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The Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board, “Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution: Guidelines Issued by the Chairperson pursuant to Section 65(3) of the Immigration Act 1996” lists forced abortion as a crime against women (Section B)

In 2014, the United Nations judged Forced Abortion as a crime against humanity. ["Resolution A/HRC/RES/22/13: Situation of human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea" Archived August 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Human Rights Council], [Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/63, available at:]

The Greifelt indictment at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials similarly indicated that involuntary abortion constituted a war crime, and found two defendants guilty of the crime.[1].

This was repeated by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia [Prosecutor v. Kvocka, note 66, supra, para 180, n. 343]]

Canada has repeatedly ruled that China’s forced abortion constituted a Crime Against Humanity.[Yang, Jin Xiang v. M.C.I. (F.C.T.D., no. IMM-1372-98), Evans, February 9, 1999.][Lai, Li Min v. M.C.I. (F.C., no. IMM-1849-04), Simpson, February 8, 2005; 2005 FC 179.]