Wright's Historical Guide to the City of Dublin, 1825
Wright's Historical Guide to the City of Dublin,Illustrated by engravings, and a plan of the city, published at London. 1825
This valuable institution originated in the private meetings of a few eminent men, Dr. Prior, Dr. Madan, and others, 1781, for scientific purposes, and was supported solely by their subscriptions for eighteen years. On April 2nd, 1749, George II. granted a charter of incorporation, as the "Dublin Society, for promoting Husbandry and other useful Arts," and 5001. per annum; since which period, parliament have lent liberal patronage and support: it is governed by a president (his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland), and six Vice-presidents.
The Governors and Company of the Bank of Ireland are Treasurers; the officers are, two Secretaries and an Assistant, a Solicitor, Professor and Lecturer on Botany and Agriculture, Professor of Chemistry, and an Assistant, Professor and Lecturer of Mineralogy, Mining Engineer, Lecturer in Experimental Philosophy, Professor and Lecturer in the Veterinary Art, Librarian, Corrector of the Press, Master of the School for Ornament and Landscape Drawing, Master of the Figure School, Master of the School for Architectural Drawing, Master for Sculpture, and Head Gardener at the Botanic Garden, Glasnevin.
There is a General Meeting every Thursday at two o' clock. Annual Courses of Lectures, open to the public, are delivered by the Professor and Lecturer, from whom and the House-keeper, tickets can be had. Chemistry; 1st Course commences the first Tuesday in November; 2nd Course, first Tuesday in January. Mineralogy; first Monday in March. Natural Philosophy; 1st Course, first Tuesday in March. . 2nd Course, first Tuesday in May. Botany, 1st Course, first Monday in May; 2nd Course, second Tuesday in June. Mining, first Tuesday in February. Veterinary art, first Monday in May.
The following departments are open to the Public:- Museum on Mondays and Fridays from twelve to three. Room of Statuary and Elgin Casts, Tuesdays and Saturdays from twelve to three. The Library, on introduction to the Librarian. Botanic Garden, on Tuesdays and Fridays from twelve to four; but, a member can introduce visitors at any time.
The subscription to become a member of the Society for life, is 30 guineas; the number of members is about 500.
One object of the institution is, to encourage improvements in agricultural science and practice. Premiums are granted to planters of nurseries; and such is the effect already produced, that many millions of young trees have been planted, and extensive nurseries formed.
To Botany they have given liberal encouragement; having purchased a considerable piece of land at Glasnevin, about one mile from Dublin, at the north side of the city, which they have disposed as a botanic garden, with great judgment; and an eminent professor delivers lectures at their rooms in the garden, during the spring season. This garden, laid out and designed by the late professor, contains 27 acres, 20 perches English, or 16. 2. 39. Irish acres; and is inferior, in size, to but one of the same description, that is, the Botanic garden of Jamaica: the ground has every advantage in quality of soil, and aspect of its banks, and is watered by a well-supplied stream, the river Tolka. The classification of the plants is as follows:-
The Linnaean garden, which contains two divisions, - Herbaceous plants, and shrub-fruit; and forest-tree plants.
2. Garden arranged on the system of Jussieu. 3. Garden of Indigenous plants (to Ireland), disposed according to the system of Linnaeus. 4. Kitchen Garden, where six apprentices are constantly employed, who receive a complete knowledge of systematic botany. 5. Medicinal plants. 6. Plants eaten, or rejected, by cattle. 7. Plants used in rural economy. 8. Plants used in dyeing. 9. Rock plants. 10. Aquatic and marsh plants. - For which an artificial marsh has been formed. 11. Cryptogamics. 12. Flower garden, besides extensive hot-houses, and a conservatory for exotics.
Near the centre of the garden, stand the professor's-house, and lecture-room, where lectures are delivered in the spring, and of which one end communicates with the conservatory for the purpose of more easily introducing any of the exotics required at lecture. The lectures commence in May, and continue to September; the hour of attendance, eight in the morning, three days in the week. The introductory lecture is delivered at the Society's house in Dublin; the garden is open to the public on Tuesdays and Fridays; on other days, an order from a member of the society, procures immediate admission.
The Botanic Establishment comprises a Professor, a Superintendant, two Assistants, twelve Gardeners, an six apprentices.
The Veterinary Establishment is similar to that in London; there are two eminent lecturers, and a veterinary museum.
One of the most important objects of this institution, is the cultivation of mineralogy; to promote which the society purchased, in the year 1792, the museum of Leske, professor of Natural History, at Marburg, a distinguished pupil of the illustrious Werner; this collection was subsequently improved by Kirwan, the Irish Philosopher. The classification of the minerals is Werner's, and is as follows:- 1. Characteristic collection. 2. The Systematic. 3. Geological. 4. Geographical. 5. Economical.
The Irish minerals form a distinct collection, distributed according to the arrangement of the thirty-two counties, and is called "Museum Hibernicum." This valuable collection of specimens is open to students at all hours, and to the public on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, from 12 to 3 o'clock. Sir Charles G. S. Giesecke, is the present professor.
The Drawing School, is divided into three departments; landscape, figure, and architecture, to which is added a school of sculpture or modelling; over each of these a different master presides, who gives instruction three times each week, and three hours at each sitting. The pupils of the figure-school, are occasionally provided with a living figure, to perfect their sketches of the human frame, and all this is gratuitous. About two hundred pupils partake of this advantage, and from the exhibitions of native genius and education presented at the annual display of drawings formerly made in the society's house, the beneficial consequences were manifest.
The first regular place of meeting used by the society, was in Shaw's-court, till October 1767, when they removed to a convenient building which they had erected in Grafton-street; from this latter place they removed in 1796, to Hawkins-street, where they had built an edifice for their Repository, Laboratory, Galleries, Library, &c. In 1815, they purchased the mansion of the Duke of Leinster, in Kildare-street, for the sum of 20,000l, eleven of which have been paid off since. This is one of the most noble private residences in Europe; the entrance is from Kildare-street, through a grand gate-way of rusticated architecture, leading into a spacious court. The front of this palace is ornamented with four Corinthian columns on a rusticated basement story, and is crowned by a pediment, with a plain tympanum; between the pedestals of the columns are balustrades. The windows are ornamented by architraves, and those of the first story have circular and angular pediments alternately; at the rear of the building is a lawn of great extent, separated from Merrion-square by a low wall, and occupying the greater part of the western side of the square. The hall is a noble lofty room, and has an elegantly ornamented ceiling; at the end, you pass between large pillars into a long gallery at right angles to the length of the hall, in which are the board-room, news-room, secretary's apartments, &c.
Hall. - In three squared niches above the front arcade are large busts of Nero, Vespasian, and Brutus; over one of the doors on the right hand side, are busts of Mithridates, Alexander, and Homer; and on the adjacent chimney piece those of Plautilla, the Farnese Hercules, and Gaeta. Above one of the doors on the opposite side, are busts of Commodus, Pompey, and Marcus Aurelius; and above the other, those of two Senators, between which stands Ariadne. In the recesses of the arcades are Clythia and Niobe's daughter. There are also statues of the Belvidere Apollo, Venus de' Medici, and Caligula, resting on pedestals.
But the most interesting works in this part of the buildings, are the performances of several young artists educated in the Society's schools; among whch a bust of Young the tragedian, by Behnes, is admirable. This young artist purposes to evince his gratitude to the institution, by presenting them with a statue of his present majesty, which he is now executing, and which is to be placed in the new drawing school. Prometheus chained to the rock, by Gallagher, is a classical conception, and is executed with ability. The busts of the late Serjeant Ball, Hamilton Rowan, - Reeves, Esq., Rev. Mr. Taylor, and Mr. Farren the comedian, have all been admired for their style, but more particularly for the extreme accuracy of the likenesses; and are all by the pupils of the Society's schools.
Gallery of Statuary, Busts, &c. - This collection occupies two rooms; and is as favourably disposed as the very awkward and imperfect accommodation which these apartments afford, can admit of.
The first room contains casts from the Elgin Marbles, consisting of ornaments taken from the Friezes of die Parthenon at Athens. There are also the Metopes of the exterior frieze, representing the Centaurs and Lapithae,
Near the entrance door, a reclining figure, in large life, much mutilated, represents Theseus or Hercules; and opposite is the Ilissus. The horse's head is tolerably perfect and very fine.
The second room contains Statues of a Faun, a Gladiator, Bacchus, a Roman Slave, a Grecian Venus; the Laocoon, and Belvedere Apollo, Pugilists, Venus de' Medici (the gift of I. Weld, Esq.), and Antinous: with the following busts, Niobe's son, Ariadne, a River God, Antinous, a Vestal Virgin, Niobe, and Susanna.
Inner Hall. - Within the arcade in the great hall, and at either side of the door leading to the secretary's room, conversation and board rooms, are statues of Apollo de' Medici and Flora, on handsome pedestals. On the left is the door leading by the principal staircase, to the Library and Museum. Concealing a disused doorway, whick opened into the state parlour, is a figure of Susanna in large life; and on the landing at the foot of the stairs, is a painting on a large scale, a copy by Tresham (who was instructed in the Society's school), from Michael Angelo's Last Judgment; and on the right, as you ascend, is a model of the celebrated wooden bridge, at Schaffhausen in Switzerland, presented to the Society in 1771, by Lord Bristol. The original, which was destroyed by the French in their retreat from Switzerland, was 365 feet in length; and consisted of two arches, whose chords measured, the one 172, the other 193 feet, which appear to spring from a pier in the centre, the remains of a stone bridge. On the next landing is a figure of Mercury seated on a pedestal.
The Library. - At the head of the stairs are the doors of the Library and Museum. The former is a noble apartment in the western wing, 67 feet by about 30 (independently of a semi-circular recess), and surrounded by a light gallery. Here is an excellent collection of about 12,000 books, particularly rich in Botanic works; amongst which is a very valuable work in four large folio volumes, "Gramitia Austriaca," by Nicholas Thomas Host; the gift of the Duke of Bedford, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The MSS. are bound in 17 vols: most of them are copies of those of Bishop Sterne, made by Walter Harris, the historian; from whose widow they were purchased for £500: they contain copies of the Annals of Innisfallen and Multifernan, and several tracts on ancient Irish history. The only original documents known to exist in this collection, are those which formerly belonged to Archbishop King. Harris's catalogue of these MSS. is imperfect.
On pedestals, in the piers of the recess, stand two well-executed marble busts by Van Nost, of Dr. Prior and Dr. Madan, the founders of the Society. There is a series of volumes in the Library, of which the Society may not improperly be styled the Authors, viz. the County Surveys; works undertaken at their instance, and published at their expense; some of which are deservedly esteemed. The Survey of Galway has been added to the series in 1824.
The Museum.-This interesting and instructive collection occupies six rooms en suite.
The First Room contains a miscellaneous assemblage of curiosities. In a glass case, near the western window, is a mummy in a very perfect state of preservation. The interior of the coffin-lid is adorned with grotesque figures and hieroglyphic characters, whose colouring is exceedingly vivid. Near this is a figure clad in the armour of one of the Tiger-guards of Tippoo Sultan.
A curious Earthen Urn is shown, found by the Bishop of Derry near his seat, Vaughan, on Lough Swilly; it was full of bones and ashes, and beneath the stump of an oak tree, which was probably some centuries buried in the earth. In one of the flat cases may be seen, a curious ancient Irish regal sceptre, made of iron, inlaid with gold, which was found in a bog in the county of Clare. This relic was much admired by his majesty, when he visited the Museum, and he is said to have examined it minutely.
In the case of Irish curiosities, an old Bassoon is preserved, found in the ruins of Dunluce Castle. In the same case is a small brass figure, the head, arms and legs of which were formally moveable; and a large silver Brooch with Ogham inscriptions on the back (described by Gen. Valancey in his Collectanea, who asserts these characters to be the names of certain Irish Kings) with several ancient Irish weapons.
Around the room, on little brackets, stand four brazen Lamas, taken from a Temple at Nepaul in Hindostan, by Lieutenant Boileau, whose life paid the forfeit of his temerity, being shortly after poisoned by the Indians to punish what they deemed sacrilege.
A very beautiful specimen of the Igneus Ibis, i. e. the glossy Ibis, This is one of three shot by Colonel Patrickson, near Ballymulney-House in die county of Longford. Here is also a Golden Oriale, killed in the town of Wicklow, by Counsellor Coates : this bird is chiefly an inhabitant of Spain.
In the windows are some very beautiful specimens of stained glass, the gift and performance of Mr. M'Alister, who attained considerable eminence by his revival of this long lost art. ("The windows (of Lismore Cathedral) are of stained glass, richly and exquisitely executed, the work of a native artist, George M'Alister of Dublin, who devoted his youth and talents to discover the lost art of painting on glass, and who died at an early age, after having made himself master of the secret."-Ryland's History of Waterford; p. 337. This young artist who died at the age of 26, in 1812, was the son of Mr. John M'Alister, head porter of the University. The principal of his works are in the windows of the Cathedral of Tuam; where are full-length figures of the four Evangelists; Moses holding up the serpent in the Wilderness; the arms and crest of the Waterford family; one of the members of which, the Lord Decies, was Archbishop, at the period of the insertion of these windows: with various ornaments in the remaining windows. - See Gent's. Mag. July, 1812.)
In the centre of the room stands an interesting model of Stonegenge and close by is another model of as strange an Irish curiosity, a circular building, called the stairs, discovered inthe county of Kerry, not many years since. In 1787 Gencral Valancey attempted an explanation of its former application; and in 1811 Mr. Leslie Foster, and Mr. Rochfort commissioners for reclaiming the bogs in Ireland, procured careful sketches of the whole, from which this model was copied. The supposition of its having been a Milesian Amphitheatre is not confirmed by any reasoning of a satisfactory nature. Some pearls found in various rivers through the kingdom are also exhibited here. The best have been found in the River Bann in Ulster, and may probably explain the derivation of this river's name, "Ban signifying white."
Second Room. Here the animal kingdom is displayed, arranged in six classes. 1. Mammalia. 2. Aves. 3. Amphibia. 4. Pisces. 5. Insectae. 6. Vermes. Here is a great variety of shells, butterflies and beetles, and of the most beautiful species. Over one of the cases lies extended the stuffed skin of the very Boa Constrictor, described by M'Leod in his "Voyage of the Alceste." A yellow-breasted Martin; a large Otter, shot in Bray river, with a trout in his mouth; and a Chamois in the warm clothing with which nature protects him from the rigours of the wintry season, in his Alpine country, presented by the Archduke John of Austria, are the most important objects in the second room.
The Third Room contains the mineralogical portion of the collections. In this apartment are two very beautiful models of Chinese state pleasure-boats made of ivory, mother of pearl, &c. the one representing a bird, the other a beast.
In the Fourth Room are developed the Natural History of Greenland and the habits of the natives, in a very accurate manner. On one side is a Greenlander's hut, supplied with all its accustomed furniture, at the entrance of which stand the dwarf inhabitants. Around, in splendid cases, are innumerable mineralogical specimens from the same terra inhospita; and in one of the windows are the head and tusks of that extraordinary animal, the Walrus.
Many other interesting curiosities and natural productions are contained in this apartment, all of which were collected by the present professor of Mineralogy, Sir Charles Giesecke, during a residence of three years in Greenland and the Northern regions; of whom there is, over the door opening to the corridor, an admirable portrait, by Sir H. Raeburn.
The Fifth Room contains the remaining, or geological part of the original Leskean collection. Besides the mineralogical specimens in this apartment, there are some very interesting antiques presented by the late George Latouche, Esq. Amongst these are text large Etruscan Vases; one case of smaller ones; a case of various small urns, ornaments, and figures, all from the ruins of Pompeii. There are also 74 paintings on Vellum, the subjects of which are copied from the different designs upon the Vases. There are three bronze figures, a Bacchanalian, a very beautiful Venus, and a mutilated figure not unlike the usual statue of Caracalla. Here is also a collection of Siberian polished stones, presented to the Society by Lord Whitworth (when Lord Lieutenant, 2nd January, 1817), to whom they had been given by the Empress Catherine of Russia.
The Sixth Room, is the Museum Hibernicum; and contains mineralogical and geological specimens from the 32 counties of Ireland. Some Irish gold from the Crohan Kinshela mine in the county of Wicklow, and a facsimile of the largest piece ever found there. There are several parts of the Irish Moose Deer's antlers over the cases in this room, and one or two busts and figures. A small figure of the right Hon. John Foster (now Lord Oriel), and busts of Archduke John of Austria, and Sir Charles Giesecke; the latter are not part of the Museum property.
The Chemical Laboratory is finished in the most modern and improved manner, and the apparatus is of the most scientific description, such as the present learned professor is entitled to: here, an annual course of public lectures is delivered, and there is accommodation for 400 auditors.
The Apartments appropriated to the use of members, are all en suite on the ground floor. They are the Board and Conversation rooms, Ante-room, and Secretary's office, or Sub-committee room. The Board-room is a noble apartment, a little too low, but otherwise of fair proportion, 67 feet by about 36, with a rich ceiling, supported by columns at each end. In a spacious semi-circular recess stands a fine canopied President's chair, richly carved and gilded, a memento of Ireland's departed greatness, having formerly been that of the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons: and here, too, is a full-length portrait, by Sir W. Beechy, of a nobleman, who once so ably filled it, Lord Oriel, better known as the Right Hon. John Foster. Corresponding with this, is a portrait of Richard Kirwan, the face of which was painted by Hamilton.
Over the chimney-pieces are two small frames containing banditti scenes (small life), in white marble, the one by Smyth, the other by Kirk. In the original grand entrance to this spacious room, and directly opposite to the President's chair, is a bust of his present Majesty, who visited this institution in August 1821.
The Board-room communicates with the Conversation-room, an apartment of considerable, though much inferior, dimensions, where is a portrait of a once distinguished member, and very meritorious antiquarian, General Valancy. Here are likewise a series of 42 architectural drawings from classic remains of antiquity, by Mr. Tracey, made at the expense of Henry Hamilton, Esq., of Fitzwilliam Square.
In the Ante-room is a portrait in crayons, of Counsellor Wolfe; and two marble busts, one of Lord Chesterfield, the other of Mr. Maple, the first Secretary to the Society. In the Secretary's room is the collection of paintings presented by Thomas Pleasants, Esq. to the Society together with a portrait of himself, by Solomon William.
In the collection are the following:- The Visitation of the Shepherds; the Dream; Narcissus; Joseph and Mary; two landscapes by Barrett; two large battle pieces; two smaller battle pieces; the Magdalene in a Wilderness; St. Paul preaching; the Holy Family; Peg Woffington, by Sir Joshua Reynolds; Head of Captain Ram, by Hogarth, &c. Also two plates of plaster of Paris Medals, Swift, (said to be a faithful likeness), Malone, Sparks, Woodward, Ryder; and a statue of Handel.
The Drawing schools are at present held in the offices of Leinster House, but will, in the course of this year (1825), be transferred to a range of buildings erecting for their reception, under the superintendance of the society's architect, Mr. Baker. The entrance is beneath the northern colonnade adjoining the lawn: the entire building measures 127 feet, disposed in the following manner: a vestibule 20 feet by 10, a stair-case, leading to a spacious and lofty gallery 90 feet by 30, in which the collection of statuary will be arranged. In a niche at the end of this noble apartment, will be placed Behnes's statue of his Majesty. On the basement story is the school-room, 40 feet by 30, where the pupils are gratuitously instructed in architecture, landscape and figure-drawing, by eminent masters. There are two other apartments, one for making drawings, the other models from life. All the apartments are warmed by heated air; the front is towards the lawn, and is neatly finished to imitate granite.
Royal Hibernian Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. - A barren charter of Incorporation was granted to the Artists of Ireland, August 5th, 1823. Erin's unlucky genius, was incautious for a moment, when a burst of light flowed in upon the dark age of the Arts in Ireland, and has now diffused its rays so extensively and so substantially, that, in all human probability, her baneful occupation is gone for ever. The merits of watching the opportunity is due to Francis Johnston, Esq., a name already belonging to posterity, as the classic productions of his architectural genius, scattered so judiciously amidst the elegant public buildings of Dublin, sufficiently testify.
By the creation of an academy, at his own private expense, Mr. Johnston has raised for himself a monument such as the pride of kings could not confer, and has left to posterity a name to be cherished and revered while the Arts shall have an existence in the land. The Academy consists of a patron (the King), vice patron (the Lord Lieutenant), president (F. Johnston, Esq.), ten academicians, and eight associates, from amongst whom, upon vacancies, future academicians are to be chosen.
The building is erected on a plot of ground in Abbey-street, the fee of which has been purchased by the munificent founder of the Academy; and it is after a design by himself. The elevation consists of three stories: in the basement there is a loggia or recess, ornamented by two fluted columns, of the Doric order, supporting the first story; over the entrance is a head of Palladio, representing Architecture; over the window on the right, one of Michael Angelo, representing Sculpture, and on the left, of Raphael, emblematic of Painting. These are by J. Smyth, Esq., an associate.
Passing through an entrance-hall, and ascending a broad flight of steps, the first exhibition room (40 feet by 20), and intended for water-colour drawings) is entered: this communicates by a large arch-way with the great saloon, for the exhibition of oil paintings, 50 feet by 40, lighted by a lantern whose sashes are inclined to the horizon at an angle of 45 degrees, whereby the light is diffused over that part of the wall only on which the paintings are to be suspended, and the spectator is left completely in the shade.
A very ingeniously contrived Octagonal staircase leads to the council-room, keeper's-apartment, &c., which are all in the front building.
The first stone of this edifice was laid on the 29th of April, 1824, by F. Johnstone, Esq.: and one a copper plate, which was firmly bedded in the stone, was the following inscription:- "Anno Dom. M.DCCC.XXIV. His Most Gracious Majesty, George the Fourth, King of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., having by his Royal Letter Patent, bearing date the 5th August, 1823, incorporated the Artists of Ireland, under the name of 'The Royal Hibernian Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture,' Francis Johnstone, Esq., Architect, one of the members of that body, munificently founded this building for their use, to form a National School of Art: and laid this, the first stone, April 29th, 1824, the day appointed for the celebration of his Majesty's birth, in the presence of the Academy." Then follows the names of the original members - Messrs. Carolan were the builders.
Farming Society - This society was instituted in 1800, and incorporated by royal charter 1815. Its objects are the improvement of agriculture and live stock, and the growth of timber. Of this institution, so important in such a country as Ireland, the late Marquis of Sligo was the founder. It is directed by a president, a vice-president, and 21 directors;- five of whom are changed every year: candidates are elected by ballot.
Besides this establishment at Summer Hill, Dublin, there is a depot at Balinasloe, in Connaught, where they hold annual meetings, during the time of the fair, from the fifth to the ninth of October. The house at Summer Hill though not distinguished by architectural ornament, is convenient for its purposes it contains the apartments of the inferior officers, with a Board-room and Library.
There is a small garden at the rear for the preservation of specimens of grass; an enclosure surrounded by sheds, in which the spring show of fat cattle is held; and an auction-house, for the sale of fine wool. There is, besides, a factory for making all kinds of implements connected with husbandry, according to the latest improvements. To encourage the breed of cattle, the society have an annual spring show, of black cattle, sheep, and swine; on which occasion premiums are distributed; and, by an adjudication of rewards for broad cloth manufactured in Ireland, from Irish wool, cloth of an excellent description has already been produced.
The society is supported by occasional grants from Parliament, donations, and the subscriptions paid by members on their admission. The principal officers are a Secretary and Registrar.
Royal Irish Academy - As early as 1683, the celebrated Mr. Molyneaux endeavoured to establish a society, similar to the Royal Society of London; yet though fostered by the protection of Sir W. Petty, its president, it was but of five years continuance. In 1744, the Physico-Historical Society was instituted, whose chief object was, to inquire into the antiquities of Ireland; and, under their auspices, some statistical surveys were made. At length, after fruitless efforts, in 1782, a number of gentlemen, chiefly members of the university, associated together, for the purpose of promoting general and useful knowledge; and, in 1786, a patent was granted for the incorporation of the Royal Irish Academy, to promote the study of polite literature, science, and antiquities. It consists of a patron (his Majesty), a visitor (the Lord-Lieutenant), a president, four vice-presidents, a treasurer, two secretaries, and a council of twenty-one, which is subdivided into three committees-the first, of science; the second, of polite literature; the third, of antiquities.
The committee of science meet the first Monday, the committee of polite literature, the second, and the committee of antiquities, the third, and the Academy at large on the fourth Monday of every month, at eight o'clock in the evening. The academy is on the west side of Grafton-street, opposite the Provost's house. In addition to a large apartment for meetings of the society, ornamented by portraits of Lord Charlemont and Mr. Kirwan, the mineralogist, it is furnished with a tolerable library, in which are to be found three Irish MSS. of very ancient date - the Book of Lecan, the Book of Balimote, and a MS. called the Speckled Book of M'Egan. The members can consult the books at pleasure. The society occasionally bestow premiums for the best essays on given subjects, and persons not members are at liberty to become competitors. These compositions from their Transactions, which now amount to twelve or fourteen quarto volumes of exceedingly interesting matter. Members are elected by ballot, and an entrance fee of five guineas is required, with a subscription of two guineas per annum. There are 180 members. Parliament grants to this Institution 7001. per annum.
Kirwanian Society - This society, formed in 1812, bestows its name from that great chemist and mineralogist Kirwan its objects are, the advancement of chemistry, mineralogy, and all other branches of natural history. The subscription is one guinea per annum
Iberno-Celtic Society This association met December 11th, 1808, in a regular manner, for the preservation of the venerable remains of Irish literature, by collecting and publishing the numerous fragments of laws, history, topography, poetry, and music of ancient Ireland; for the elucidation of the language, antiquities, and customs of the Irish people, and the encouragement of works tending to the advancement of Irish literature.
To promote the objects for which this society has been formed, attempts have been made, many years since, and by individuals of wealth and talent. Edmund Burke caused the Seabright MSS. to be deposited in the library of Trinity college, for that purpose: General Valancy, (author of the Irish Grammar, and of the Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis) and the learned Dr. Young (Bishop of Clonfert) are to be found amongst the assistants to this desirable object. In 1808, the Society published a volume of Transactions. The terms of admission as a member are 24s. per annum, or 2s. 2d. per month. The Lord Lieutenant is patron, and the Duke of Leinster president.
Dublin Institution - This institution was opened 1811, in a spacious house in Sackville-street; 15,000l. having been raised upon 300 transferable debentures, at 50l. each. With this sum a library was established, a lending library added, a lecture-room fitted up in a handsome style, with a philosophical apparatus, and a lecturer in Natural History appointed. The first, and part of the second floor, is occupied by the library; the parlours are used as news-rooms. The number of members is about 600, part proprietors and part subscribers; and the subscription is three guineas per annum. The lectures in Natural Philosophy have been discontinued, and the lecture-room latterly let to a Methodist congregation. Proprietors, paying one guinea per annum, have the privilege of introducing a visitor, not generally residing in Dublin, for one month.
Dublin Library Society - The origin of this now numerous society can be traced to the meeting of a few persons at a bookseller's, No. 80 Dame-street, to read newspapers and new publications. Growing too numerous, they removed, in 1791, to a house in Eustace-street, and assumed the name and form of a regular society. The gradual increase of members requiring a still larger house, on the 5th January, 1809, they removed to No. 2 Burgh-quay, near Carlisle-bridge, one of the most central situations in the city; and on 18th Sept. 1820, to a neat and elegant edifice, with a stone front, erected purposely for their use, in D'Olier-stroet, but a few yards from their former situation. This very pretty and convenient structure was built by Messrs. Henry, Mullins, and M'Mahon, after a design by G. Papworth, Esq.; the original contract was for 4,8001.; but alterations, &c. increased the total expense to 5,5941. 11s. 21 d. The library, which is very extensive, cost upwards of 8,0001.; and is admirably chosen. It is open every day from ten till five, and from seven till ten. There is also a reading-room, with English, Scotch, Irish, French, and American newspapers. The business of the society is conducted by a president, four vice-presidents, and a committee of twenty-one, chosen annually from amongst the members, by ballot, besides a treasurer, librarian, and assistant. Terms, for the first year, two guineas, afterwards one. Every member is admitted to the advantage of the lending or circulating library, on paying one guinea per annum additional. The number of subscribers is about 1,500.
Marsh's Library - In 1694, Dr. Narcissus Marsh. Archbishop of Dublin, established a public library in the vicinity of St. Patrick's Cathedral, for which purpose he purchased Dr. Stillingfleet's collection of books. The library-room consists of two galleries, meeting at a right angle; and in this angle is the librarian's room, who, consequently, has a view of, the entire library at once. The Stillingfleet collection is in one of the galleries; and donations, and modern productions, in the other. To gain admission, a certificate, or introduction is necessary.
The library is open every day from 11 to 3, Sundays and holidays excepted: it is under the government of trustees, appointed by act of parliament, who make annual visits. The situation of this library is so very inconvenient and remote from the respectable part of the city, and the books it contains so obsolete, that the public do not derive much advantage from it. Amongst the MSS. are twelve volumes illustrative of the History of Ireland, the Repertorium Viride, the Liber Niger of Archbishop Alan, &c.
The University [Trinity College] Though the cultivation of learning, in Ireland, has been of very early date, yet few traces of the literary exertions of the ancient inhabitants remain, and fewer of their seminaries. About 1311, John Lech, the Archbishop of Dublin, procured a bull from Clement V., for the foundation of a university; and although his object was not then accomplished, it was, nine years afterwards, by his successor, who erected an university in St. Patrick's cathedral by permission of John XXII. This seminary was protected and endowed by Edward III., but it subsequently decayed gradually until the close of Henry VIIth's. reign. In 1591, Henry Usher (afterwards Archbishop of Armagh) obtained from Queen Elizabeth, a Royal Charter, and mortmain license for the site of the dissolved Monastery of All Saints, granted by the city, whereupon the present University was founded; which was called the "College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, near Dublin, founded by the most serene Queen Elizabeth." The charter further appointed, that there should be a Provost, three Fellows; and three Scholars. After numerous subscriptions collected throughout the country, and various donations contributed, the first stone of Trinity College was laid, by Thomas Smith, Mayor of Dublin, the 13th of March, 1591, and students were admitted the 9th of January, 1593. The original charter empowered the surviving fellows to elect to a vacant provostship; but this was altered by a subsequent charter, accompanied by a new code of statutes, drawn up by Archbishop Laud, in 1637, which vested the right of appointment in the Crown.
The next in rank is the Vice-Provost, who affixes the College seal in the absence of the Provost; his situation is of not much more value than a senior Fellowship, and the senior Fellows succeed to it in order of seniority.
The advancement of learning, and the increased number of pupils demanded an additional number of lecturers; for 30 years ago the number of students in the University was only about 500, whereas at present there are about 2,000 names on the books. The income of a senior Fellow exceeds 1,000l. per annum; but the emolument of a junior fellowship, independently of pupils, is very insignificant, probably about 100l. per annum; however the amazing number of pupils each fellow is permitted to accept of (144) amply compensates for the deficiency of a larger salary: in some instances, the income derived from pupils amounts to 1,500l. per annum, and in general it is estimated at about 800l. They are Professors of Science, Classics and Divinity, Anatomy, Surgery, Chemistry, &c. Oriental and European Languages, Irish excepted. It was the intention of the wise and provident foundress to have instituted a Professorship of this language in our University, but Lord Burleigh, unfortunately for the ancient history of this country, succeeded in dissuading her from it.
In the reign of James I., a number of livings were forfeited to the Crown by the rebellion of O'Neil; 17 of which were bestowed upon the College of Dublin.
The number of church livings, in the gift of the University is nineteen, few of which are valued at less than 1,000l. per annum, and the income of some exceeds 2,000l. Upon the death of an incumbent, the vacant benefice is offered to every fellow according to seniority; and whoever accepts it resigns his fellowship that day twelvemonths. If he be a senior, his place at the board is filled by the senior of the junior fellows, three days after the occurrence of the vacancy. But if a junior, his place is filled by a graduate of the University, elected after a public examination of three days, and a fourth in private.
The candidates are examined publicly in Logic and Metaphysics, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Morality, History, Chronology, Hebrew, Greek and Latin; on the fourth day they are employed in Latin and English composition. The examination is held in the Theatre of the University on the four days immediately preceding Trinity Sunday, and the questions and answers are delivered (perhaps injudiciously) in Latin. It is necessary the candidates should have taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The examiners are, the Provost, Vice-Provost, and the six senior fellows; who, in a ceremonious and solemn manner, select the candidate in the College-Chapel, on Trinity Monday. In the event of an equality of votes in favour of two candidates, the Provost has a casting voice; and the unsuccessful candidate is rewarded by a sum of money, seldom less than £200, bequeathed by Mr. Madden for that purpose.
The third component part of this corporation is, the scholars, 70 in number; these situations are the reward of classical attainments solely; a severe examination is given by the board to each class, when they have arrived at their junior sophister year, two years and a half from the time of entering college. The emoluments of a scholarship are, a dinner at the pensioners' table for five years, ten or twelve pounds per annum, and sometimes even more; chambers at half the usual deposit and rent of other students; and if the scholar be 21 years of age, a vote at the election of a representative to serve in parliament for the University. The examination is held in the Theatre, during two days in the week before Whitsuntide, and the new scholars are declared on Trinity Monday.
The whole body of the students is divided into three ranks, distinguished by the denominations of Fellow Commoners, Pensioners, and Sizars; students of every denomination are obliged to undergo a classical examination previous to admission; but this is little more than a mere ceremony. The number of fellow-commoners and pensioners admitted into college is unlimited; the former are distinguished from the latter by a more expensive and elegant academic dress; their fees are always double, and they dine at the table with the fellows, which is not permitted to a pensioner. The sizars, who are limited to 30 or 32 in number, have their commons and instruction gratis; and though their rank appears degrading, yet many have raised themselves, by their diligence and good conduct, to scholarships and fellowships. The expense of tuition is remarkably moderate; a pensioner's amounts to but eight guineas per annum; a fellow-commoner pays double that sum; and the annual college fees, which are common to both, never amount to as much as the tuition.
The length of time necessary to graduate as a Bachelor of Arts is, for a fellow-commoner three years and a half, for a pensioner or sizar four years. Instruction is communicated by means of public and private lectures; examinations are held quarterly, at which, premiums are adjudged to the best answerers in science and classics, with great liberality on the part of the board, and impartiality on that of the junior fellows, who are the examiners; and those who have not been sufficiently diligent in preparing for examinations, are disgraced by a fine, and by a judgement which is read out publicly. At the termination of the collegiate studies of each class, previous to commencements or graduating, those who have distinguished themselves at quarterly examinations, by obtaining premiums in either classics or science, arc examined together in one division for a gold medal. This admirable plan for the encouragement of learning was introduced in 1819 by Dr. Elrington, the then Provost.
The buildings of the College, which are of considerable extent and beauty, consist of three spacious squares, called the Parliament-square, the Library-square, and Botany-bay. The grand front, presented to College-green, is 300 feet in length, and of the Corinthian order; the centre is ornamented by a pediment resting on Corinthian columns, and the whole is terminated by pavillions decorated with coupled pilasters of the same order, supporting an attic story. The Parliament-square is entered by an octagon vestibule, terminating at the summit in groined arches, is 316 feet long by 212 in breadth, and built entirely of hewn stone; besides buildings for the accommodations of the fellows and students. This square contains the Chapel, Theatre for examinations, and Refectory.
The Chapel which stands on the north side, has in front a handsome colonnade of four pillars, of the Corinthian order, supporting a pediment: the chancel is 80 feet in length (exclusive of a semi-circular terminating recess 36 feet in diameter), 40 feet in breadth, and 44 in height: the seats are of oak; pannelled, and highly polished; and there is, besides, a small but elegantly arranged organ-loft, the front of which is ornamented with carved oakwork. There is an excellent choir, the same which attends both the cathedrals; and divine service commences at half-past nine, and concludes at half-past eleven, in the forenoon of each Sunday. Both this building and the Theatre were designed by Sir W. Chambers, and erected under the direction of Mr. Graham Myers.
The Theatre. - On the opposite, or south, side of the same square, stands the Theatre, or Examination Hall, with a front exactly corresponding to that of the Chapel, and of the same internal dimensions. This splendid hall is furnished with tables and forms, at which the students sit during the hours of examinations, and also at public lectures during term; and the semi-circular recess at the end, is fitted up for holding fellowship examinations, in such a manner, that both candidates and spectators are accommodated.
On either side of the hall a rustic basement supports a series of composite pilasters, from which rises a mosaic ceiling, richly ornamented in stucco. Between the pilasters are the portraits of eminent persons; Queen Elizabeth, the foundress, and eight others, who were either educated in the University, or bequeathed legacies to its support. On one side stands a splendid monument to the memory of Provost Baldwin, who died in 1758. A large Sarcophagus of black and gold marble supports a mattress of white marble, on which the provost is represented in a reclining posture, larger than life, holding his will, by which he bequeathed 80,0001. to the University; a female figure, emblematic of the University, leans over him in a mourning attitude; at his feet stands an angel, holding a wreath of palm, casting on him a look of benignity, and pointing to Heaven; and immediately behind these figures rises a pyramid of variegated Egyptian porphyry. The whole is executed in a most masterly style, by Mr. Hewetson, a native of Ireland, but resident at Rome, and cost the University upwards of 2,000l It was in this noble apartment that his Majesty was entertained at a magnificent banquet, by the provost and fellows, August 27th, 1821; on which occasion a throne, with crimson velvet hangings, &c. was placed in the semi-circular recess: the organ also was refitted.
The Refectory. - The Parliament and Library Squares are connected by a small quadrangle, at one extremity of which stands the Refectory, a handsome structure, the front of which is ornamented by a pediment supported by pilasters. A spacious ante-hall leads to the dining-hall, a room of 70 feet by 35, and 35 in height; the upper part of the walls and the ceiling are ornamented with stucco, and the lower is oak wainscoting. In this hall the portraits of the following illustrious characters were hung in 1821; viz. Henry Flood, Lord Chief Justice Downes, Lord Avonmore, Hussey Burgh, Lord Kilwarden, and Henry Grattan; over the door is a full-length portrait of Frederick Prince of Wales, father of George III.; at one side of which is a portrait of Cox, Archbishop of Cashel; and, on the other, the original portrait of Provost Baldwin. Over the ante-hall is a remarkably neat and elegant apartment, formerly used by the Historical Society, an institution of great practical benefit to the majority of the students, though the legislature of the University have, in their wisdom, crushed it-perhaps for ever.
On the south side of the quadrangle, immediately opposite the Refectory, stands an old wall, which it was intended to remove, and to supply its place by a triumphal arch of the Doric order, after a design of Sir W. Chambers, with three openings, supporting a square tower with four circular-headed windows, ornamented with Corinthian pillars and urns.
The Library. - Beyond the quadrangle is the Library-square, 265 feet long, by 214 broad, three sides of which consist of uniform brick buildings, mostly devoted to the accommodation of the students. The library, which occupies the fourth side, is an extensive stone building, whose basement story is a piazza, the entire length of the square. Above this, are two stories surmounted by a rich Corinthian entablature, originally crowned with a balustrade. Of this building, as it was at first designed, and previous to alterations, a correct painting may be seen in the Librarian's room; in which apartment is also a portrait of the Rev. John Barrett, D. D. the late Vice-Provost, painted by G. F. Josephs, Esq. II. A. At present, the front has a mouldering appearance, in consequence of the perishable nature of the stone of which it is built.
The building consists merely of a centre and two pavilions; in the western pavilion are the grand stair-case, the Lending library, and the Librarian's apartments. At the head of the stairs the Library is entered by large folding doors, and the first view is particularly striking. His Majesty, who was received here when the banquet was given in the Theatre, expressed his admiration of. this magnificent room. The exterior library is 210 feet long; 41 broad, and 40 in height, and is acknowledged to be the finest room in Europe applied to such a purpose. Between the windows, on both sides, are lofty oak partitions, at right angles to the walls, on both sides of which the books rest on closely-placed shelves, so that there are as many recesses as there are windows; these partitions are terminated by fluted Corinthian pillars of carved oak, connected at the top by a broad cornice, surmounted by a balustrade also of carved oak, forming the front of a gallery which is continued quite round the room. Here are pedestals with busts of ancient and modern philosophers, historians, and poets, of white marble. The number of volumes in this library is about 80,000.
At the extremity of this room is a second apartment, 52 feet in length, formerly the MSS. room, but now called the Fagel library, fitted up in a uniform manner with the preceding, and containing about 20,000 volumes. This vast collection was the property of Mr. Fagel, a Dutchman, who removed it to London 1794, upon the invasion of his native country by the French, and from whom it was purchased by the University of Dublin for the very moderate sum of 8,0001.
Manuscript Room. - Over the Fagel library in the eastern pavilion, is the manuscript room, in which are many valuable manuscripts, particularly those relating to Irish History. There are besides, Persian, Arabic, and Greek in the Greek character, the most conspicuous are the Montfortian and a copy of the four Gospels, with a continued commentary, written in the 9th century. There is a very curious map of China on an extensive scale, drawn by a native in the Chinese character.
The Manuscript room is not opened to the public, and admittance can only be given in the presence of the librarian: this regulation is directed by the statutes for the better preservation of the MSS. Many of these MSS were presented to the College by Dr. Sterne, Bishop of Clogher, and Mr. John Madden. The Library is open every day, Sundays and holidays excepted, from eight to ten, and from eleven to two: there is a Reading-room in the western Pavilion, which is always open during winter, and supplied with fires. The privilege of reading here is granted to Graduates upon taking the library oath, and to strangers who have been introduced to the Provost, on their taking the same oath.
On the south side of the Library is the Fellows' garden, a large park laid out in gravel-walks, from which the students are excluded, the fellows, doctors, and masters only, reserving keys to admit themselves ; however, fellowship candidates are always permitted to walk here.
College Park. - To the cast of the Library and Library-square, is the College park, a space of about 20 acres, planted and laid out with great taste; here are two ball-courts, and there was formerly a bowling-green for the amusement of the students. As you enter the park from the Library-square, on the right, until lately, stood an old, tasteless building containing a chemical laboratory, and also the Anatomical Lecture-rooms.
The Anatomy House. - In that part of the College Park, formerly used as a bowling-green, is the new Anatomy House, built at the expense of the University, after a design of the Messrs. Morrison. It is 115 feet in length by 50 in breadth; and contains an Anatomical Lecture-room, 30 feet square: an Anatomical Museum 30 feet by 28: and three private rooms. The Dissecting-room, extending the whole length of the building, is probably the best disposed apartment for such purpose in Europe, and no means too large for the present school of surgery in Dublin.
The Chemical Laboratory, Lecture-room, and private apartment appropriated to the professors occupy the remote end from the Anatomical-rooms just mentioned. The museum possesses some valuable preparations: those belonging to the College are unimportant, but the present professor's (Dr. Macartney) collection, which is exhibited during lecture, contains valuable preparations of human, comparative, and morbid anatomy; and if we except the Hunterian, is second to none in the United Kingdom. The School of Anatomy in Dublin has grown into deserved celebrity, to which the facility of procuring subjects for dissection has contributed, and has drawn together a great number of students. Amongst the curiosities of the old collection in the Anatomical Museum are several extraordinary preparations and skeletons: a complete skeleton of a Grampus, with those of M'Grath the Irish giant, and Clarke, the ossified man. The former of these, who died at the age of 20, attained the height of nine feet; of the latter all the joints became bone, so that he was quite incapable of stirring, and died in the most deplorable condition.
In a small building behind the old Anatomy House are to be seen the celebrated wax models of the human figure, executed in Paris by 31. Denone, and presented to the University by the Earl of Shelbourne, in 1752. (They were purchased by his lordship from Mr. Raxtrow, a statuary in London, and have since been repaired; first, under the inspection of Mr. Edward Croker, an able anatomist, and secondly, by Mr. Thomas Wetherell, surgeon.)
Printing House. - Immediately opposite the old Anatomy-house, on the north side of the park, is the printing-office, founded by Dr. Sterne, Bishop of Clogher, in 1734; the front of which is a handsome portico of the Doric order, greatly-admired for its architectural chasteness and the beauty of its proportions.
Provost's House. - On the south side of the College stands the Provost's house, a handsome stone edifice with wings, and a court-yard in front, screened from Grafton-street by a high wall, with a large heavy-looking gateway in the centre; at the rear is a spacious lawn and shrubbery, communicating with the Fellows garden, and separated from it merely by a plantation of ever-greens. The interior of the house is peculiarly elegant; and the hall, staircase, and grand drawing-room, are particularly noble. The elevation of this building is after a design of Lord Burlington's and is similar to that of General Wade's house, Cork-street, London, which was designed by the same nobleman.
To the north of the Library-square, is a third square, commonly called Botany-bay, which is an area of somewhat greater dimensions than either of the others, and three of its sides are allotted to the accommodation of pupils. Near the centre stands a temporary building, in which is suspended the great bell, the largest and best-toned in the kingdom.
The exterior of the north side of Botany-bay-square, presents a front of hewn stone to New Brunswick-street, 270 feet in length; the basement story is rusticated, and the windows of the three upper stories are ornamented with architraves. It is protected from the street by a semi-circular sweep, enclosed by iron railing; and was designed by the Messrs. Morrison.
The Museum. - Over the vestibule, within the grand gat, is the Museum, an exceedingly beautiful room, 60 feet by 40. The mineral collection contains 1204 specimens, arranged according to Professor Jameson's system, and described in a catalogue drawn up by Dr. Stokes in 1818. At the foor of the stairs is a nearly perfect skeleton and an Antidiluvian moose-deer, a model of a Roman galley, and another of the Barony of Moresk, in the county of Mayo.
Case No. 1, contains ornaments from the Marquesas, Friendly, and Sandwich Islands, New Zealand, and Otaheite. No. 2 Otaheitean dresses and models. No. 3. New Zealand articles of dress and implements. No. 4. Shells. No. 5. Cloak made of feathers from the Sandwich Isles. No. 6. A very curious collection of Irish antiquities – various celts, chip-axes, arrow-heads, hunting-spears, of brass, and military spears; the war-axe, golden crescents, head ornaments, fibulae, curious headstall and bitt, found in Roscommon; the Liath Meisicith, or incense-box of the ancients, consulted only upon the interests of the church or election of a king.
The most interesting curiosity is the Irish harp, once the property of King Brian Boromhe, the history of which is this: Donogh, the son of Brian, laid it with the golden crown, at the Pope's feet in 1023; a subsequent Pope presented the harp to Henry VIII. of England, but kept the golden crown; Henry gave it to the first Earl of Clanrickard, in the county of Clare: from thence it fell into the hands of counsellor Macnamara, of Limerick, and in 1782 was presented to the College Museum by the right hon. W. Conyngham. The O'Brian arms, viz. The bloody hand supported by lions, are chased in silver upon it. On the sides of the front arm of the harp are carved two wolf dogs:- both arms are of red-holly, the sounding-board is of oak. This beautiful remnant of the taste of our ancestors is rapidly mouldering away, but its chaste proportions, as well as a testimony of its merit, might be well perpetuated by a good model. It is hoped that what has been stated will be considered a sufficient refutation of Mr. Bingley's assertion, that this very harp was Welch.
Near the Irish case is a collection of volcanic minerals, presented by D. Latouche, esq. in 1790, the catalogue of which was printed in Catania, in Sicily. Beside this stands another flat case, in which are Cingalese Almanacks, graved with a stylus, which is also deposited in the case. No. 7 contains a few stuffed animals. No. 8. A mummy, a model of a Chinese galley. &c. No. 9. In this are some serpents preserved by Bullock. No. 10. Miscellaneous, unimportant, except an enormous lobster's claw. No. 11 is entirely occupied by the figure of an Otaheitean warrior.
No. 12 contains a copy of the Koran, in letters of gold, on a roll of Indian paper, which shuts up in a box about two inches long and one in diameter; an Almanack printed in 1666; and a model of the combination mirrors of Archimedes. Near this case hangs a cast of a shield exhibiting, in bas-relief, the capture of Rome by Brennus. There is a very curious collection brought from the South-Sea Islands, and presented to the University by Dr. Patten.
In the centre or the great room stands a stuffed camel-leopard; at one corner is a model of the Giant's-causeway remarkable for the accuracy of its execution; and, beside it, lie some of the basaltic joints, of which the causeway is composed.
Astronomical Observatory. - On Dunsink Hill, about four miles north-west of Dublin Castle, stands the Observatory, founded at the instance of Dr. Henry Usher, late professor of Astronomy in the University. In 1774, Provost Andrews bequeathed 3,0001. and 250l. per annum, for building an Observatory and supplying instruments: by means of this donation, a handsome house was erected, presenting in front a facade of two wings, and a projecting centre, crowned by a dome.
Besides apartments for the professor, there are two rooms particularly appropriated to astronomical purposes - the Equatorial and Meridian rooms. The former is beneath the dome, which is intersected by an aperture of two feet six inches in breadth, and is moveable by means of a lever and projecting cogs, so that the aperture may be directed to any point of the horizon. The Meridian room, on the west side of the building, contains the transit instrument, and the cele-brated Astronomical Circle, which is universally acknowledged to be Ramsden's best performance; this instrument is minutely' described in Dr. Brinkley's work on Astronomy; and the valuable discoveries, relative to parallax and refraction, which the professor has made with this celebrated piece of mechanism, are recorded in the Twelfth Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
Botanic Garden. - About two miles to the south of the Castle, a space of about four acres has been enclosed for a Botanic Garden; and though but of late formation, it is exceedingly well supplied with both exotic and indigenous plants: but it is altogether eclipsed by the magnificent gardens of the Dublin society at Glasnevin.