insides. (Lord & Thom- as Newspaper Directory, for 1890.)
FREMONT,* KING COUNTY.
LAKE, UNION SENTINEL, a semi-weekly listed 111 the Seattle City Directory for 1890.
GARFIELD, WHITMAN COUNTY.
ENTERPRISE, established in July, 1890, by John U. Hamilton. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887-I890, page 85.)
GIBRALTER, SKAGIT COUNTY.
WASHINGTON FARMER, see North Yakima Washington Farm- er. The name of Gibraltar has been changed to Dewey.
GOLDENDALE, KLICKITAT COUNTY.
GAZETTE. "On May 14, 1885, it was sold by W. A. Walsh to a joint stock company and was merged into another paper." (Ed- win N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, I887- 1890, page 83.)
KLICKITAT SUN, founded in 1879 and mentioned in the Cen- sus Reports of 1880.
SENTINEL, frequently referred to as Klickitat Sentinel, found- ed in 1879 and mentioned in the Census Reports of 1880. Partial files are in the University of Washington Library and in the State Library at Olympia.
TRIBUNE, founded on December 5, 1885, by M. H . Abbott and sold on June 3, 1886. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press As- sociation Proceedings, I887-I890, page 83.)
GRAYS HARBOR CITY, GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY.
TIMEs, established on June 5, 1890, by E. B. Piper. The paper suspended when the real estate boom of that time collapsed.
HALLER CITY, SNOHOMISH COUNTY
STILLAQUAMISH TIMES, see Arlington Times.
HAMILTON, SKAGIT COUNTY.
HERALD, established as the Skagit County Logger on may 23, 1889, by W. H . Willis and B. J. Baker, who used an old army press for the printing. The paper was independent but became Repub- lican in July, 1890, when it passed into the hands of Edward Suiter and H. C . Parliament. On August 8, 1890, the name was changed to Hamilton Herald. It became a Populist paper in 1896 "and in that year expired." (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 431.)
HOQUIAM, GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY.
CHEHALIS TRIBUNE, established in November, 1890, by Messrs Carson and Stoneroad. (Charles Prosch, in Washington Press As- sociation Proceedings, I887-I890, page 44.)
GRAYS HARBOR NEWS, established on March 21, 1885, by Liver- more Brothers. Died young. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 83.)
GRAYS HARBOR WASHINGTONIAN, established on June 5, 1889, by Otis M'. Moore. Partial files are saved in the Hoquiam Public Library and the State Library at Olympia.
INDEX, SNOHOMISH COUNTY.
MINER, published in the early days by C. W . Gorham of Sno- homish City. Thus far no files have been located.
(To be continued)
- Then Chehalis County.
- Then Chehalis County.
- Now part of Bellingham.
- Now part of Seattle.
- Then Chehalis County.